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Some Benefits Of The Evidencebased Therapy Ebt Approach

A proposal that was later extended by other psychoanalytic writers. Carl Rogers (1957) also focused on the importance of the therapeutic relationship, although the client-centred view is different to the psychoanalytic. The diverse influences on the origins of the concept and the growing awareness of its importance in cognitive-behaviour therapies (Safran & Segal, 1990) make it a cosmopolitan concept that has the advantage that therapists of different orientations can begin to talk to each other because of a shared language, but the disadvantage that they might mistakenly think they are talking about the same thing Fortunately, this problem is surmountable. As Wolfe & Goldfried (1988, p. 449) stated 'The therapeutic alliance is probably the quintessential integrative variable because its importance does not lie within the specifications of one school of thought.'

Clarity of the Report

A communicative report needs to be written in specific language. The writing should be cogent and free of statements that are uncommunicative because they are too general. Because the data to be presented can be extensive and elaborate, students and professionals alike may feel overwhelmed with the task of clarifying and ordering this material. This hurdle frequently leads to reliance on a style that does not facilitate clearly communicating ideas. Clarity requires understanding and appreciation of the reader's concerns, which are then transformed into the written presentation of the report. The writer must be considerate and help the reader by presenting digestible material. One way of doing this is to use shorter rather than longer sentences. Although this is a good method in all professional writing, it is especially useful for achieving clarity in psychological test report writing where specifics are needed to make complex issues clear and focused.

Diaries and Autobiographies

In addition to observing other people, a person may serve as an observer, or at least a commentator, of himself. Many people keep diaries,2 write long letters, prepare autobiographies, make drawings, and keep other personal documents. Such materials can provide a wealth of information on the thoughts, behavior, personality, and development of the writer. The content analysis of written documents is, however, a complex, laborious process (Wrightsman, 1994a). Report 1-1 includes an abstract of a research study with diaries and a second study with autobiographies.

Retrospective and Prospective Investigations

According to what I somewhat crudely call the garbage pail nature of memory, the mind is not particularly selective in what is remembered It does not recall just a single event or person, but a hodgepodge of things that were there when the event occurred or the person was present. Thus, when I remember the first time I dated a particular girl, I also remember what she was wearing, the movie we saw, and the old car I drove. So now, the memory of her face can be triggered by seeing that same movie on television or a similar car. The writer Marcel Proust knew this, but he was

Causes and symptoms

Both theories about NPD go back to Sigmund Freud's pioneering work On Narcissism, published in 1914. In this essay, Freud introduced a distinction which has been retained by almost all later writers namely, the distinction between primary and secondary narcissism. Freud thought that all human infants pass through a phase of primary narcissism, in which they assume they are the center of their universe. This phase ends when the baby is forced by the realities of life to recognize that it does not control its parents (or other caregivers) but is in fact entirely dependent on them. In normal circumstances, the baby gives up its fantasy of being all-powerful and becomes emotionally attached to its parents rather than itself. What Freud defined as secondary narcissism is a pathological condition in which the infant does not invest its emotions in its parents but rather redirects them back to itself. He thought that secondary narcissism developed in the 1960s historians and social critics...

Facts And Values Economics And Ethics

Resistance to such a view is perhaps based upon what could be described as 'the bogey of relativism', the idea being that if we give up on the notion of objective facts then everything comes down to matters of personal preference and anything goes. But this is by no means a necessary outcome of recognising the value component of science, rather it follows from an arguably mistaken view of the nature of value. Various writers have identified accounts of the nature of moral value which whilst not involving a reduction to objective facts nonetheless admit the possibility of notions of truth being applicable to moral discourse (Darwall, Gibbard and Railton, 1992). A full account of such approaches is not possible here, but a selection of particular themes will be of use for present purposes.

Was Darwin a Social Darwinist

What about Darwin himself Was he a social Darwinist or in any way part of or responsible for social Darwinism These questions have been debated for de-cades,24 and many scholars and biologists desperately wanted his thoughts to be pure and untainted by such worldly social implications. Darwin was well aware of the debates around him. He also wrote in an anthropomorphic manner, making it easy for his arguments to resonate into the sociopolitical context of English life. However, consensus about his political views has been difficult to reach. Some writers insist that the young Darwin hardly fits the image of the individualistic social Darwinism,25 and that there was nothing ideological in his view of nature.26 Others, following the distinguished historian John C. Greene, emphasize that Darwin saw in natural selection a powerful means of interpreting human social evolution.27 They point to several sources of evidence. Thomas Malthus (1766-1834) was educated at Jesus College, Cambridge...

Roots in Natural Theology

Mutualisms were frequently used by ancient writers as examples of nature's balance those tendencies that prevented any species from becoming either too abundant or extinct were due to divine providence. Herodotus told the story about a mutually beneficial relationship between Nile crocodiles and a species of plover. The plover ate leeches from the crocodiles' mouth, and the crocodile never hurts the bird.30 Aristotle liked that story and mentioned it in three different books. He also reported that a mutual relationship existed between certain mussels (Pinna) and little crabs (Pinnotheres).31 Similar descriptions were given by Cicero and Aelian, who drew the moral that humans should learn friendship from nature.32 Pliny also remarked that friendships occur between peacocks and pigeons, turtledoves and parrots, blackbirds and turtle-doves, the crow and the little heron in a joint enmity against the fox kind, and the goshawk and kite against the buzzard. 33 Mutual interactions were...

Spirituality And Endoflife Decisions

In Bianchi's book Aging as a Spiritual Journey, he quotes Albert Outler ''None of us like the shadow or the pain that surround death but death is part of the natural, God-established cycle of things. To overcome death through science, as some 'immoralist' writers project, smacks to him of 'hubris,' that Greek sense of pride by which humans inflate their egos in destructive ways'' (Bianchi, 1982, p. 250). Outler concludes with a statement of confidence in God's providence, but rather gently accompanies our journeying, luring us toward good from beginning to end

Divergent Ideas of Bias

Both in research reports and in public discourse, the scientific and popular meanings of bias are often conflated, as if even the writer or speaker had a tenuous grip on the distinction. Reynolds, Lowe, et al. (1999) suggest that the topic would be less controversial if research reports addressing test bias as a scientific question relied on the scientific meaning alone.

John Tukey and the Origins of EDA

The tradition of EDA was begun and nurtured by John Tukey and his students through his many years at Princeton University and Bell Laboratories. As a young academic, Tukey was a prodigious author and formidable mathematical statistician. He received his PhD in mathematics from Princeton at the age of 25 and at 35 reached the rank of full professor at the same institution (Brillinger, Fernholz, & Morgenthaler, 1997). A sense of Tukey's breadth and impact can be gleaned from examination of the eight volumes of his collected works. Volumes 1 and 2 (Brillinger, 1984, 1985) highlight his contributions to time-series analysis (especially through spectral decomposition). Volumes 3 (Jones, 1986a) and 4 (Jones, 1986b) address Philosophy and Principles of Data Analysis, and volume 5 is devoted to graphics (Cleveland, 1988). Volume 6 (Mallows, 1990) covers miscellaneous mathematical statistics, whereas volumes 7 (Cox, 1992) and 8 (Braun, 1994) cover factorial and analysis of variance (ANOVA) and...

Advance Directives Living Wills And Durable Powers Of Attorney

The idea of planning for end-of-life decisions by advance directive first began in the late 1960s. Some patients, concerned that they might be forced to endure life-sustaining technologies that they might not want, wrote letters to their families, physicians, and others to express their wishes. Their wishes to refuse some treatments were often expressed vaguely and imprecisely in general terms about forgoing ''heroic'' or ''extraordinary'' means and through pleading to allow a ''natural'' death (see High, 1978). These informal documents were not intended to be legally binding but morally to exhort their readers to follow the expressed preferences of the writer in the hope of gaining dignity and appropriate care while dying.

Preparation A Guide To Approaching The Literature

In describing Asian cultural values and the characteristics of Asian American individuals, clinical literature often errs on the side of overgeneralization. This happens particularly when clinical writers illustrate cultural concepts by emphasizing contrasts between American and Asian cultures (e.g., egalitarian versus hierarchical values, individual versus family, guilt versus shame). A casual perusal of book chapters and clinical articles reveals sentences such as Chinese find it easy to somatize or that An Asian client enters a therapist's office expecting to find an authority who can solve his or her problems. These illustrations can be useful to a clinician who is at the beginning stages of cultural awareness, as many previously unarticulated assumptions about the mainstream American culture are brought to the foreground while being contrasted with various Asian cultural characteristics. However, these characterizations can leave the misimpression that there is such a thing as a...

Intellectuals Classified as Hedgehogs or Foxes

There is a line among the fragments of the Greek poet Archilochus which says The fox knows many things, but the hedgehog knows one big thing. Scholars have differed about the correct interpretation of these dark words, which may mean no more than that the fox, for all his cunning, is defeated by the hedgehog's one defence. But, taken figuratively, the words can be made to yield a sense in which they mark one of the deepest differences which divide writers and thinkers, and, it may be, human beings in general. For there exists a great chasm between those, on one side, who relate everything to a single central vision, one system, less or more coherent or articulate, in terms of which they understand, think and feel a single, universal, organising principle in

The Nature Of Equivalence

Many writers have considered the notion of equivalence in cross-cultural testing. Lonner (1979) is acknowledged often for systematizing our conception of equivalence in testing in cross-cultural psychology. He described four kinds of equivalence linguistic equivalence, conceptual equivalence, functional equivalence, and metric equivalence (Nichols, Padilla, & Gomez-Maqueo, 2000). Brislin (1993) provided a similar nomenclature with three levels of equivalence translation, conceptual, and metric, leaving out functional equivalence, an important kind of equivalence, as noted by Berry (1980), Butcher and Han (1998), and Helms (1992). van de Vijver and Leung (1997) operationalized four hierarchical levels of equivalence as well, encompassing construct inequivalence, construct equivalence, measurement unit equivalence, and scalar or full-score comparability. It should be noted, however, that like the concepts of test reliability and validity, equivalence is not a property resident in a...

Gender Race and Social Status

It is characteristic of all human societies and many animal species as well to classify their individual members into collectivities or groups. Often, those groupings are based on ostensible physical features such as sex, skin color, or size, whereas other groups are constituted with reference to qualities such as age, language, religion, origin, ancestry, monetary wealth, property ownership, political party membership, or sexual orientation. Associated with the various ways of classifying people are certain behaviors on the part of the members of a group and certain attitudes, beliefs, and prejudices concerning the group that are held by other members of the society as a whole. In addition, a social status, rank, or perceived value of the group is assigned, either implicitly or explicitly, to individuals belonging to various groups. Members of these groups are then treated by other people in accordance with that status. Finally, individuals, and entire nationalities or races outside...

Privacy antisocial concept or fundamental right

Recognised than described.'52 Such problems have led many writers to a conclusion similar to that of Walter Pratt 'A concept flexible enough to comprise opposite ideals is not a likely subject for legislation.'53 These factors lead us to two important questions that face any writer or legislature examining privacy within a legal framework. First, is privacy of sufficient value to be deserving of protection Second, even if the answer to this first question is given in the affirmative, is privacy sufficiently amenable to definition as to make legal protection viable and effective

Negative Study Bias What Journalists Ignore

Another problem arises when science writers oversimplify in their effort to translate complex material. For example, the influence of genes is usually complex, but science writers sometimes present new findings the breast cancer gene, the gay gene, the obesity gene as if a single gene were directly responsible for the trait in question. What is often lost is the notion that the appearance of a particular disease or behavioral trait or condition usually depends on the contribution of many genes and environmental factors. This kind of oversimplification is most common in headlines which, incidentally, are generally written by editors, not the science writer. But it also shows up in the stories themselves.

Putting News Stories In A Social And Ethical Context

Finally, a complaint some people have made about media coverage of genetics stories is that science writers may fail to put the findings in a social and ethical context. This is an area where experts who are familiar with the issues can help, by educating science reporters and the public they reach. Bioethicists might consider taking a more activist role in educating journalists by identifying their areas of expertise to the public information officers at their institutions and agreeing to talk with the press about bioethical angles of genetics stories. Many reporters, for example, send queries to a service called Profnet,1 which works to put them in touch with experts who can help them interpret news stories dealing with scientific discoveries and their implications for society.

Understanding the Question

To do this, the respondent must understand the literal meaning of the question, and anything that impedes this understanding (e.g., vague or unfamiliar words, complicated sentence structure) will undermine the quality of the self-report measure. Psychological assessment and survey methodology textbooks suggest that to avoid misunderstandings, question writers should keep items simple and avoid potentially unfamiliar words (see Tourangeau et al., 2000, and Schmitt, this volume, chap. 2, for more detailed recommendations). Careful pretesting of items can prevent misunderstandings from occurring (see Schwarz & Sudman, 1996, for discussions of these pretesting techniques).

Privacy and related concepts

Many writers associate the beginning of modern Western legal interest in privacy with the seminal article by Warren and Brandeis, The Right to Privacy, published in the 1890-91 volume of the Harvard Law Review.151 This article was written at the instigation of Warren, a then notable Boston lawyer, who took umbrage at what he saw to be excessive press intrusion into his daughter's marriage. The US tort of invasion of privacy grew from such small beginnings.152 Warren and Brandeis examined cases drawn from areas as diverse as defamation,153 breach of confidence154 and copyright,155 and concluded that the common law recognised a general right to privacy.156 This they classified as a 'right to be alone'.157 This work, whose influence has been unimaginably far-reaching, has been much praised158 and much criticised.159 Here, it is not intended to do either but, rather, to offer it as an illustration of a common problem that arises in the field of privacy study. This is the problem of...

Conflation of concepts

What a defence of privacy can do, however, is protect some forms of liberty principally those relating to non-interference with the personal sphere of individuals' lives. This is true for autonomy and the same can be said of confidentiality in the case of personal information. This point cannot be stressed too strongly. Many commentators who concern themselves with the concepts of liberty or autonomy face problems of ideological confusion, difficulty of definition and ambiguities of scope. Beauchamp and Childress, for example, point out that autonomy is seriously conceptually confused - it is 'not a univocal concept in either ordinary English or contemporary philosophy and needs to be refined in light of particular objectives'.219 Similarly, Dworkin considers a plethora of definitions of autonomy offered by writers in that field, almost none of

Overcoming Impasses in Report Writing

Because of the demands placed on the writer by the requirements of the written psychological report, the student may experience conflict in the assumption of authority, which has several correlates. These include insecurity of role, surfacing of inadequacy feelings, the emergence of doubts about the efficacy of such reporting itself, and fundamental questions about the actual validity of the tests. These elements are derivative features of the writer's concern with professional role and status. It should be remembered that in clinical and applied psychological practice, the only technological or concrete apparatus visible to the patient, and to the psychologist, is the test materials. Therefore, problems of assuming an authoritative stance and position of expertise become exacerbated by the demands of utilizing the test technology as well as by internal pressures of self-doubt. The anxiety generated by the need to use this technology and by the internal pressures of self-doubt is...

The Active Passive Dilemma

Another major problem that can interfere with efforts to compose a report is the passivity phenomenon that occurs in the face of demands that are inherent in the task of writing. Such demands include the need to organize and put into words the meaning of a body of data that has been compiled. In addition, the passivity of the writer can be reinforced by the sense that the referral source awaits the completed report. When the writer of the psychological report views this task exclusively in terms of fulfilling requirements, the demand quality of the situation can become exaggerated. In such a case, the given body of data that needs to be interpreted becomes viewed as being vast, and the awaiting referral source is transformed into an urgent, impatient source. Under these conditions, the passivity experienced by the writer is actually an example of the previously mentioned anxiety concerning selfdoubt, role tension, and separateness from the referral and testing process. An apparent...

Drafting Legislative Proposals

Frequently, on the floor of the House of Representatives, one will hear a Member refer to another as the author of a bill who has carefully crafted the language of the proposed legislation. Statements like these make me smile, because if the Members are the authors, then I and my colleagues in the Office of the Legislative Counsel of the House of Representatives are the ghost writers.

Limitations of Current Monitoring

The law's writers emphasized the FDA's authority to collect information about imported foods and to inspect incoming food shipments. Because rapid detection of adulterated foods is of high priority, Congress directed the Department of Health and Human Resources (HHS) to conduct research to determine the effectiveness of various techniques and technologies in detecting contamination in food, including biologic agents, chemical agents, and radioactive materials. Another research focus involves validating methods characterizing microbes that can work well in handheld kits.

Psychoanalytic Models of Etiology

Psychoanalytic writers posit that early life experiences are fundamentally related to the development of the paraphilias. Stoller asserted that vengeful hostility, in response to the young child's ambivalent struggle to separate from his mother, is the core of all perversion (67). Many variations of this theme have been proposed.

Integration Of Practice Knowledge And Practice Skills

Our minds are formed from our cultural experiences in interaction with our physiological development. Our perceptions, our values, our beliefs, and our emotions are formed and shaped by the cultures in which we are born and raised. Just as a ball of clay is shaped not only by the hands but also by the mind (in interaction, of course, with our physiology), the mind is shaped by cultural experiences and forces. Unlike the ball of clay, however, the mind has a dynamic quality, thanks to its computer and learning capabilities. As more than one writer has noted, we are each born into a story, but we also can make our own story. The mind thus has the ability to create its own story and to learn from others' stories as well. We are formed by our culture, but we have the potential of changing our culture as well, and in doing so, change ourselves or transcend our culture. No matter how far we take our own story, its roots always remain in our cultural experiences.

Staying Informed Digging Deep

SAGE KE employs several strategies to inform scientists about research advances that have been published in other journals or presented at meetings. It posts critical summaries of the latest developments, written by both science journalists and investigators. The pieces by professional writers (News Focus) are based on interview material as well as literature research, and represent multiple viewpoints their language and level of explanation assume scientific proficiency but not that a reader is well informed about the particular matter at hand. Many of these stories attempt to entertain as well as educate (see Figure 8.1). In addition to keeping readers informed about new discoveries in the field, some sites offer overview articles that provide in-depth information about key topics. The pieces differ in their styles and accessibility. SAGE KE's reviews are written by scientists and assume a fairly sophisticated audience. They cover diverse subjects, including oxidative mutagenesis...

Multicultural Assessment And Treatment Practices

At the beginning of the 20th century, it was recognized that psychiatric and psychological care entails communicating with the patient, and the appreciation for the importance of detailed knowledge of the influences the particular culture exerts over the individual. (Also see Marselle, chapter 1, this volume, for a more detailed history of the struggle to include the role of culture as a determinant of behavior). Early writers and psychiatrists such as Emil Kraepelin

Resolving the Role Anxiety Dilemma

The anxiety associated with anticipated reactions to a report can be caused by the presence of several individuals who may read or evaluate it. All those who have something to do with the final report, including the writer, are viewed as split off from each other and having divergent interests. These divergent interests or parts are further evaluated in positive and negative terms. For example, the patient, who is placed in a pathological role, may represent the bad part. The writer of the report, in order to avoid identification with the bad part the patient may need to construct a report that will please the supervisor, professional colleague, or referral source. The writer, therefore, imagines becoming the good part and gaining acceptance by the supervisor or fellow professionals. Accomplishing this goal can satisfy yearnings to be seen in purely good terms and to be praised. The difficulty in writing under such fantasy circumstances is that the report must become a praiseworthy...

The fundamentalist approach

Many writers have searched for a fundamental, internally consistent and distinctive core to privacy concerns. This search has always been motivated by the notion that there is some particular aspect of human or moral character which can be called 'private' and which is overlooked by reductionist accounts. Other writers such as Gerety contend that privacy is concerned with control over the intimacies of personal identity,84 and Jouard has posited that there are sound psychological reasons why individuals need privacy as an aspect of the control they have over others' perceptions and beliefs vis-a-vis themselves.85 Others still, such as Fried,86 Reiman87 and Inness,88 argue that the creation and maintenance of personal and social relationships are the key factors in unifying privacy interests. Nevertheless, a strong commitment to the protection of privacy is conveyed by each of these writers. From the legal perspective this is a first, and very crucial, hurdle to overcome. The details...

Strategic versus Sincere Voting

But it should not be assumed that responses to influence in the courts are always passive responses. Many appellate judges have clear-cut policy goals, and they use their votes as bargaining chips. (By policy we mean proposed courses of action or general plans the Court should advance.) They may even switch their votes to achieve decisions consistent with their goals. An analysis of cases over the period when Warren Burger was Chief Justice found that 85 of the requests to the opinion writer for a change in language indicated that the requester's joining the opinion was contingent on the change being made (Wood, 1996). But judges are social beings they do not make their choices in isolation. They must pay heed to the preferences of others. In summary, their decisions and their votes are not straightforwardly determined, and their votes are not necessarily 'sincere' in the sense of reflecting only what the judge prefers.

Appellate Judges and Group Decision Making

The nine justices of the US Supreme Court individually read the briefs by each party, plus any supporting briefs, before they hear one-hour-long oral arguments for every appeal they have agreed to consider. A few days after the oral arguments, a judicial conference is scheduled, at which the case is discussed and a tentative vote is taken. If the Chief Justice is in the majority, he assigns a justice from the majority to write the opinion for the Court otherwise, the senior Associate Justice who is in the majority assigns the opinion. The designated opinion writer then drafts (with significant assistance from law clerks) an opinion that is circulated to the other justices for comment and reaction. Drafting an opinion with just the right tone and breadth is often a challenge if the tentative vote generated only a slim majority, the draft opinion needs to keep each of those voters on board (and perhaps recruit dissenters). But some who initially voted with the majority may demand...

Health and Health Care

In discussing the future of population health and health care expenditures, however, some writers argue that ''demography is not destiny'' (National Academy on an Aging Society 1999) and warn against alarmist forecasts based simply on demographic forces (Gee and Gutman 2000). The point of these arguments is that as a population ages, the composition and characteristics of the elderly population also are likely to change and the social policies and technology affecting the delivery of health care can change. Therefore,

Maintaining Flexibility

There is no one agreed treatment approach or a theoretical orientation that is recommended for treating Asian American clients, just as there is no one treatment approach that is suggested for treating all White clients (Shiang et al., 1998). In treating Asian American clients, the clinician may find it useful to invoke techniques from various schools of psychosocial treatment while still having a coherent framework for understanding the impact of culture and organizing clinical intervention. The treatment recommendations with Asian Americans tend to fall into two categories (a) an adaptation or a modification of an existing treatment approach, or (b) an integration of various approaches into a new treatment framework. Representative of the former type, a number of clinical writers have described specific modification of theory and techniques of psychoanalytic treatment approach (Bracero, 1994 Wu, 1994 Yi, 1995) or of cognitive-behavioral treatment approach (Chen, 1995) with Asian...

The Need For An Investigative Psychology

Further, any account of Serial Killers, in fact or fiction, always runs the risk of sensationalising its subject and pandering to fiction writers', and readers', search for a plot that has a simple momentum, with individuals who are clear antagonists pitted against each other. Processes and systems play little part in such accounts. In fiction research findings are assigned to the insights of the hero, not to painstaking study.

Training As Organizational Change Transfer of Training

A third influential paper sparking the resurgence of interest in training research was a 1988 review on transfer of training by Baldwin and Ford. They positioned transfer of training as an extension of learning during training and speculated that transfer failure was a function not only of bad training, but, like Noe (1986), a function of individual and organizational factors. Their review was timely because training writers of the era were suggesting that only 10 to 20 of what is learned in training is applied to the job (Newstrom, 1986). Then and now, for training to have impact, training practitioners must plan for transfer.

Final Thoughts 215 References 216

First, the good news The accounting and management professions recognize that traditional corporate measurement systems must be enhanced to account for intangibles in a knowledge-based economy (Brookings Institute, 2000 Canibano, Garcia-Ayuso, & Sanchez, 2000 Lev, 1997). Strategic HR management writers have noted the importance of understanding the value of human capital (e.g., Boudreau & Ramstad, 1999 Lepak & Snell, 1999). Consulting firms increasingly offer products designed to measure or demonstrate the relationship between HR programs and financial value (Fitz-enz, 2000 Grossman, 2000 Stamps, 2000). Yet, much of this focus is on developing new measures with rela-

Regina V MclNtosh And McCARTHY 1997

At trial the defendants sought to call this writer as an expert on eyewitness identification. On a voir dire to test whether this expert evidence was admissible the defense proposed evidence related to the factors present at the time of the robbery that would impair the witnesses' ability to make an accurate identification, the problem of cross-racial identification, the quality of memory recall for perceived events of different time spans, the influence of 'post event information' on memory, the validity of the photographic lineup, the misconception of jurors with respect to photographic lineups, the difficulties with 'in dock' identifications and police procedures relating to the identification of the two accused persons. The trial judge, Madame Justice Wein, refused to admit this evidence. Well, the understanding of jurors, and how they perceive is what psychologists spend their lives doing. We hope to assist the judge or the jury on the various levels and factors of what would...

Developments in family therapy from neutrality to curiosity the use of narrative and a notknowing position

It is interesting to see how all these writers whether from family therapy or psychoanalysis are addressing the same problem as genetic counselling. The last author, Bott, brings us back to the meaning of the 'expert practitioner' and in genetic counselling that does not refer to having correct genetic information. Rather, it means being the psychological facilitator, in the service of the patient developing self-reflective thinking. For the genetic counsellor, the struggle will be to straddle the divide of knowing and giving genetic information only then to behave differently in order to explore and collaborate in a conversation 'not-knowing'. The latter position shifts away from the professional knowing facts to a situation where the counsellor is the learner who wants to understand the individual's story and way of being. Keats (1958) uses the term 'negative capability' to describe 'When man is capable of being in uncertainties, mysteries, doubts, without any irritable reaching...

Rolf A Zwaan and Carol J Madden

Along with several other researchers, we conceive of language as a set of cues by which the speaker or writer manipulates the listener's or reader's attention on an actual or fictional situation (e.g., Langacker, 1987 Tomasello, 2003). The units in which this process takes place are atten-tional frames (Langacker, 2001). Attentional frames map onto intonation units, which are speech segments bounded by pauses or intonation shifts (Chafe, 1994). Because written language follows spoken language phyloge-netically as well as ontogenetically, the segmentation of spoken language provides the grounding for the segmentation of written language. We define construal as the mental simulation of an experience conveyed by an attentional frame. This mental simulation uses the experiential traces that are activated by the linguistic constructions in the intonation unit. 4 Often, a speaker or writer will insert a sentence later in the narrative to remind the listener reader that the car is still in...

Average Performance In The Accuracy Of Eyewitness Identifications

Similar results have been found by this writer in slightly different but still realistic contexts. The research design that we have used involves a target walking up to an adult person on a city street, shopping centre, or other public place and asking for directions or assistance in finding some lost jewellery. The encounter lasts for approximately 15 seconds. Two minutes later the witness is approached by an experimenter and asked to participate in a university study on person perception and memory. If the participant agrees, testing for descriptive recall for physical and clothing characteristics (Yarmey, 1993 Yarmey, Jacob and Porter, in press Yarmey and Yarmey, 1997), and photo identification and or voice identification of the target is done immediately or an appointment is made for testing within the next two days (Yarmey, Yarmey and Yarmey, 1994, 1996).

Is Collaboration Possible

It has been suggested that law and the social sciences will never be able to collaborate effectively. The argument is that the assumptions and methods, adopted by the disciplines, are inconsistent. Campbell (1974, building on Aubert, 1963), argues that legal thinking is distinctively different from social scientific. Social science seeks to make general rules law is concerned with applications to specific cases. Lawyers dichotomise whilst scientists recognise that issues are relative. Social scientific thought is probabilistic law is not. Legal thought is retrospective, it refers back to past events whereas social science aims to make statements about the future. Law is not causal, in a scientific sense relationships are attributed by rules rather than by findings of fact. Similar points are made by other writers but they are all mistaken. These alleged differences are a product of a misconception of law and lawyers' work, or the differences are of degree rather than nature.


Managing an analytical laboratory requires knowledge of how to manage people, instruments, data analysis, data systems, and project schedules. A background in science does not necessarily provide one with the tools required to manage effectively. The analytical manager should review the literature on social science and management,117-119 recognizing that the human component is extremely important to successful operations. As one writer put it, middle management, though much maligned, serves as a stabilizing force to maximize system efficiency and aid the implementation of technological change 120


Classical Greek and Roman writers had recognized the existence of fossils but they mostly interpreted them as remnants of the ancient monsters that figure prominently in their myths and legends. By the 18th century geologists began to accept that life-like structures in rocks were the remains of extinct animals and plants, and that there was no need to invoke supernatural reasons for their existence. The association of the fossil evidence of exotic extinct animals with


Spencer's socioevolutionary views continue to provoke debate among historians. Many have emphasized that his writings stood in the way of important social reforms. Laissez-faire capitalism had led to great advances in trade and industry, and some people made huge fortunes. But when trade and manufacturing slumped in the nineteenth century, many workers suffered poverty and unemployment. In industrial England, with its sweatshops, child labor, homelessness, and poverty, many writers called for social reform and the need for state charity. Spencer, however, decried state intervention, whether it be education for the poor or privileges for the church. While some historians portray him as a brutal social Darwinist who expounded the idea of struggle for survival into a doctrine of ruthless competition and class conflict, 5 others have argued that this view is somewhat misleading.6 For although the struggle for existence provided a plausible explanation for all the selfish behavior of which...

Issues Of Euthanasia

There are a number of writers and philosophers in the christian era who have defended man's freedom to commit suicide, for example, David Hume (1963) in his Essay on Suicide. The arguments that have been used in favor of voluntary positive euthanasia include the following (1) The life of the suffering person has become useless to his family, society, and himself. A healthy person may not commit suicide because he has many duties he is morally obliged to fulfill toward his family, society, and his own development. The terminally ill have no more duties because they are incapable of carrying them out. (2) One has to choose the lesser evil. The prolongation of useless suffering is a greater evil than procuring immediate death, a death coming anyway within a short time. (3) It is inhuman and unreasonable to keep a terminally ill patient alive when he does not want to live. (4) One who does not believe in God can reasonably conclude that man is the master of his own life therefore, he can...

Why do research

This writer undertook many small studies on common everyday problems during 10 years in country practice to determine the most effective treatments for which no or minimal evidence in the literature could be found. Many of these recommendations for problems such as tennis elbow, cold sores, aphthous ulcers, ingrown toenails, hiccoughs, back pain, nightmares, temporomandibular dysfunction and warts appear in this text. Although the numbers were relatively small it was a useful study to compare treatments for about ten or twenty cases to test hypotheses and allow trends to emerge. The results from a large controlled trial would, of course, take precedence over these recommendations if they differed. However, the exercise, albeit limited, added immense interest to one's practice, which at times can be tedious without such scholarly challenges.

Whats in a Word

In 1840, the Czech Johannes Evangelista Purkinje (1787-1869) used the word protoplasm to designate the true living substance in the interior of the cell. Theological writers had long used the word protoplast for Adam, the first formed. 23 The word protoplasm came into prominence after it was used by the champion of agnosticism, T. H. Huxley, in his lecture of 1868, titled The Physical Basis of Life. Though it was still a vague concept, he presented it as a victory for mechanistic materialism over vitalistic conceptions of life. All vital action, he commented, may be said to be the result of the molecular forces of the protoplasm which display it. 24

Motives and Goals

The need approach to motivation is clearly connected historically to the use of the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), which was initially developed by Murray (1938). Following the belief that individuals are unaware of their motives and unable to report accurately on them, the TAT was designed as a projective technique under the belief that when a person interprets an ambiguous social situation he is apt to expose his own personality as much as the phenomenon to which he is attending (p. 531). These observations together form the theoretical basis of the TAT, where participants are asked to take the part of story-writers and create stories on the basis of ambiguous pictures. Although the traditional TAT paradigm is the one most commonly associated with the assessment of Murray's needs, several alternative routes to the assessment of Murray's needs have been developed. For instance, Schmalt (1999) developed a semipro-jective grid technique in which individuals are asked to rate what...

Cognitive Therapies

Adapted versions of the cognitive therapies are being used increasingly with people with ID. It had been considered by earlier writers that methods for cognitive therapy would have to be adapted considerably in order to be understood clearly by individuals with mild ID (Kroese, 1997). However, more recent research suggests that with minor adaptations, simplification and so on, assessment and treatment are extremely similar to those seen in mainstream therapy. Dagnan & Sandhu (1999) used an adapted version of the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (Rosenberg, Schooler & Scoenbach, 1989) and the Gilbert & Allen (1994) Social Comparison Scale in a study of the impact of social comparison and self-esteem on depression in people with mild intellectual disabilities. Psychometric analysis of these scales indicated a factor structure that is consistent with the factor structure of the original scales when used in the mainstream population and a good level of internal and test re-test reliability....

The Supervisors Role

With a thoroughly wise and critically evaluative teacher. This oversimplified perspective leads to considerable tension about writing reports and produces inevitable blocks. Often, the same naive perspective is applied between the tester and the referral source.The actual context of supervision, referral, and professional communication is quite different in fact, supervision is a sharing condition in which a process unfolds and informs both people involved. The student as well as the professional psychologist need to focus on the central concern in supervision the creation of a report about a patient's inner life and behavior. The construction of the final report, in all its phases, constitutes an enormously valuable learning opportunity that is every bit as helpful to the supervisor or referring person as it is to the writer and patient. Thus, the report reflects a cooperative effort among all concerned the writer, the supervisor or referring person, and the patient. In the anxiety...

Appreciating Limits

The nature of the data that are obtained by means of psychological testing has numerous implications and ramifications. The task for the writer is to decide the central ideas, hypotheses, and conclusions. The communication of conclusions encapsulates what is to be learned from the data for the benefit of the patient and those in the referral process. An additional feature of the information derived from the data is that it is inferential. The psychologist is uniquely trained to organize inferences to form a coherent and understandable discussion. It should be noted, however, that there are degrees of inference. For example, it is frequently tempting to speculate on a patient's early history, relationships, and traumas based on what seem to be logical connections to current data. The psychologist needs to appreciate that the report is a psychological evaluation containing diagnostic and personality information, not a psychohistory or psychosocial compendium. Philosophical speculations...

Botulinum Toxins


Intermuscular injections of botulinum toxin performed on an outpatient basis three or four times per year are used to treat many conditions that involve abnormal muscle contraction. Hsiung et al. reported that, during a 10-year period, they found substantial benefit in 63 of patients treated for cervical dystonia and 56 of those treated for writer's cramp

War and Racism

Conservatives were generally reluctant to accept evolutionary theory, but there was one field in which Darwinism was vigorously applied by conservative politicians and ideologues international relations. Taking the nation as a unit of struggle, British social Darwinists of the nineteenth century, for example, validated their empire building by claiming that uncivilized races were being taken over by a superior social order. Darwinism was used to justify war and struggles for social and or racial supremacy. When the First World War began, British writers turned again and again to Darwinian analogies to stir up enthusiasm for it. Perhaps the best-known nineteenth-century writer who proclaimed that the evolutionary progress of humanity could be furthered by interracial or international struggles was German historian Heinrich von Treitschke (1834-1896), who wrote in his two-volume work Politics Brave peoples alone have an existence, an evolution or a future the weak and cowardly perish,...

Ethics In Aging

This handbook follows a growing number of writings on ethics in aging, and we are indebted to their authors for the breadth of ethical issues they have addressed and their insights in charting a course for resolution. Many writers, including those who have contributed to this volume, have moved this field of ethics in aging to a higher level of understanding, and we wish to acknowledge their pioneering efforts, especially those of the many who are unnamed. Illustrative of the more well-known works, but certainly not exhaustive, are Jecker, 1991 R. A. Kane and Caplan, 1990, 1993 Kapp, Pies, and Doudera, 1985 Lesnoff-Caravaglia, 1985 McCullough and Wilson, 1995 Moody, 1992 and G. P. Smith, 1996. This reference volume has built upon these works and has attempted to develop and expand upon the ethical issues they address. The contributors to this volume have necessarily approached aging, ethics, and the subject matter through the eyes of their own disciplines sociology, religion,...

Same Object YN

The claims made by proponents of embodied comprehension, for example about the activation of visual representations during language comprehension, may at the same time seem trivial and counterintuitive. They will seem trivial to the lay person, or even to people with great expertise in the use of language, such as novelists and poets. Of course, words can be used to conjure up images in the reader's mind However, these same claims will seem counterintuitive to researchers trained in traditional cognitive science. To them, the claim that meaning can be captured by experiential representations does not make sense. For one, the claim opens the door to the homunculus problem, and thus to an infinite regress. If there are pictures in the head, then there must be a little person in there looking at the pictures. And if so, who's in that person's mind There are two responses to this criticism. First, this problem also seems to apply to the amodal view. After all, where is the little person...

Small Arms

With rare exceptions, currently manufactured revolvers do not have manually operated safety devices. This fact seems to have escaped British writers, who in their detective and action fiction always have their characters putting on and taking off the safety of their revolver. Although thumb safeties are