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Alive after the Fall Review

Read alive after the fall to learn how to survive any kind of disaster you may face in the future. You will learn how to live off the grid and how to survive the most horrible scenarios your country may face. What medicine you must have for the emergency? How to find food and how to cook it? Many questions will arise in your head when you face the disaster but this guide will leave you prepared for the worse. The author AlexanderCain explains in details what disease spread in the dark times and what is the must have medicine. Alexander Cain also describes how to secure your car engine against EMP attack, and he teaches you about the most crucial electrical devices. How to save those electronic devices from EMP? The book teaches you how to build faraday cage in less than twenty five minutes to protect electronics from the EMP attack. Alexander also explains methods to prolong the shelf life of your food and medicine. When you read the bonus report you will learn how to survive nuclear attack and chemical attack. In last chapter Alexander explains how to get food and how to cock it without using electricity or gas. Read more...

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Suburban Growth Slowing Or Roaring

To chart the general dimensions of suburban growth in the last part of the 20th century, designated central cities are compared with their total suburban rings for metropolitan areas in each decade between 1960 and 2000. While some of the analysis in this chapter concentrates on the period since 1970, inclusion of 1960 in the analysis of growth provides some comparative perspective with the heyday of post-World War II suburbanization. The data focus on the census-designated Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) with total populations of at least 250,000 in 2000, an admittedly arbitrary threshold but one suggesting large-scale urbanization. While 163 such areas were recognized in the 2000 census, two could not be included because they lacked the requisite data for 1960. Since the development of the census-designated metropolitan area in the 1940s, numerous changes in the specific definitions and their parts have occurred, although many of the basic conceptions remained fixed. Literal...

Historical Perspective

From the end of the Second World War up until late 1980s, CEE countries behind the iron curtain were dominated by the former Soviet Union. The economy and research were among the areas where the Soviet influence was most felt. Basic research was concentrated in academic research institutes whereas tasks in universities were reduced primarily to teaching. Applied research was performed at special institutes run by governmental ministries.

Neuropsychology Behavioral Neurology And Neuropsychiatry

Sir William Osler first used the term neuropsychology in 1913 however, neuropsychology, at least as a clinical endeavor, did not emerge as a subdiscipline of psychology until the 1940s, largely in response to demands for the assessment and rehabilitation of brain-injured soldiers in World War II (1). The likely first published use of a clinical neuropsychological test with persons having parkinsonian syndrome is Shaskin et al.'s (2) administration of the Wechsler Bellevue Scale, an intelligence scale, to postencephalitic parkinsonians. Neuropsychology shares with behavioral neurology and neuropsychiatry the goal of relating behavior to underlying brain structure and function (3). However, neuropsychology's principal clinical method, namely its standardized, quantitative, norm-referenced approach to the evaluation

The Influence of Litigation

A very common issue in litigation proceedings is the extent to which the litigation procedure influences symptoms or symptom reporting. In the case of PTSD, there is a long tradition of attributing reported symptoms to 'compensation neurosis'. After World War I, authorities perceived that compensation for shell shock contributed to the persistence of symptoms after the war (Bonhoeffer, 1926). As a result, The National

Selection and Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria

Women chose not to deliver their babies in hospitals because many babies and women died of bacterial infection. Hospitals were particularly unsanitary because doctors easily transmitted bacterial infections among their patients, in spite of all the precautions taken. In World War I, for example, more casualties were due to infections in wounds than to the wounds themselves because there were no antibiotics.

Conceptual Frameworks

Historical demography has hugely contributed to a better understanding of underlying structures and tendencies over the long run. Because of that focus, it fit well in what became an important school of historians in the post-World War II period the French Annales school and its followers all over the world. The new history of population was ''serial'' history, as opposed to ''evential'' history. To the extent that population structure and change influence economy and society, they have provided an indispensable backcloth for the description of the human past. The lasting impact of demography on history, after the initial excitement with technical innovations such as family reconstitution, has been in providing a window on the social structure of the past and on the dynamics of economic growth, urbanization, and consumption patterns. In turn, specialized areas of history, such as the history of technology, of disease, and of contraception, have proven indispensable for an...

Weintraubs Analysis of Verbal Behavior

Weintraub has explored verbal behavior in multiple ways. In addition to his main interest, the language of psychopathology, he also analyzed the Watergate transcripts, characterized speaking styles of post-World War II U.S. presidents, identified linguistic correlates of intimacy, and related language use to personality. Weintraub's analyses are instrumental in aim, are thematic in approach, capture a broad spectrum of language use, and are stylistic in focus (see Table 11.2).

Conservation status

Overwhelmingly, it is humans who pose an ongoing threat to many colubrid snakes. However, one species, the brown treesnake (Boiga irregularis), has itself become a severe threat to the native fauna of the Pacific island of Guam. The accidental introduction of this adaptable predator to the island following World War II, apparently as stowaways on military transports, has resulted in the decimation of the native lizards and birds of the island and has resulted in the collapse of the natural food web. Efforts are under way to control this species and to recover the populations of those birds that have not already been completely extirpated.

Patterns Of Occurrence

Germ Cell Testicular Cancer

SEER data show steadier rates in the 1990s among white males in the United States and even suggest a decline in the late 1990s among men aged 20 to 24 years.19 It is tempting to interpret this report as a hint that the epidemic may be abating, but past instances of stabilized rates proved to be only perturbations in the general upward trend. Rates have traditionally been more stable at the extremes of age, that is, among boys and among men over 60 years of age. One study found that the incidence of testicular cancer in boys (up to 4 years of age) and very young men (15 to 19 years of age) did not increase in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden during the period of 1960 to 1985.18 However, the authors noted that age-specific incidence continued to rise in all other age groups throughout this period, and they concluded that these younger cases may differ etiologically from the others. An additional set of analyses91516 showed stabilization of risk in several cohorts born around the time of the...

Hepatitis C Virus and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

As early as the days of Hippocrates, hepatitis has been described as a disease that occurs in the young and shows the cardinal symptom of jaundice, which sometimes develops into a critical condition. Ironically, research on hepatitis progressed rapidly during World War II because injuries and the terrible sanitary conditions of the battlefields caused serious hepatitis epidemics. People recognized that hepatitis could be classified into two types infectious and serumal. The former became known as hepatitis A and the latter as hepatitis B. After the war, the hunt for hepatitis viruses had begun. First, the hepatitis B virus (HBV) was identified in 1967 by Blumberg, who was awarded a Nobel Prize in recognition of his discovery. Next, the hepatitis A virus (HAV) was discovered in 1973. These discoveries were thought to have clarified the causes of hepatitis, but by the following year, it was acknowledged that many cases of hepatitis were not caused by either HAV or HBV (Prince et al.,...

Department Of Defense

Protection against biological warfare has long been a part of force protection for the military. As the threat has evolved, protection against biological terrorism on domestic and overseas installations has also improved. As diseases do not respect installation boundaries, and the well-being of military retirees and family members is also of importance to the military, the DoD has greatly increased its surveillance efforts to identify natural or deliberate disease outbreaks at the earliest possible point in time. Presidential Decision Directive NSTC-7 (June 1996) stated that the United States will strengthen domestic infectious disease surveillance and response. It expanded the mission of the DoD to include support of global surveillance, training, research, and response to emerging infectious disease threats (White House, 2005). In response to this directive, DoD established the Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (DoD-GEIS). The DoD-GEIS is designed to...

Demography Of Lgbt People

Explanations as to why LGB people are drawn to cities vary widely. Some scholars root the urban nature of the LGB community in historical events, such as the discharge of gay soldiers in San Francisco following World War II (D'Emilio, 1989). Others have suggested that LGB people are drawn to areas with more favorable social and political climates. Indeed, disentangling cause from effect is difficult, yet 9 of the 12 states without a law prohibiting same-sex marriage and 11 of the 14 states that prohibit employment discrimination based on sexual orientation are also among the 20 states with the highest proportion of same-sex couples (Gates and Ost, 2004). Others have suggested that economic, not political, forces draw LGB people to cities, claiming that because same-sex couples tend to live in smaller housing units, they are able to afford housing in high amenity areas like cities (Black, et al., 2002). More commonly, scholars have suggested that large concentrations of LGB people...

Remote Physiological Monitoring

Gear intended to fit under or on clothing to measure various parameters of bodily function and environmental conditions has existed since the late 1940s. Beginning soon after World War II, the U.S. Air Force, the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA), and its successor, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), built a series of rocket-powered experimental aircraft to explore flight at very high speeds and altitudes. In 1947, Charles Yeager flew the X-1 past mach 1 in 1956, the X-2 flew at nearly mach 3. Two years later an X-2 test pilot set a world altitude record of nearly 126,000 feet. By 1967 a pilot flying North American Aviation's X-15 had reached Mach 6.7, soaring 60 miles above the Earth's surface.Test pilots flying in the late 1950s and after needed special suits, helmets, and oxygen supply systems to stay alive, and scientists needed to collect data on human performance in their cockpits. Physiologic data was not collected consistently throughout...

Chronological Age Differences

Cattell Culture Free Test

Of particular interest to developmental psychologists have been age-related changes in intelligence test scores. The results of earlier cross-sectional studies (e.g., Jones & Conrad, 1933 Yerkes, 1921) suggested that, on the average, test scores decline steadily after late adolescence. For example, Yerkes found that mean scores on the Army Examination Alpha administered to large groups of American soldiers during and shortly after World War I declined from the late teens through the sixth decade of life. The general form of the curve drawn from data obtained from Jones and Conrad's classic study of 1,200 New Englanders between 10 and 60 years of age was an increase in mean scores on the Army Alpha from age 10 to 16 and a gradual decline to the age-14 level by age 55. These findings of a decline in intelligence test scores during middle and later adulthood were supported by Wechsler's (1958) analysis of scores on the Wechsler-Bellevue Form I and, more recently, by standardization data...

Eleven Principles Of The Who Health Cities Project

The encouragement of connectedness with the past, with the cultural and biological heritage of city-dwellers and with other groups and individuals. The natural heritage of cities is commonly associated with the biological and ecological components of their site location, such as Cape Town, Rio de Janeiro, San Francisco and Sydney. The cultural heritage of cities is often considered in relation to human-made monuments, public buildings and cultural festivals. However, in addition to these, urban history can be used creatively as a warehouse of knowledge, including the achievements and shortcomings of specific urban development projects, in order to build healthier cities. In terms of shortcomings, it is important to recognise the legacy of urban renewal programs and projects in many cities around the World after the Second World War. From 1945, land-use and housing policies were enacted to address the housing shortage that accumulated during the previous decade. At the same time...

Modernization Approach To Aging And Ethnicity

We can gainfully compare the experience of immigrants moving from agricultural to urban-industrial environments to analysis of modernized societies and less modernized ones or the modernization of one society over time. If modernization weakens the extended family and subsequent status of the elderly, likewise, the transplantation of a group from a traditional society to a modern one can be expected to have similar consequences (Markides & Mindel, 1987). Conversely, one could argue that immigrant enclaves are more tightly knit than the communities from which they emigrated because of their minority status. (Recall the notion of ethnogenesis introduced earlier.) Accordingly, immigrants would have strong family ties and commitment to ethnic heritage because of their isolation, subjective feelings of being a cultural outsider, the foreign environment, and the need to reinforce the familiar. Modernization theory aids us in understanding the experiences of the Mexican American elderly...

Interactions Between Cadmium and Other Metals

There are indications that contributing factors for Itai-Itai disease were low intakes of calcium and other minerals, vitamin D, and protein. The poor nutritional conditions in many areas of Japan during World War II were discussed and a comparison between diets in the endemic region of Itai- , Toyama prefecture, Japan as a whole and Sweden was presented by Kjellstrom in 1986. Lower dietary intakes calcium and of fat-soluble vitamins compared with Sweden and the practice by women in the endemic area of wearing clothes covering their whole body, including hands and face, may have provided only marginally adequate calcium intake and marginal or less than marginal vitamin D activity. Such conditions most probably made this population more sensitive to the development of bone effects of Cd than populations in other countries (Kjellstrom, 1986 Nordberg, 1974). Although it is clear that the high cadmium intake in the endemic area was the main causal factor for development of the disease (cf...

Liudvikas Jagminas md Robert E Antosia md mph

Terrorists now have an improved ability to collect information, raise money, and disseminate rhetoric. Advanced information technology available through the Internet allows extremists to communicate widely and efficiently. Additionally, publicly available databases serve as repositories for technical information relating to weapons production. Another important factor is that WMDs, together with the materials and technology used to make them, are increasingly available. Many of these materials are widely available for legitimate commercial purposes. Moreover, the disintegration of the former Soviet Union has increased concerns about the protection, control, and accountability of WMDs, related materials and technologies, and the potential unemployment and proliferation of thousands of scientists skilled in the field. A final factor is the relative ease of manufacture and delivery of WMDs. Facilities required to produce radiological, biological, and chemical weapons are small and hard...

Interchangeability of Ammunition in Weapons

During World War II, large numbers of revolvers were manufactured in the United States for Great Britain. These were chambered for the .38 Smith & Wesson cartridge. Since then, many of these revolvers have been brought back to the United States and rechambered for the .38 Special cartridge. These weapons will chamber and fire both cartridges.

Outbreaks and Investigations

In Ernest Hemingway's novel The Sun Also Rises, when Mike Campbell, a Scottish expatriate and World War I veteran, is asked how he went bankrupt, he replies, gradually, then suddenly.'' Often, this is how outbreaks of disease appear. Outbreaks can wreak much havoc before they are noticed, and they can grow at an exponential rate before they are brought under control. Some outbreaks spread so far we call them epidemics, or pandemics if they encompass the entire planet. Some outbreaks have never been brought under control. The only certainty is that an outbreak becomes more difficult to stop through human intervention the longer it goes unnoticed.

Ethical Issues in the Quality of Care

In the 1970s, major right-to-die cases such as Quinlan and Saikewicz (Superintendent of Belchertown State Sch. v. Saikewicz, 370 N.E. 2nd 417 Mass. 1977 and In re Quinlan, 355 A. 2nd 647 N.J. 1976 ) were decided. Since then, ethical debate and analysis have become commonplace in the health care delivery system, though ethical decision-making systems are not fully integrated into it. While ethics has always been an acknowledged and essential component of professional practice, the impact of medical technology and the sociopolitical evolution since World War II have resulted in an increasing awareness that ethical questions and issues arising in the health care environs extend far beyond a ''professional'' code of ethics and touch each individual within society and society as a whole. Organ transplantation, the use of fetal tissue for research and treatment, abortion, assisted suicide, genetic manipulation, and health care rationing are just a few of the issues confronting the health...

The Basic Reproductive Number

When an infection is at equilibrium, R 1.0, as noted above. If R0 is greater than R (R0 R), a proportion of the potential transmission events implied by R0 will fail because a proportion of potential contacts are already immune to infection in these circumstances, and only effective contacts with susceptible individuals will result in transmission. The symbol X is often used to represent the number of susceptible individuals in a population of N individuals, and x ( X N) to represent the proportion of susceptible individuals in the population. In a theoretically uniformly homogeneous population, if x* represents the proportion of susceptible individuals when the infection is at equilibrium, x* can be used to estimate R0 as R0x* R 1.0. Anderson and May (1991) quote from their earlier work a range of values for R0 for different infections and different epidemiological settings that for measles, for example, varying from 5 to 6 in post-World War I Kansas, USA to 16 to 18 in post-World...

Evolution and systematics

The phylum Tardigrada belongs to the Panarthropoda group, together with the onychophorans (velvet worms) and arthropods, and comprises almost 1,000 described species. However, taxonomists expect that at least 10,000 species exist. The phylum is divided into three classes Hetero-tardigrada, Eutardigrada, and Mesotardigrada. The latter was established on the basis of a single species, Thermozodium esakii, found in a hot sulfur spring in Nagasaki, Japan. However, the species has not been recorded since the end of World War II. The Heterotardigrada consists of two orders, Arthro-tardigrada and Echiniscoidea, and is characterized by the presence of cephalic appendages, so-called cirri and clavae, that function as mechano- and chemoreceptors, respectively. The arthrotardigrades are marine forms that usually have median cirrus and telescopic legs, with or without toes, while the echiniscids are terrestrial armored or marine unarmored forms. The echiniscids have no median cirrus and the legs...

Personality Disorders And Social Sensitivity

The strongest evidence for sociocultural factors in mental disorders comes from epidemiological research documenting changes in prevalence over short periods of time. In particular, impulsive symptoms in adolescents and young adults (substance abuse, antisocial behavior, and depression) have increased, both in North America and Europe, since World War II (Millon, 1993 Paris, 1996 Rutter & Smith, 1995). These cohort effects are paralleled by increases in the prevalence of parasuicide and completed suicide (Bland, Dyck, Newman, & Orn, 1998).

Geographic Differences In Rates Of Parkinsons Disease

Although the findings are inconsistent, a higher prevalence of PD in urban areas argues for byproducts of industrialization as risk factors for PD. Several studies suggest that increasing industrialization may increase PD risk. Schoenberg et al. compared the prevalence of PD in Copiah County, Mississippi, U.S.A. (341 100,000 over age 39) to Igbo-Ora, Nigeria (67 100,000 over age 39) using similar methodology, and studying genetically similar populations. They concluded that environmental factors may be responsible for the observed higher prevalence in the industrialized U.S. population (26). In contrast, a study (27) of PD in Estonia found a similar prevalence of PD in urban and rural regions, although the definitions of urban and rural were unclear. A small study (25) conducted in a health district in Canada found a lower risk of PD in industrialized areas of the district. In a population-based mortality study, Rybicki et al. (28) demonstrated that counties in Michigan, U.S.A. with a...

Exceptions to Our Description

Select spies during World War II, these researchers developed a complex and realistic set of exercises in their attempts to assess many components of abilities and motivations that contributed to effective job performance. Each ability or motivation was assessed using multiple methods. For example, a trait was assessed using paper-and-pencil tests, in-basket exercises, ratings by observers of interactions in group discussion, and ratings by interviewers obtained from one-on-one interactions in interviews. Multiple traits of each person going through the assessment process were assessed using multiple independent methods. At least two raters rated each trait within each method. Using such comprehensive measures, it was possible for researchers to generate a true multitrait-multimethod matrix of the sample of managers.

Asian Pacific Islander Americans

Not permit Asian and Pacific Island women to enter this country, combined with the detention of Japanese-Americans in concentration campus during World War II, left a reservoir of negative feelings in some members of the Asian-American community. Be that as it may, Asian-Americans are perhaps the best example of how the United States can still be a land of opportunity for immigrants who are skilled and motivated to work and save.

The One Gene One Enzyme Hypothesis

Following the Second World War, the face of genetics was transformed as biochemists and geneticists teamed up to explore what genes do in the cell, and what they are. What was new was not the concept that genes function by way of enzymes, but the use of microorganisms. Single-celled microbes allowed geneticists to avoid the complexity of tissue differentiation and cellular integration when searching for a bridge between gene and character. The geneticist isolated mutants that were found to be unable to grow, or that grew poorly on a well-defined growth medium, and the biochemist sought the reason for this inability. Thus, a suitable organism for biochemical genetics was one whose sex life and growth could be brought under meticulous control. The model organisms of classical genetics, Drosophila, corn, and mice, so useful for establishing the chromosome theory of inheritance, were quickly outcompeted by rapidly reproducing microorganisms fungi, yeast, algae, protists, and bacteria.

Domesticating Microbes

The revolution in biochemical genetics was not the result of a new theoretical insight, but of a technical breakthrough. The new microbial techniques' profound importance for the genetic analysis of metabolic pathways was indisputable. No previous studies of gene action using plants or animals had come close to matching the Neurospora technology in scope and detail. Microbiology and genetics had developed apart prior to the Second World War. Microbiology was strong on the applied side, being of considerable importance to medicine and industry. Biochemists had studied their metabolism and enzyme activities and defined their nutritional requirements, their ability to use certain compounds as sources of carbon, and their sensitivity to antibiotics. In all biochemical respects, microbes were fundamentally similar to plants and animals, but their genetics had not been explored. In most cases, they seemed to reproduce solely vegetatively their small size and lack of obvious sexual...

Evaluating Antiobesity Drugs

Following World War II, pharmaceutical companies began to evaluate potential agents for weight loss, measuring the amount of weight loss either in absolute terms or relative to initial weight, but always in comparison to the weight loss of a placebo. Weight loss in placebo-treated groups is highly variable from one study to another since the placebo effect is augmented by variations in diet, physical activity and behavioral therapy.

Changing Suburban Development

Certainly, many central cities have emerged from their depressed years in the early post-World War II period. The 2000 census shows that a number of central cities, especially older places in the Northeast and Midwest, experienced patterns of population increase (albeit often small) in the 1990s compared to the 1980s (New York Times 2001c, 2001d). A number of central city downtown areas have begun to prosper as they have assumed important roles in specialized employment niches such as convention Another important factor in considering suburban versus central city growth is the explosive development of diverse employment activities in suburban rings (Bourne 1996). Whereas early post-World War II suburbanization heavily involved residences that were tied to central city workplaces, more recent years have seen the creation of major peripheral employment centers. This has involved high rates of job relocation from central cities to suburbs and the creation of many new job opportunities,...

Population Decline Amidst Suburban Growth

Guest's (1979) research on population loss for individual suburbs in the three time periods of 1950 to 1960, 1960 to 1970, and 1970 to 1975 serves as a model for analyzing recent decades. He found a dramatic temporal increase in the number of suburbs that lost population consistent with early post-World War II images of suburbia, loss was quite rare in the 1950s and 1960s, but by the 1970s occurred in about one-third of the suburban communities.

Research Population And Setting

Ethical issues also arise from the population being studied and the setting in which the study is being conducted. Certain settings may have a greater likelihood of raising concerns about coercion or the ability of subjects to provide informed consent. Coercion issues arise when there is the possibility that the setting in which the research will take place will make subjects reluctant to refuse participation in research. In part, these concerns stem from the Nazi era when defendants at the Nuremberg trial insisted that they asked Jewish prisoners if they wanted to participate and only included in research protocols those who agreed. The Nazis cited World War II-era research conducted on conscientious objectors as equally coercive. Likewise, prisoners often have seen participation in research as a way to demonstrate their ''good behavior'' that might lead to early release. Due to fear that the potential of early release is coercive and prevents informed consent, there have been calls...

The Limitations of Heritability

Even when heritability is high, environmental factors may influence a characteristic High heritability does not mean that environmental factors cannot influence the expression of a characteristic. High heritability indicates only that the environmental variation to which the population is currently exposed is not responsible for variation in the characteristic. Let's look again at human height. In most developed countries, heritability of human height is high, indicating that genetic differences are responsible for most of the variation in height. It would be wrong for us to conclude that human height cannot be changed by alteration of the environment. Indeed, height decreased in several European cities during World War II owing to hunger and disease, and height can be increased dramatically by the administration of growth hormone to children. The absence of environmental variation in a characteristic does not mean that the characteristic will not respond to environmental change.

Principles Of Research Ethics

The first principle, voluntarism, is a modification of the autonomy principle. All research subjects must voluntarily consent to participation in research. Lack of voluntary consent can occur in a variety of ways. The most extreme is explicitly forcing subjects to participate completely against their will. The most notable example of forcing subjects to participate totally against their will is Nazi research conducted during World War II. Most other violations of the principle involve not informing subjects that they are research subjects, not informing them that they can refuse to participate, or not providing sufficient information so that they can make an informed decision whether to participate or not. An example of a study that did not inform subjects that they were participating in research is the Jewish Chronic-Disease Hospital Study of elderly patients, including some who were demented, who were injected with cancer The first modern code of research ethics is the Nuremberg...

Historical Significance

There have been several reports of ricin being used as a weapon both at home and abroad. A ricin-containing bomb, code-named compound W, was developed and tested by the United States, in collaboration with Britain, before World War I. Ricin was used in injection form to assassinate Georgi Markov, a Bulgarian defector, in 1978. In 1994 and 1995, four men from a tax protest group were convicted of possessing ricin as a biological weapon. Plans linked to al Qaeda to produce ricin were found in Afghanistan in November 2001. In October 2003 a package containing ricin and a threatening note were sent to a South Carolina post office. In May and June of 2004, ground castor beans were found in jars of Gerber Banana Yogurt Dessert in California.

Epidemiology Of Conventional

Conventional cross-borders wars were the most common forms of extended violence prior to 1992. Advanced weaponry, despite claims of improved technology and targeting, respect for the Geneva Conventions, and military discipline, allow for vulnerable civilians to be killed or injured more easily. In World War I, 5 of casualties were civilian, by World War II 50 were civilian. In the Vietnam war 80 of casualties were civilian, but some would argue that this represented a civil war more similar to the complex emergencies of the last two decades.

Chemically Induced Mutations

Nazi Germany, Auerbach immigrated to Britain, where she conducted research on the development of mutants in Drosophila. There she met Herman Muller, who had shown that radiation induces mutations he suggested that Auerbach try to obtain mutants by treating Drosophila with chemicals. Her initial attempts met with little success. Other scientists were conducting top-secret research on mustard gas (used as a chemical weapon in World War I) and noticed that it produced many of the same effects as radiation. Auerbach was asked to determine whether mustard gas was mutagenic.

Brief History Of The Study Of Consciousness

Research conducted on perception and attention during World War II (see the chapter by Egeth and Lamy in this volume), the development of the digital computer and information theory, and the emergence of linguistics as the scientific study of mind led to changes in every aspect of the field of psychology. It was widely concluded that the behavioristic strictures on psychological research had led to extremely

Trichothecene Mycotoxins

Trichothecene mycotoxins are perhaps a more obscure cause of food-borne disease of some historical importance. Produced by fungus growing at low temperatures on grain, these toxins are extremely fastidious. Trichothecene mycotoxins may affect refugee populations or those involved in disasters that interrupt the normal harvesting and processing of cereal grains. They are thought to be responsible for the illness and death of thousands in Soviet Russia during and after World War II when wheat was unable to be harvested in a timely fashion. Their resistance to degradation makes them easy to weaponize. Refugees from Cambodia and Laos after the Vietnam War have reported Yellow Rain, possibly dropped from low-flying aircraft, causing symptoms of trichothecene mycotoxin poisoning. It also has been suggested that these toxins have been used by both the Soviets in Afghanistan and by Iraq in its battles with Iran.

Overview And Historical Significance

Pulmonary agents were originally developed for use as chemical warfare agents in World War I. They currently are employed primarily in industrial applications either as substrates, products, or byproducts. Due to their ease of synthesis, however, their diversion to use as weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) is a very real possibility. This chapter discusses chlorine, phosgene, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Generally, highly soluble gases (i.e., ammonia) produce upper respiratory tract (e.g., eyes, nose, and throat) disease since they are readily absorbed, while less-soluble gases (phosgene and nitrogen dioxide) penetrate deeper with subsequent lower respiratory tract pathology. The reader should refer to specific chapters regarding other gases.

The role of early environment

Notwithstanding the substantial body of evidence from animal models, the evidence that this mechanism is a potent force in influencing T2D susceptibility in humans is somewhat limited. There are reports that T2D is more prevalent in individuals born following severe calorie restriction (for example during the Second World War) (Ravelli et al., 1998) but these are inconsistent (Stanner et al., 1997) and studies of monozygotic twins discordant for T2D have shown that the diabetic co-twin was generally the smaller one at birth (Poulsen etal., 1997).

One Truly International Colleague Who Made a Dent in Trauma Survival

Geoffrey Jefferson was a Manchester-born neurosurgeon who worked in St. Petersburg during World War I, where he served in the Anglo-Russian Hospital, a gift of the British Empire to the Russian ally. Obviously he gained a lot of experience with severe trauma during that time. He became a skeptic witness of the 1917 communist October revolution. He earlier practiced in Canada where his wife came from later in the war he worked in France. He described the typical fracture of the atlas in 1920. One of his wise sayings comes in handy to end this book

Fairy Bluebirds Leafbirds And People

Leafbirds are well-represented in art, with the Chinese depicting them since at least the fifteenth century. Many other varieties of this family have been prized as well for their beauty and were shipped commercially in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Before World War II, India was the largest supplier of these birds. By the 1950s and 1960s, Thailand, and then Indonesia were major sources. By the 1990s, China exported them until a ban was imposed on caged birds in 2001. Indonesia then played the key role in their export. Their tendency to fight with other birds has made them unsuitable for mixed groups of species.

Vitamin A Deficiency Infection and Mortality in Developing Countries A Recurring Theme

Deficiency as a public health problem in developing countries in the 1950s. The FAO WHO Expert Committee on Nutrition recognized that dried skimmed milk production had increased greatly after World War II, and that it was a surplus food being considered for distribution in developing countries in the form of food aid. The expert committee recommended that dried skimmed milk be fortified with vitamin A (85).

The Nature Of Stressful Life Events And Disasters

Historically, research on health effects of stressful life events commenced with clinical records of individual reactions to war. Following the American Civil War and World War I, shell shock and battle fatigue became known as extreme reactions to this kind of stress. After World War II, studies on the long-term effects of the Holocaust and other war-related events, such as the devastation of Hiroshima, were conducted. Disasters unrelated to war have been investigated by psychologists since the 1970s. At present, a broad variety of disasters, ranging from tornadoes and oods to re and toxic spills, are being examined for their health impact on

Approaches to the Study of the Mind

Since the Second World War scientists from different disciplines have turned to the study of the human mind. Computer scientists have tried to emulate its capacity for visual perception. Linguists have struggled with the puzzle of how children acquire language. Ethologists have sought the innate roots of social behaviour. Neurophysiologists have begun to relate the function of nerve cells to complex perceptual and motor processes. Neurologists and neuropsychologists have used the pattern of competence and incompetence of their brain-damaged patients to elucidate the normal workings of the brain. Anthropologists have examined the conceptual structure of cultural practices to advance hypotheses about the basic principles of the mind. These days one meets engineers who work on speech perception, biologists who investigate the mental

Plasmon to Plasmagenes

The idea that the cytoplasm may be largely responsible for macroevolution and for early development was widely discussed among paleontologists and embry-ologists in many countries. If true, the cytoplasm's effects would usually be detected only by crossing widely different groups. This would be difficult to test, because matings between distantly related animals were sterile. But it was possible in some plants. Between the two world wars, leading botanists in Germany, including Carl Correns and his student Fritz von Wettstein, Otto Renner, Friedrich Oehlkers, and later Peter Michaelis turned to investigate the role of the cytoplasm in heredity and to challenge what some called the nuclear monopoly. 11 After the Second World War, the debate arose anew with the emergence of microbial genetics and studies of gene action. The idea that the cytoplasm might control the fundamental traits of the organism was revitalized. Several leading European biologists, including Boris Ephrussi, Andr...

Risk Factors for Vitamin A Deficiency

Xerophthalmia has been associated with larger household size in Indonesia (285) and larger family size in urban Bangladesh (747), but no relationship was found between xerophthalmia and household size in Malawi (673). In Bangladesh, a family size of three or more children compared to one or two children was associated with an increased risk of xerophthalmia (OR 3.2, 95 CI 1.61-6.50) (748). Larger overall fluctuations in poverty may account for changes in the incidence of xerophthalmia over time. In Egypt between 1912 and 1931, the incidence of xerophthalmia in government ophthalmic hospitals peaked in 1913 and in 1918-1919, the former peak coinciding with economic crisis in Egypt and the latter peak coincided with poor conditions in the country at the end of World War I (749).

Captivity and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

In reaction to the mistreatment of prisoners of war during the nineteenth century, beginning in 1864 a series of international meetings known as the Geneva Convention was held. The result was a set of rules regarding the humane treatment of prisoners of war, as well as the sick, the wounded, and those who died in battle. Despite some improvements as a result of the Geneva Convention and the rules for the treatment of prisoners of war that were defined at the Second Hague Conference of 1907, the conditions under which prisoners existed continued to be atrocious in many instances. During World War II for example, American soldiers captured by the Japanese were subjected to inhuman treatment and forced to survive on a near-starvation diet. In many ways, however, American soldiers who were taken prisoner by the Viet Cong or North Vietnamese during the Vietnam War suffered an even worse fate. Reminiscent of the treatment of inmates in concentration camps during World War 11, prisoners in...

The Implosion Moves Outward

Perhaps a more important transportation development was the mass production of the motor vehicle, which spread throughout the population, particularly the economically stable working and middle social classes, in the period after 1920, that is, roughly the years after World War I (Hawley 1978). Individuals and families could now live at some distance from various activities but be within reasonable commuting distance. While the streetcar oriented many activities to the downtown, the motor vehicle with its more flexible routes encouraged the development of numerous subcenters outside the traditional downtown. The most dramatic outward expansion of urban concentrations occurred after World War II ended (Guest 1975 Hawley 1978 Tobin 1976). Furthermore, growth was sprawling, creating extensive geographical regions where much of the population lived at low densities. Even in comparison to the 1920s and 1930s, automobile ownership increased greatly in importance, influenced partly by the...

The history of tuberculosis in the United States

Was determined annually beginning in 1930 but this figure did not become an accurate reflection of disease incidence until 1952 when inactive cases were no longer included. As shown in Fig. 1B, morbidity and mortality rates were consistently decreasing with the exceptions of increased death rates during World War I, a transient levelling of the new case rate in the early 1960s and an apparent increase in new case rates in the mid-1970s due to a change in reporting criteria. Although it is stated frequently that the tuberculosis situation was improving prior to the advent of chemotherapy, it is clear from Fig. 1B that the decline in mortality rates accelerated at the time chemotherapy became available in the late 1940s. Because accurate data on case rates weren't available until after chemotherapy appeared, its impact on morbidity can't be determined.

Strategies Directed at Communities with Greatest Need

The North-Central Brooklyn DPHO covers a geographic area with a population of about 250,000. With a mostly 19th and early 20th Century housing stock (in contrast to East and Central Harlem, where 25 of the population live in post-World War II government apartment buildings), disproportionate numbers of lead-poisoned children reside here. Thus, the DPHO has focused on housing and health a home visiting program has been launched to identify peeling paint and pest infestations and make appropriate referrals for remediation. The Brooklyn office, like the Harlem DPHO, has also worked closely with the Parks Department to support the Shape Up New York program.


Historical note Bilberries have been used as a food for many centuries and are valued for their taste and high nutritional content. They are still commonly used to make jams, pies, syrups and beverages. Medicinally, the berries have been used internally to treat diarrhoea and haemorrhoids and externally for inflammation of the mouth and mucous membranes as they have significant astringent activity. According to folklore, World War II British Royal Air Force pilots noticed that their night vision seemed to improve after consuming bilberries or bilberry preserves, sparking a renewed interest in the medicinal properties of the fruits.

The Working Poor

One feature of the economy that affects the majority of workers is falling wages. Since the 1970s, growth in family income has slowed considerably, especially in comparison to the growth in the U.S. following World War II. Average annual family income growth during the period 1947-1973 was 2.7 . Annual growth in family income following that period averaged 0.6 , 0.4 , and 0.1 for the periods 197379, 1979-89, and 1989-97, respectively. In other words, the wage increase their parents received in a single year would take today's families half their working lives to achieve. Falling wages are not a reflection of falling worker productivity. In fact, from 1968 to 2001, worker productivity has risen 75 . Had the average hourly wage kept pace with productivity since 1968, the hourly wage in 2001 would be 25.39 and not 14 as it was in 2001 moreover, minimum wage would be 14.15 (all values are 2001 dollars) (Sklar, et al., 2001).

Twin Studies

Although earlier twin studies in PD were inconclusive (19-21), Tanner et al. (22) demonstrated the presence of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of PD when disease begins at or before age 50 years. They studied twins enrolled in the twin registry of the National Academy of Science and the National Research Council World War II Veteran Twins Registry. No genetic component was evident when the onset of symptoms occurred after age 50 years. A more recent study using the Swedish Twin Registry, conducted by Wirdefeldt et al. (23), demonstrated low concordance rates in twins, whether monozygotic or dizygotic. However, both of these studies were largely based on limited, cross-sectional clinical observations, and diagnostic accuracy might be improved by longitudinal evaluations (24).

Historical Note

In 1937, Gibbon of Philadelphia first published an account of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in the cat. He was able to clamp the pulmonary artery for 25 minutes, while bypassing the blood with an assembly of pumps and an oxygenator.2 As World War II intervened, Dr. Gibbon had to wait until 1953 to publish his first successful open heart surgery.3 As cardiac surgery spread rapidly across the world, it was soon realised that the bubble oxygenators used were the main source of blood injury and inflammation. Kolff and Balzer were the pioneers in reducing this problem. They worked on animals, successfully using a coil dialyser as an oxygenator.4 By 1958 Clowes et al. were able to report clinical use in adults, although it required large membrane area to support necessary gas exchange.5

Guayule Rets

During the years of the Second World War, the need for finding alternate sources of rubber led to studies of the latex-bearing guayule plant Parthenium argentatum as a potential source. The extractability and quality of rubber improved if, before milling, this shrub was chopped and stored in a mass ( rets ) that self-heated to temperatures between 65 and 70 C. From the guayule rets, Paul J. Allen and Ralph Emerson (1949) isolated some ten species of thermophilic fungi with temperature limits up to 60 C and all species capable of decomposing resin. The improvement from retting resulted primarily from the reduction in the amount of contaminating resin in the latex by a thermophilic microflora. Allen and Emerson found that for the optimal development of thermophilic fungi in the guayule rets, its moisture content, porosity and size were crucial factors for the build up of microbial protoplasm, for their aerobic respiration and for insulation against the loss of heat produced by their...


Two UV filters, benzyl salicylate and benzyl cinnamate, were first incorporated into a commercially available sunscreen emulsion in the United States in 1928 9 . In the early 1930s, phenyl salicylate (Salol) was used in an Australian product 10 . Para-aminoben-zoic acid (PABA) was patented in 1943, leading to the development of PABA derivative UV filters. During World War II, red veterinary petrolatum (RVP) was used by the U.S. military, encouraging the development of further UV filters in the postwar period.

War and Racism

Conservatives were generally reluctant to accept evolutionary theory, but there was one field in which Darwinism was vigorously applied by conservative politicians and ideologues international relations. Taking the nation as a unit of struggle, British social Darwinists of the nineteenth century, for example, validated their empire building by claiming that uncivilized races were being taken over by a superior social order. Darwinism was used to justify war and struggles for social and or racial supremacy. When the First World War began, British writers turned again and again to Darwinian analogies to stir up enthusiasm for it.


Although involuntary encopresis, called by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) encopresis with constipation and overflow incontinence, is caused by constipation, the constipation may be the result of psychological factors. Experiencing a stressful life event, harsh toilet training, toilet fear, or emotionally disturbing events can cause a child to withhold bowel movements or become constipated. Historically, children separated from their parents during World War II are reported to have shown a high incidence of encopresis, indicating that psychological factors play a role in this disorder.

Stress Syndromes

One of the most dramatic and widely discussed disorders stemming from the Vietnam War is posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Similar conditions were called shell shock in World War I and combat fatigue insomnia or combat neurosis in World War II and the Korean War. PTSD is, of course, not limited to the casualties of war Earthquakes, fires, airplane crashes, and other disasters produce their share of victims. PTSD involves feelings of anxiety, insomnia, nightmares, problems with social relationships, and other emotional responses. In many cases, flashbacks associated with the stressful experience may occur months or even years after the stressful experience (Roberts, 1988).

Global Distribution

Vitamin A deficiency is not a public health problem in Singapore, which is among the countries with the highest standards of living in the world. It is notable that keratomalacia was once present and showed a steady decrease in incidence since World War II (617).

Natural Disasters

A section about disasters caused by humans cannot be concluded without mentioning the most terrible disasters that continue to happen daily at some place in the world, namely, war and genocide. Research on the health effects of stressful life events started with recording reactions to war experience. During the two world wars, psychiatrists examined shell shock and battle fatigue among soldiers. Long-term effects of the Holocaust and the wars in Vietnam and Korea were studied as well. Posttraumatic stress disorder is one of the most frequently addressed phenomena in this line of research. Studies focus mainly on speci c aspects of the war experience rather than the event as a whole. For example, there is a large body of research literature on torture victims (Neria, Solomon, & Dekel, 2000), Holocaust survivors (e.g., Lomranz, 1995), and combat stress (e.g., Z. Solomon, 1995). There is overlap with studies on migration effects, since ethnic con icts, combat, and political persecution...

Assault Rifles

The first true Assault ( Storm ) rifle was the Sturmgewehr 44 (StG 44).1011 This rifle was developed as a result of the experience of the German Army in World War I. They wanted a short reliable rifle chambered for a mid-range (intermediate) cartridge. In 1938, the firm of Polte was given a contract to develop this cartridge while the firm of C.G. Haenel was awarded a contract for development of a weapon to fire it. The cartridge, the 7.9-mm Kurz Patrone (7.92 X 33 mm), completed development by late 1940-early 1941. The weapon, called a Maschinenkarabiner (machine carbine), completed initial development by 1940. The first prototype apparently appeared in late 1941. By July 1942, the first 50 test weapons were produced. In January 1941, Walther was also commissioned to develop a weapon. By July 1942, only two prototypes were developed. Mass production was to begin by Haenel in November 1942 and Walther in October. The Haenel weapon was designated the Maschinenkarabiner 42(H) and the...

Cultural Knowledge

There are many accessible, brief texts that summarize the population characteristics as well as the brief history of the major Asian ethnic groups in the United States (e.g., Cao & Novas, 1996 Kitano & Daniels, 1995). This background knowledge about the demographic characteristics and the history of various Asian ethnic groups serves as a necessary building block for performing culturally competent assessment and treatment. The knowledge of cultural diversity within the Asian American population will make it less likely for the clinician to make broad stereotypical assumptions about their Asian American clients. For example, although many traditional Asian cultures hold Confucian gender roles, the Filipino culture prior to the Spanish domination held much more egalitarian gender roles (Sustento-Seneriches, 1997). By knowing which Asian ethnic groups entered the United States at which points in the history, the clinician is able to narrow the questions needed to assess the particular...

The Nuremberg Code

Before World War Two, no internationally acknowledged code of ethics for human subjects research existed. During the war, Nazi physicians conducted many experiments of dubious value on thousands of prisoners. The experiments were conducted without the prisoners' informed consent and many prisoners were mutilated and killed. The discovery of the atrocities committed by the Nazi physicians under the guise of experimentation led to the Nuremberg War Crimes Physicians Trial of Nazi physicians for ''crimes against humanity'' consisting of experments upon concentration camp prisoners and others without their voluntary consent resulting in ''murders, brutalities, cruelties, tortures, atrocities and other inhuman acts'' (The Nuremberg Code, 1947). The trial judges included in their 1947 verdict a list of rules for

Andrea Watts

Over the years, shifting government agendas have influenced the approach taken to crime prevention, with academic debate often reflecting the socio-political zeitgeist. For example, prior to the First World War, early positivist perspectives that saw crime as a product of individual dispositions, were more acceptable to the Establishment than focusing on the social and environmental conditions that could give rise to crime (Blackburn, 1993). Later, in the United States, the identification of so-called 'delinquency areas' characterised by poverty and decay (e.g. Shaw and McKay, 1931) led to a presumption that targeting school drop-outs, disadvantaged youth, minority group members, etc., would ameliorate the increasing crime rates (Kobrin, 1959). This 'social positivism' was in turn criticised for focusing on conditions that could not easily be altered. In an important paradigm shift, criminologists such as James Q. Wilson (e.g. Wilson and Herrnstein, 1985) advocated the implementation...


Immigrants as they arrived at Ellis Island and was followed by others with even more extreme views. Robert Yerkes persuaded the United States army to let him administer intelligence tests to millions of recruits in the First World War, and although the army largely ignored the results, the experience provided Yerkes and others with the platform and the data to support their claim that intelligence testing could be of commercial and national use in sorting people quickly and easily into different streams. The army tests had great influence in the debate leading to the passage in 1924 by Congress of an Immigration Restriction Act setting strict quotas for southern and eastern Europeans on the grounds that they were stupider than the 'Nordic' types that had dominated the American population prior to 1890. The Act's aims had little to do with science. It was more an expression of racial prejudice and union protectionism. But it found its excuses in the pseudoscience of intelligence...

Urban Design

A related area of longstanding interest within planning is housing - a topic that can be grouped within either urban design or economic development planning. Planning efforts to improve housing include U.S. government programs that in past decades funded the building of public housing and, more recently, subsidies made available to low income renters. At the local level, many planners work on efforts to ensure that housing is affordable for low and moderate income persons - an especially pressing issue in urban areas with high housing costs. Research has shown that there are links between the quality of the housing stock and both physical and mental health. See, e.g., Bonnefoy, et al., (2003) for evidence on housing quality and physical health, and the reviews in Evans, Walls, and Moch (2003) and Evans (2003) for a discussion of the link between housing characteristics and mental health. For example, high rise living is associated with reduced psychological well being in some settings...

What can be Done

Countries (Chanaa, 2002), yet they are the very countries who have accepted the responsibility for ensuring world security. The United States of America made a very substantial contribution to Europe's recovery after the Second World War, and has the ability to substantially reduce military activity in the world. Unfortunately, as Laurence Korb, an Assistant Secretary of Defence in the Reagan administration, has pointed out, the United States has not tried to curb the arms trade because of greed and a reluctance to accept limitations on its sovereignty (Korb, 2003). The United States exports more military hardware than the rest of the world combined, is the source of 41 of weapons exports to developing countries, gave the second lowest percentage of its GDP as overseas aid in 2004, rejects the International Criminal Court, rejects the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (Somalia is the only other non-signatory), refuses to sign the protocol to enforce the treaty...

Historical Overview

A second important historical consequence of the limitation of the biomedical approach to health was the emergence of the psychoanalytic and psycho-dynamic theories (Alexander, 1950), in particular that of Sigmund Freud. The psychoanalytic psychodynamic theories postulated unconscious mechanisms in physiological processes and contributed to the growth of the field of psy-chophysiological medicine (e.g., Wolff, 1953). Social and psychological factors were investigated in physical health and well-being and contributed to the development of effective psychological approaches to the treatment of physical disorders (Feuerstein, Labbe, & Kuczmierczyk, 1986 Gatchel & Baum, 1983 Lipowski, 1977). Health psychology contributed significantly to the mental health and developmental disabilities components of health in the aftermath of World War II. Since the 1960s, the contribution of health psychology to the integration of the behavioral sciences with the science and practice of medicine has been...


This group of hormones was isolated and characterised following a study of interspecies signals. A fungal disease of rice, common in Japan, was the cause of abnormally high growth of the plant associated with yellowing leaves and wilting. In 1926, Eishii Kurosawa added a culture filtrate of the fungus to normal rice plants and demonstrated that a substance present in this filtrate led to the enhanced cell elongation that resulted in extra tall plants (Kurosawa, 1926). This, and the even later isolation of GAa and GAB by Yabata and Sumiki (1938), was published in Japanese and remained untranslated until after World War II. The knowledge that auxin analogues could be used as selective herbicides led to a crescendo of research in the West to discover more natural growth-regulating compounds in plants. The Japanese literature then revealed the potential of the family of gibberellin-related substances, and their presence in higher plants as well as in fungi. Although present in all plants,...

Volume Preface

Nevertheless, for many years, many clinical (and other applied) psychologists met and worked largely outside of the mainstream of the APA. It was not until World War II that the potential benefits and contributions of a profession of clinical psychology became readily apparent to the APA and to the federal government, resulting in the substantial

Miscellaneous Injury

Phosgene gas is a unique exposure because it may cause severe delayed pulmonary edema. It was the most lethal of the World War I gases. Phosgene is currently used in the manufacture of dyestuffs, pharmaceuticals, polyurethanes, and metallur-gic applications, with an estimated worldwide production of five billion pounds. Treatment is mainly supportive, with oxygen, steroids, and inhaled beta-2 agonists. The key point is to first suspect phosgene gas exposure and then admit the patient for close monitoring for 24 hours.

Sabot Ammunition

Sabot ammunition was introduced during World War II in an armor-piercing anti-tank role and is still used for this purpose. This ammunition consisted of a dense core of tungsten carbide covered with a steel sheath and a bore-and-sleeve assembly (the sabot). The sabot converts the core of the projectile

B Valerian

Valerian is most commonly used to relieve mild cases of anxiety and insomnia. It was given during World War I to soldiers suffering from battle shock. It has also been recommended for the relief of menstrual cramps and as a carminative, or preparation that relieves gas in the stomach and intestines. Lotions made with valerian extract are said to soothe skin rashes and swollen joints.


There is a theory that the practice of acquiring informed consent is rooted in the post-World War II Nuremberg Trials. Following the war crimes tribunal in 1949, as a result of the Kaarl Brandt case, 10 standards were put forth regarding physician's requirements for experimentation on human subjects. This established a new standard of ethical medical behavior for the post-WW II human rights age, and the concept of voluntary informed consent was established. A number of rules accompanied voluntary informed consent within the realms of research. It could only be requested for experimentation for the gain of society, for the potential acquisition of knowledge of the pathology, and for studies performed that avoided physical and mental suffering to the fullest extent possible


The first electrocardiogram (ECG) recording detailing the structure of atrioventricular conduction was made by Tawara nearly 100 years ago (1). Soon after, Mayer first observed rhythmical pulsations made in ringlike preparations of the muscular tissue of a jellyfish (Scyphomedusa cassiopeia) (2,3). In a ringlike preparation of a tortoise heart, Mines was able to initiate circulating excitation using electrical stimulation (4). Shortly thereafter, Lewis and Rothschild described the excitatory process in a canine heart (5), and after a delay because of the events of World War I, Lewis and coworkers reported the first real mapping experiment in 1920 (6). These studies were the first attempts to illustrate and document reentry in the intact heart, and their work has had a great influence on subsequent mapping studies. Hence, the field of cardiac electrical mapping was established. Soon after, the idea of mapping arrhythmic activation encompassed an ever-larger number of studies, including...

Related issues

One group of people that is often overlooked in discussions of suicide is the friends and family bereaved by the suicide. It is estimated that each person who kills him- or herself leaves six survivors to deal with the aftermath. On the basis of this figure, there are at least 4.5 million survivors of suicide in the United States. In addition to the grief that ordinarily accompanies death, survivors of suicide often struggle with feelings of guilt and shame as well. In spite of a general liberalization of social attitudes since World War II, suicide is still stigmatized in many parts of Europe and the United States. Survivors often benefit from group or individual psychotherapy in order to work through such issues as wondering whether they could have prevented the suicide or


Rapidly progressive forms of tuberculosis in adults which have been compared to disseminated forms of tuberculosis seen in early childhood (Cummins 1929). Borrel (1920) eloquently described these features amongst Black French colonial troops in France during the First World War and contrasted them with those amongst other colonial troops whose communities had a long experience of 'tuberculization.' In these latter troops a more indolent, slowly progressing form of tuberculosis tended to be seen with a lower mortality. As the epidemic wave proceeds, fewer and fewer children are affected, the adolescent rise flattens and mortality falls. In the final stages of the epidemic mainly older men are affected. The causes of the decline in this wave are speculative, but the elimination of susceptibles by a high mortality in the early stages of the epidemic and the creation of a genetically resistant group has been proposed (Grigg 1958, Bates & Stead 1993).

Training and Combat

Meanwhile, on the home front, the civilian population may or may not provide moral and psychological support for the efforts of their armed forces. Due in some measure to the success of government propaganda and the greater clarity of the reasons for fighting during World War 11, the civilian populations in countries on both sides were highly supportive of the efforts of their military forces. However, such was not the case with a large segment of the American population that was opposed to the Vietnam War. American soldiers who returned from Vietnam were not greeted by parades and glory. In fact, rather than being honored as heroes, they often found themselves vilified as murderers and baby-killers. Incidents such as the napalm bombing of Vietnamese civilians and the My Lai Massacre increased the intensity of disapproval of the war and all who fought in it. In addition, during the Vietnam War, the murder rate in the United States increased by 42 , compared with an increase of only 11...

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