Home Remedies for Whiplash
Dysfunction of the joints of the upper thoracic spine usually gives rise to localised pain and stiffness posteriorly but also can cause distal symptoms, probably via the autonomic nervous system. A specific syndrome called the T4 syndrome 2 has been shown to cause vague pain in the upper limbs and diffuse, vague head and posterior neck pain.
Birth injuries, dislocations, vertebral fractures, stabs, gunshot wounds, and pressure from tumors can all injure spinal nerves. Suddenly bending the neck, called whiplash, can compress the nerves of the cervical plexuses, causing persistent headache and pain in the neck and skin, which the cervical nerves supply. If a broken or dislocated vertebra severs or damages the phrenic nerves associated with the cervical plexuses, partial or complete paralysis of the diaphragm may result.
Fig. 14.17 a This patient suffered a whiplash trauma during a motor vehicle collision. The radiograph in flexion shows a subtle kink at the level C3 C4. b The MR image confirms the disk prolapse at this level. Fig. 14.17 a This patient suffered a whiplash trauma during a motor vehicle collision. The radiograph in flexion shows a subtle kink at the level C3 C4. b The MR image confirms the disk prolapse at this level.
In a recent survey, 67 of patients with MS reported pain at some point in their disease course, a frequency comparable to that of controls (47). However, twice as many patients with MS reported active pain than did the control group. They also tended to have pain most often in the extremities and trunk, whereas the controls more often reported head, back, and neck pain. Several distinct pain syndromes may occur in MS patients. Some experience severe, lancinating neuralgic pains in the limbs or elsewhere others complain of more persistent, intolerable dysesthesias, frequently with a burning quality (42,43). Patients with spasticity often report painful spasms or cramping sensations in the legs.
This syndrome involves persistent severe pain that cannot be explained by a physical disorder. An example would be a patient who has had an operation for back pain, but still has severe pain, or a patient who has been in a minor road traffic accident and sustained whiplash injuries, but is still complaining of incapacitating neck pain years later.
Reactions to an abnormal level of threat they are physiologically determined, sometimes part of strategic adaptation to aversive conditions that threaten the lives of the victims. These adaptations involve an extreme survival effort (van der Kolk, McFarlane, & Weisaeth, 1996). Many of these strategies of disconnection and responses are etched in the biochemistry of the abuse survivor and lead to symptoms and behaviors that interfere with healing through connection, which survivors so desperately want and need. For instance, these strategies can involve a complete closing down emotionally at the first hint of interpersonal disappointment the withdrawal can leave the person with an immediate sense of safety, but the larger movement toward the deeper safety of connection is compromised by these strategies. The paradox of longing for authentic, healing connection at the same time that the individual is terrified of the vulnerability necessary to move into real connection is dramatically...
Infection risks are probably the most feared complication with the use of intraspinal opioids. Infection can occur at the pump insertion site, along the catheter track, and within the intrathecal space. The hardware must be placed under sterile technique according to manufacturer recommendations with the use of perioperative antibiotics and intraoperative antibiotic irrigation. After the initial pump filling before implantation, the first puncture to refill the pump should not be earlier than 10 days after implantation. While bacteri-ostatic filters are present in the pump and the catheter tubing, great care should be taken by trained practitioners to not introduce bacteria during subsequent refills. Meningitis, although rare, should be suspected in the presence of fever, headache, stiff neck, rigors, and photophobia. If an infection develops, normal skin flora, such as Staphylococcus aureus and S. epider-midis, are the most common offenders.
A rapid assessment of the patient must take place before resuscitation and treatment. Physical examination must include a careful assessment of the cervical spine as there is a high correlation between skull fractures and neck fractures. The neck should be immobilised by in-line cervical traction, or a stiff neck collar, until radiographic exclusion of a fracture has been undertaken. Life-threatening chest and abdominal injuries should be looked for carefully, and control and treatment of these should take priority over transfer, or neurosurgical intervention. Neurosurgical units are often isolated hospitals and have to transfer patients to nearby hospitals for major thoracic and abdominal surgery before neurosurgical intervention.
The majority of posttreatment esophageal strictures in our patients are secondary to radiation or due to scarring of the surgical anastomosis. Every effort is made to rule out residual or recurrent tumor at the site of stricture prior to embarking on stricture dilation. We dilate strictures only if the patient has significant dysphagia that prevents adequate nutrition and the stricture is less than 10 mm in diameter. Both bougies (Savary-Guillard dilators) and through-the-scope balloons are used for stricture dilation. The through-the-scope balloons are more convenient because they do not require fluoroscopic guidance. However, in patients with long strictures that cannot be traversed by endoscope or with tight strictures in which the lumen cannot be seen, a guidewire is used with fluoroscopic assistance. Balloon or Savary dilation over the guidewire is performed with fluoroscopic guidance. Dilation is usually limited to no more than 3 sizes in a single session, and patients are...
When used for treatment of whiplash, botulinum toxin relived pain significantly compared with a placebo treatment, but showed a nonsignificant trend in improving subjective functioning (71). In another study, 46 patients with coexisting chronic tension headaches and temporomandibular disorders reported a 50 or greater improvement in headache pain. A randomized, double-blind study found that 11 of 15 subjects who received botulinum toxin A injections for low back pain had more than 50 pain relief vs 4 of 16 who received saline injections (72). By 8 weeks, these figures were 9 of 15 and 2 of 16, respectively, and function had improved in the treatment group.
All multiple trauma patients should be assumed to have a cervical spine injury and a full stomach. Portable cervical spine x-rays will miss 5 to 15 of injuries. Complete evaluation of the cervical spine may require a CT scan or multiple radiographs and clinical exam. Cervical spine injury is unlikely in alert patients without neck pain or tenderness.