Survive Global Water Shortages

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Water Freedom System Summary


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Water Supply Organization

Before its distribution to the public retail system. Although there have been documented quality-control issues with distributed bottled water found to have high bacterial counts (Illinois Department of Public Health, 1996 Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, 2000), the FDA stipulates that bottled water must meet specific safety and labeling requirements, according to standards similar to those proposed by the EPA for public water systems (FDA, 2002). State and local authorities also regulate bottled water. Overall, the FDA cites a good safety record, and bottled water suppliers are given a lower inspection priority than are municipal systems (FDA, 2002). However, bottled water is not immune to contamination in November 2003, a terrorist or terrorists (the Aquabomber ) injected bleach, acetone, and ammonia into plastic bottles of water in 20 Italian cities, causing a number of consumers to be hospitalized (Reuters, 2003), and it is clear water bottling plants could...

Diarrhea Remedies and Drinking Water Turbidity

There has been one study of the correlation of sales of diarrhea remedies with turbidity of drinking water (Beaudeau et al., 1999). The goal of this study was to assess whether drinking water turbidity (which water companies measure routinely) correlates with gastrointestinal illness in the community served by the water supply. Beaudeau and colleagues analyzed the correlation of daily water turbidity measurements with the daily sales of diarrhea remedies for a three-year period in Le Havre, France. There were no known outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis or other gastrointestinal illnesses during the period of the study.

Current Concerns Related To The Toxicology Of Metals

Effects of metals in the environment. The long-range transport of air pollutants not only contributes to the increasing metal load to ecosystems but also alters the mobility of metals. An increasing acidity of surface waters, including lakes, which is caused by acid precipitation, may increase the mobility of metallic compounds, thus increasing human exposures (Nordberg et al., 1985). Natural events, like hurricanes and flooding, possibly amplified by global warming, will increase the mobility of metals, as seen, for example, for mercury in forestry in Sweden and of lead in flooding in New Orleans. Increased exposure may occur by means of increased concentrations of metallic compounds in drinking water and or food. In addition, increased exposure to lead, cadmium, mercury, and aluminium is well recognized to be the result of long-range transport of air pollutants and the occurrence of acid rain (see Chapter 13). Exposure to metals may take place by inhalation, ingestion, or skin...

Automated sample processing and process monitoring

The detector, pump, and electronics are housed in a separate, temperature-controlled unit. The microprocessor-controlled instrument uses the deferred standard concept1516 to characterize peaks despite changing retention times, to readjust automatically the time functions of the analysis, and to quantitate results. The deferred standard procedure consists of injecting a reference compound during each analysis sequence. The software recognizes the standard by its area and retention time, and automatically adjusts time functions such as the start time of the next sample. An automated process monitor to perform system calibration and sample preparation and separation continuously for up to a week has been reported for environmental and process monitoring.17 Illustrations included separations of metal cyanides from plating, mono- and dichloramine from drinking water, chromium, copper and lead, and aluminum.

Biological Monitoring

Detection of any source of contamination is not straightforward, because many contaminants are not visible and may have no discernible odor. The majority of water supply surveillance effort is directed toward natural contamination at the supply sources, focusing on chemical detection compared with specific biological organisms. A good source of information on testing for drinking water contaminants is the EPA Web site (EPA, 2005b). The water delivery system is often cited as a major point of vulnerability, because multiple access sites exist in the distribution chain and are downstream of any early warning or monitoring system currently in practice (Figure 9.3) (United States Government Accountability Office, 2004). Intentional contamination at this point of the supply chain can go unnoticed until illness in the general public is identified. The reality is that without more comprehensive

Significance to humans

North America's largest rodent, the beaver (Castor canaden-sis), has some positive and negative attributes. Historically, the beaver has been prized for its pelt, and beaver trapping had a severely negative impact on natural populations throughout portions of its range in North America. As nature's engineers, beavers are capable of modifying habitat that favors wetlands. Through their dam building activities, beavers create habitat suitable for waterfowl and other wetland species. However, alteration of habitat and harvesting trees for food and support materials also threatens both agricultural and forest interests. Dams can initiate flooding in some areas resulting in the loss of trees that are intolerant of high water levels. In addition, beavers can pose a threat to human health. They are known to carry Giarda, an intestinal parasite, transmitted to humans through drinking water, and exposure to beaver lodges can result in humans contracting Gilchrist's disease, which causes...

Syndromic Surveillance Case Studies

Pascal Beaudeau et al. (1999) studied data from a syn-dromic system that monitored the sale of antidiarrheal medications in Le Havre, France, and they found a correlation between these sales and the failure of a drinking water treatment plant. Specifically, between April 1993 and September 1996, sales of medicine to treat gastrointestinal illness climbed dramatically between 3 and 8 days after interruption of chlorination at the water treatment plant a sales increase also occurred in the 3 weeks after an increase in raw source water turbidity. There were several instances involving a failure to control turbidity and maintain residual chlorine levels a significant detail here was that the turbid water still met France's microbiological standards for potable (drinkable) water. The investigators concluded that treatment plant-based monitoring may not be sufficient to consistently prevent contamination of drinking water the study results also support the value of syndromic surveillance...

Estimations of the health impact of environmental factors

This is attested to by diverse epidemio-logical studies showing marked shifts in disease risks in migrant populations who transfer between environments - but whose genes are, of course, held constant. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently reported a comprehensive assessment of global and regional burdens of disease and premature death, apportioning the burden between 26 major risk factors (World Health Organization, 2003). The set of environmental factors used by WHO includes unsafe drinking water, poor sanitation and hygiene, urban air pollution, indoor air quality, environmental lead exposure, and climate change. For the high-mortality members of the developing country category, an estimated 11 of total loss of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) was attributed to those environmental exposures. For the low-mortality developing countries and for developed countries, the figures attributed to environmental factors were 6 and 2 , respectively.

Arsenic and Other Metals

The cellular capacity is exceeded by either dose level or combined interactive toxic effects. Complementary in vivo studies (Fowler et al., 2004) in rats exposed to lead, cadmium, or arsenic at LOEL dose levels in drinking water and fed semipurified diets for 30, 90, or 180 days also demonstrated additive, or more than additive, effects as a function of duration of exposure. As with the in vitro studies, biomarkers of cell injury showed clear responses when the capacities of cellular protective mechanisms were exceeded as a function of duration of exposure. Analogous studies on human populations exposed to Cd and As in China (Nordberg et al., 2005) also showed positive interactive effects using biomarker endpoints with regard to increased renal toxicity among groups with combined exposures to both cadmium and arsenic relative to groups with increased exposures to only cadmium or arsenic.

Adverse Reactions

A 13-week subchronic oral toxicity study of perilla leaf extracts in drinking water did not show any acute toxicity. There were no treatment-related changes in body weight gain or in haematological or blood biochemistry values. Nor were there any treatment-related histopathological changes observed in the highest dose group (Yun etal 1999).

Copper In Human And Animal Nutrition

Whole fruits and vegetables contain 20 to 370mg Cu kg1 dairy products, including whole milk, contain 3 to 220mg Cu kg1 beef, lamb, pork, and veal contain 12 to 9310mg Cu kg1 poultry contains 11 to 114 mg Cu kg1 and seafood and shellfish contain 11 to 79,300 mg Cu kg1, with cooked oysters having the maximum value (121). Although dietary copper varies regionally, geographically, and culturally, a balanced diet appears to provide an adequate intake of copper for most people. In some areas, additional daily intake of copper can be obtained from drinking water transmitted through copper pipes. In the United States, the current EPA limit for copper in drinking water is 1.3 mg L 1 (122). In developed and developing countries, adults, young children, and adolescents, who consume diets of grain, millet, tuber, or rice, along with legumes (beans), small amounts of fish or meat, some fruits and vegetables, and some vegetable oil, are likely to obtain enough copper if their total food...

Principal Metals Showing Mutagenic Effects

Metals, such as nickel compounds and chromate, are associated with exposure to other environmental carcinogens such as cigarette smoking (Gibb et al., 2000 Grimsrud et al., 2002b 2003). Recent success in inducing cancers with arsenite and chromate in mice was associated with the use of hairless mice exposed to both UV and these carcinogenic metals through their drinking water (Davidson et al., 2004 Ross-man et al., 2001 2004). Thus, in general, carcinogenic metals have strong interactions with carcinogens, such as PAH, UV, and the many carcinogens that are present in cigarette smoke. Some carcinogenic metals such as nickel compounds are able to induce cancers in animals exposed to these metals alone, although nickel also has a strong interaction with other organic carcinogens such as benzo(a)pyrene and UV (Schwerdtle et al., 2002 Waalkes et al., 2004 Wozniak and Blasiak, 2004).

The Decision To Issue A Boilwater Advisory Glasgow 2002

To elucidate the decisions that surround a suspected contamination of a water supply with Cryptosporidia, we consider the events that took place in Glasgow, Scotland, in the summer of 2002. Table 29.1 summarizes the chronology of events as related by the Incident Management Team (IMT) in an after-action'' report about that event (IMT, 2003). Cryptosporidium outbreak in 2000 from contaminated water, Scottish Water promptly drew samples of water for microscopic analysis. On August 3, Scottish Water notified Glasgow Public Health of an even higher reading from a second water source. By this time, Scottish Water had already decided to reconfigure the water system to reduce the population exposed to water from Loch Katrine from 416,000 to 160,000 people. Glasgow Public Health convened its Policy Advisory Group, which promptly

Emergency Health Needs Of Displaced Populations

Waterborne disease epidemics result from contamination of drinking water supplies. Common organisms responsible for these epidemics are those transmitted by the fecal-oral route, such as Vibrio cholerae and Shigella species. Cholera causes a toxin-mediated profuse watery diarrhea, leading to rapid dehydration. Shigella is an infectious enteritis resulting in bloody diarrhea and systemic illness.

Materials and Methods

Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into 3 treatment groups (15 rats group). In the drinking water, group 1 received 60 ppm Cd group 2, 50 ppm Zn + Cd and group 3, water free ofthese metals. An additional group of9 rats was used for DNA extraction and PCR-SSCA study. After an 18.0-mo treatment period, all rats were killed by exsanguination after C02 narcosis. The ventral lobe of the prostate was dissected and cut into 2 mm-wide slices. The section plane was perpendicular to the sagital axis of the gland. All specimens were fixed in 4 paraformaldehide in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.4, for 24 h, and embedded in paraffin.

Turtles and tortoises

Tortoise Terrapin And Turtle Difference

Aquatic species that share their habitat with large croco-dilians have traded the advantages of streamlining in favor of high-vaulted, strongly buttressed shells for protection from being crushed. Among Asian river turtles (e.g., river terrapins Batagurbaska , crowned river turtles Hardella thurjii , and painted roofed turtles), these buttresses form bony chambers that enclose the lungs and prevent compression during deep dives. In desert-dwelling tortoises, the domed shell reduces surface area relative to volume, while a thickened keratin layer retards evaporative water loss. Some tortoises have even been observed gathering drinking water by angling the carapace

Conservation status

Urban and industrial development around the shore, a rise in lake level, and even positive feedback from post haplochro-mine collapse food-web alterations (many haplochromines were specialized phytoplankton feeders and kept blooms in check). Since 1960, the lake's primary productivity has more than doubled, and more than half the bottom area of the lake is now devoid of oxygen below 98 ft (30 m). Drinking water for the human population on the lake's shores is now threatened by toxic blue-green algae blooms. In addition, the fact that large Lates cannot be sun dried like haplochromines, but instead require smoking over a wood fire, has accelerated deforestation and sedimentation in the basin, as the Nile perch fishery has expanded.

Potential Strategies For Improving The Health Of People In Cities Of Nepal

The majority of residents in urban poor communities live in illegally occupied marginal land. They do not improve their living environment due to the potential threat of eviction. Thus, government should have a policy to provide some form of security of tenure on land so that the residents can take initiatives to improve their environment. This will also legalize the concerned agencies to work toward upgrading, rehabilitation and resettlement for urban poor community. The government should pay special attention to providing clean drinking water, sanitary toilet facilities and health services such as health check ups, health education and medicines to the poor communities. The urban poor should have better access to low cost housing and rental provisions. High priority should be given to improve the sanitation and water quality of urban communities. Adequate public toilet provisions should be made, including the introduction of community level toilets, pay toilets and credit support...

Water Monitoring Tests

Municipal water suppliers must test and meet requirements for a number of parameters, including water pressure, chlorine residual, chemical pollutants, radiological contaminants, and biological organisms. Although this chapter is intended to focus solely on biological monitoring, note that some testing methods are complementary. Water utilities test for conditions that predispose the water supply to contamination, as well as the most important concern regarding the safety of our drinking water (U.S. Government Accountability Office, 2004). Public health authorities, both state and local, have the means to detect and identify water-associated outbreaks, and these authorities are part of a network capable of notifying the public and implementing prevention and control measures. The efficacy of these measures depends on how early a pathogen can be detected. In December 2003, the EPA issued a Response Protocol Toolbox (RPTB) (Figure 9.2) that offered specific guidance for response to a...

Hierarchical and Empirical Bayes Methods for Environmental Risk Assessment

Tsutakawa et al. (1985) and Tsutakawa (1985) considered EB and HB estimation, respectively, of cancer mortality in the state of Missouri. Their study was motivated by an epidemiological investigation of the effects of public drinking water on cancer mortality. They considered deaths due to lung cancer among males ages 45-54 from 1972 to 1981 in the largest eighty-four cities in Missouri. As the number of deaths from lung cancer in a small city is very few, the raw SMRs are quite variable. To explain the geographic variation they considered a Bayesian approach where the true mortality rates are assumed to be a random sample from an unknown distribution that was estimated from the observed data. In a larger study, Tsutakawa (1988) considered EB estimation of lung cancer mortality for 115 counties of Missouri for different age sex groups. The models included only unstructured heterogeneity and did not address spatial similarity.

Limitations of Current Monitoring

The food supply system is sufficiently large that direct monitoring for biological contaminants, as is being contemplated for the water system, is not feasible. Security of the food chain against accidental contamination is achieved through a combination of supplier initiatives designed to protect their businesses as well as federal and state regulations and inspections. Although the food industry's procedures work well to contain the impact of most food-related outbreaks, their limitations currently preclude the early detection advocated by the government for bioterrorism incidents. In essence, despite the potential represented by data sources we discussed earlier, current efforts to protect the population from contaminated food are limited to trace-back methods. More proactive measures are not in use because of prohibitive cost and lack of appropriate tools.

Radiation Exposure in Humans

The Techa River in southern Russia is another place where people have been tragically exposed to high levels of radiation. The Mayak nuclear facility, located 60 miles from the city of Chelyabinsk, produced plutonium for nuclear warheads in the early days of the Cold War. Between 1949 and 1956, this plant dumped some 76 million cubic meters of radioactive sludge into the Techa River. People downstream used the river for drinking water and crop irrigation some received radiation doses 1700 times the annual amount considered safe by today's standards. Radiation in the area was further elevated by a series of nuclear accidents

Kidney Cancer in Male Rats and a2Microglobulin Nephropathy

Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), widely used in gasoline as an oxygenate, is a chemical of current interest for which the possible role of a-2mG in induction of kidney tumors has been intensely debated. Evaluation by our program for the development of a public health goal (PHG) for MTBE in drinking water (20) has considered both the U.S. EPA and IARC criteria. The evaluation concluded that MTBE did not meet IARC criteria numbers 2, 4, 5, and 7.

Health Policies and the Physical Environment

Over many decades, government has been involved in a variety of efforts to exorcize environmental health hazards through public policies. Examples of federal policies include the Clean Air Act (P.L. 88-206), the Flammable Fabrics Act (P.L. 90-189), the Occupational Safety and Health Act (P.L. 91596), the Consumer Product Safety Act (P.L. 92-573), the Noise Control Act (P.L. 92-574), and the Safe Drinking Water Act (P.L. 93-523).

Other Advanced Methods

Other novel analytical methods have addressed the rapid detection of biological agents in drinking water. A bioluminescence method for water samples was developed as a simple method for E. coli analysis (Lee and Deininger, 2004). The process uses antibody binding separation steps before analysis to produce a bioluminescence response within an hour. A great deal of effort is also being put into mass spectrometric analysis of biological species, including water-borne pathogens (Magnuson et al., 2000 Fenselau and Demirev, 2001). Such analyses can target specific protein or toxins, even from intact organisms and can be used as an in situ test. A number of remote and or in situ sampling systems are also being developed, which enable active monitoring of many basic water quality parameters, including an estimate of biological activity based on residual chlorine, dissolved oxygen, pH, and algal chlorophyll. Sampling systems allow dynamic collection in any water environment, so the...

Deposition And Absorption

After a metal has been taken into the lung by inhalation or into the gastrointestinal tract through food and drinking water, the metal will deposit on the walls of the airways or will be taken up in the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. The amount deposited will depend on physical characteristics of the aerosol or the chemical form of the metal in food and drinking water. After deposition has taken place, a certain fraction of the deposited amount will be transferred through the walls of the lung or gastrointestinal tract into the systemic circulation.

Urban Services And Health

About 33 of the urban population has no access to toilet facilities in Nepal. They use river banks, ponds and urban fringe land for ablution. Cities have inadequate number of toilets in public areas and people use public roads and park corners, which pollutes the city areas and contaminates ground and surface water. Only half of the total urban population is served by piped drinking water supplies (Nepal Demographic and Health Survey, 2001). Drinking water in Kathmandu Valley is unsafe throughout the year. The samples of water supplied by the Nepal Water Supply Corporation have up to 180 plus coliform organism per 100 ml of water (Himalayan Times, 2004). In Kathmandu Valley only 29.4 of households boil the government supplied water before its use according to government statistics (His Majesty's Government in Nepal, 2000). The fecal and pathogen contamination of drinking water causes diarrhea, gastroenteritis, infectious hepatitis, typhoid, paratyphoid, cholera, bacillary dysentery,...

Outbreak Characterization

Investigators examine the spatial (geographic) distribution of cases as soon as possible. The spatial distribution of cases often provides a strong clue about the source of an outbreak. Because of the importance of spatial analysis, one of the first stories told to epidemiologists in training is the John Snow cholera story (Snow, 1855). Dr. John Snow, a London anesthesiologist and pioneer of the science of epidemiology, decided to test his hypothesis that cholera outbreaks were a result of contamination of the water supply, a view contrary to the medical beliefs of the time. He plotted the home address of people who died of cholera on a map of London he also marked the location of neighborhood water pumps, which were the source of drinking water at the time. The striking cluster he found of cholera deaths centered on water pumps has become legendary. The concentration of cholera deaths around the Broad Street pump was twice the number of deaths in the rest of the city of London, with...

Ginseng Memory And Intellectual Skills

Benishin et al. (1991) noted that, in rats, ginsenoside Rb1 obtained from P. quinquefolium roots was able to partially prevent the memory deficits caused by the cholinergic agent hyoscine ( scopolamine). Although the ginsenoside Rb1 had no apparent effect on acetylcholinesterase activity, it facilitated the release of acetylcholine from hippocampal slices and thus the uptake of choline into the nerve endings without alteration in calcium influx. Therefore they concluded that the ability of ginsenoside Rb1 to reduce or prevent memory deficits was probably related to facilitation of acetylcholine metabolism in the central nervous system. Other workers confirmed such observations. Thus Ni et al. (1993) used a T-maze delayed alternation task technique and rats whose spatial memories had been disrupted by intraperitoneal injection of hyoscine (0.025-0.1 mg kg). The hyoscine effect was dose-dependent but the hyoscine (0.1 mg kg) action could be reversed by physostigmine (0.4 mg kg) and also...

Food Quality And Health

An examination of 184 pasteurized milk samples of different brands by the Department of Food Technology and Quality Control found 66.8 to be coliform positive. Twenty nine out of 70 samples of mineral and processed drinking water had higher mesopholic count and three of them had coliform bacteria. Street food vendors usually sell low quality food, which is a serious public health concern as the most vulnerable individuals are children and people with low incomes. Farmers wash carrots and other root crops in polluted rivers before they reach vegetable markets. There are serious health implications of the quality of food in urban areas of Nepal. However, an impact study of food quality on health in urban residents has yet to be carried out.

Urban Poor Settlements And Health

Urban poor communities have rapidly grown in the towns and cities in Nepal. At present, there are about 63 squatter settlements in Kathmandu Valley which accommodate 2,600 families or nearly 15,000 people and are growing at the rate of 25 per year (Pradhan, 2003). Most squatters are located along the flood prone polluted river banks (Shakya, 2003). The squatter sheds are susceptible to roof leakage, wall wetting and room flooding in the rainy season. Three to nine people live in two rooms which have no ventilation. None of the households have sanitary toilets and the toilet effluents are directly discharged into the river. Availability of drinking water is about 24 liters per family per day. Even these water samples are found unfit for drinking in most of the cases. The water samples show fecal contamination of 56 to 260 Coliform 100ml water. Firewood is the dominant form of cooking energy in most of the squatter sheds which are mostly unventilated. Cold, cough, fever, diarrhea and...

Measures Based on Proxy Variables

Surveys supplement them with additional consumer durable items and, on occasion, with queries about land or producer durables. Also, many DHS surveys have included a question on the time required for households without piped water to reach a source of drinking water and return this is a measure of the time costs and can also be interpreted as a proxy for water quantity.

Is Social Science Science

Scientific field, from physics to psychology, there are hypotheses that defy direct observation or straightforward testing. Our inability to 'see' an electron, for example, does not foreclose a rigorous examination of its existence and nature. Similarly, our inability to lace drinking water with PCBs does not foreclose our examination of the effect of the chemical on human health. Our reluctance to blow up the universe does not foreclose our testing of the Big Bang theory of cosmology. Difficult and complex theories sometimes require more imaginative research designs. Certainly, the difficulty of studying certain social phenomena does not excuse sloppy research. One of the basic lessons of Daubert should not be lost Daubert exhorts scientists to do good science and expects them to be scientists first and expert witnesses (and advocates) second (see, e.g. Collier v. Bradley University (2000)).

Peroxisome Proliferation

This issue was most relevant to OEHHA for development of the DEHP public health goal for drinking water (44). For this chemical, the rat bioassays appeared to show a linear dose-response for liver tumors. Our evaluation concluded that relevant biochemical pathways for tumor production do occur in humans, and that the evidence was inadequate to conclude that DEHP acts to produce tumors by a threshold (nongenotoxic) mechanism. Dose-response models were applied using both linear and non-linear assumptions. The estimated health protective concentrations are 12 ppb by the linearized multistage model and 230 ppb by the UF method, based on the 95 lower bound on the dose that yields a 10 tumor rate, and a combined UF of 1000, respectively. The chemical remains under active evaluation as more data are being generated.

Testing Infrastructure

Laboratory testing on drinking water is performed for analysis of chemical, radiological, and biological contaminants. Although biological testing by definition focuses on microorganisms, there is overlap with chemical analysis because many toxins occur naturally. The existing infrastructure for chemical analysis is more established than that for biological monitoring, because water contamination owing to pesticides, pollutants, or even metals has been monitored for decades and because chemical analysis has simpler, less expensive, and more routine regulatory compliance reporting requirements. Regardless of the high numbers of naturally occurring biological contaminants, as well as the costs associated with their identification, all public water suppliers must, by law, test their water for biological organisms (L. Lindsay, personal communication). To determine the prevalence of many of these naturally occurring organisms, a study in the early 1990s tested the source waters of 66...

Background And Relevant Pharmacokinetics

Iodine is an essential trace element required for the proper functioning of the thyroid gland. It is mainly consumed as iodide salts obtained from sea salt, shellfish and seawater fish and vegetables, which are more bioavailable than the organic form of iodine. The iodine content of soil is considered to be one of the most variable of all mineral levels, influenced by local geography and the type and quantity of fertiliser used in agriculture (Gropper et al 2005). The amount of iodine present in local drinking water (0.1-100 ig L) is reported to be a good indication of soil levels (Geissler & Powers 2005). In iodine-deficient areas, the iodide concentration in drinking water is

Environmental Protection Laws

The built environment of our urban areas is affected by a number of federal, state and local environmental regulations designed to protect the quality of the air, water, and other environmental conditions. Important federal laws include the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Solid Waste Disposal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Toxic Substances Control Act, and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). State and local laws include regulations concerning storm water management, tree protection requirements, toxic molds, and laws relating to sewer, septic facilities and wells (Nolon, 2002).

Governmental Oversight

The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), passed in 1974 and amended in 1986 and 1996, is the basis for current water standards, state-based enforcement (except in Washington, DC, and Wyoming), and public notification related to drinking water (EPA,n.d.).This act defined the public water system, which now serves more than 80 of the population (EPA, 2003b). According to the SDWA, there were approximately 170,000 public water systems in the United States in 2003 (EPA, 2000). In addition, Congress passed a plethora of amendments, including the Total Coliform Rule, the Surface Water Treatment Rule, and the Bioterrorism Act of 2002, each addressing specific drinking water contaminants. These statutes required the EPA to establish specific rules and regulations to ensure that drinking water supplies do not pose a health risk, either acute or chronic. The EPA has established maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for 83 contaminants known to pose a public health risk. The EPA also has acted to raise...

Regenerative Hyperplasia

Chloroform has been used as an illustrative approach for assessing the potential cancer risk for nongenotoxic cytotoxic carcinogens (2). The carcinogencity of chloroform is proposed to be secondary to the cytotoxicity and compensatory cell replication in target tissues. When given by gavage to male and female B6C3F1 mice in corn oil at 138-477 mg kg day, chloroform induced liver tumors. Chloroform also produced kidney tumors in Osborne-Mendel rats at 90 and 180 mg kg day (47). When administered in drinking water, chloroform did not increase liver tumors in the mice and male Osborne-Mendel rats, and the incidence of male rat kidney tumors was much lower, even though the daily chloroform intake was similar to that in the gavage study (48). Using the mouse liver cancer incidence data from the gavage study, the investigators indicated that the linearized multistage risk model suggests that a 1 in 100,000 lifetime increased human cancer risk would be achieved at 0.004 ppm chloroform in...

Avoiding the Menace of Toxins in the Real World Outside the Laboratory

Perhaps more challenging than the science, though, are issues of communication and politics. In contrast to the rapid enactment of legislation to prevent malevolent use of microcystin by terrorists, several nations are currently moving toward the development of health guidance levels for microcystins in drinking water. Maybe the new reputation of microcystin as a potential danger to national security will motivate systematic action to ensure that no one ever has to imbibe this toxin in drinking water from natural sources.

MCd SnAs pb

Toxic metals are one of the oldest environmental problems. Today, there are new dimensions of the problem, such as the production of metals in developing countries, leading to occupational exposure and exposure to the general public through the ambient air, drinking water, food, and consumer products. High technology development has also resulted in new products that need more metals in, for example, electronics, fuel cells and car exhaust technology. E-waste, together with drug waste, are new waste problems. The use of metals like gallium, indium, and germanium, which are used in semiconductors has increased steadily over the last 25 years. The e-Waste problem is further augmented by the export of electronic waste from developed to developing countries. Nanotechnology can also lead to unforeseen problems caused by consumer products and combustion of material based on nanoparticles. Arsenic is a common toxic element which produces clinical disease in India and Southeast Asia from...


Gemsbok (Oryxgazella) live in arid areas of Africa and can survive days without drinking water. (Photo by David M. Maylen III. Reproduced by permission.) Gemsbok (Oryxgazella) live in arid areas of Africa and can survive days without drinking water. (Photo by David M. Maylen III. Reproduced by permission.)

Surveillance Data

In New York State, water samples expected to contain select agents, are sent to the Biodefense Laboratory of the State DOH for analysis. The New York State DOH performs all detection and identification of select agents, and provides extensive training to the hazardous situation first responders, such as fire and police officials, providing guidelines for sample collection, aiding in incident response, and building a feedback loop for communication. This next section details an actual timeline of select agent analysis associated with a security breach at a New York City water reservoir. Workers at a municipal water system notified the New York City DEP at 10 30 a.m. to report the presence of a suspicious bottle near the edge of the water supply. The bottle was a large plastic soda bottle, which was covered in brown tape and partially filled with a dark liquid. The bottle contained noticeable par-ticulate matter and was found with two pieces of paper. The responding officer inspected...

Chlorine Cl2

This irritant gas is heavier than air and intermediately soluble in water, explaining its action as both an upper- and lower-airway irritant with delayed onset of lower-airway symptoms after exposure. Chlorine gas is readily available from several occupational sources, including building maintenance workers as well as public swimming and water purification plants. Chlorine may be formed from inadvertent mixing of an acid with household bleach (sodium hypochlorite). When inhaled, chlorine reacts with pulmonary water to form hydrochloric acid (HCl) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) plus nascent oxygen (O ). This combination leads to diffuse pulmonary inflammation, necrosis, acute lung injury, and oxidant injury.

Fluid Replacement

Acid-base and electrolyte disturbances frequently accompany fluid loss. Without an adequate circulating volume, renal function may be altered, which impairs the kidney's ability to correct acid-base and electrolyte abnormalities. Healthy individuals can compensate for dehydration and elevated osmolality by becoming thirsty and subsequently drinking water. Seriously ill or confused patients, however, have inadequate compensatory mechanisms. If a patient has a water deficit (as evidenced by hypernatremia), and a salt deficit (as evidenced by orthostasis), 10-20 cc kg of isotonic crystalloids should be administered. If the patient is hemodynamically unstable, these fluids should be infused as quickly as possible, and can be repeated as necessary. In hemodynamically stable individuals, the fluids should be given over an hour. Once orthostasis is corrected, if volume depletion persists, the total water deficit should be calculated. Half the total deficit should be given within the first 8...


Nitrate, ingested via diet and drinking water, is reduced by gut bacterial nitrate reductase to its more reactive and toxic reduction product, nitrite. Nitrite reacts with nitrogenous compounds in the body to produce NOC. The reaction can occur chemically in the acidic conditions prevalent in the human stomach and can also be catalyzed at neutral pH by gut bacteria in the colon.

John D Cahill md

The World Health Organization estimates that each year more than 1.1 billion individuals have no access to safe drinking water, which results in the death of 3900 children per day. Also, 4 out of every 10 people in the world do not have access to even a simple pit latrine. These numbers only increase during a disaster, where whole populations or regions may be affected. Water, sanitation, and hygiene are top priorities in almost all disasters and are directly related to one another other, and therefore will be considered together in this chapter.


Certain situations may preclude this option, including ongoing armed conflict, the presence of toxic exposure, and the possibility of recurrent natural or manmade disaster. Organizers should undertake an early assessment of the structural integrity of remaining buildings and discourage sheltering in structurally unsound units. Residents should be aided with provision of blankets, kerosene lamps, water purification kits, tarpaulins, and repair materials to establish minimum standards of safety when sheltering in existing housing. Water testing and establishment of locally safe sources of water should be provided. Programs can provide assistance in the local redistribution of refugees into other structurally sound housing units. One disadvantage of redistributing refugees within a host population is the loss of centralized access to the displaced persons for medical and relief efforts, and to allow monitoring of health status. Collective settlement should be considered when the...


Experimental animals injected with soluble cadmium salts decreased serum testosterone, a decreased size and weight of the testes, epididymis, vas deferens, prostate and seminal vesicles, decreased sperm production and motility, and suppressed libido and reproductive capacity (Laskey et al., 1984 Lau et al., 1978 Nordberg, 1971, 1975 Parizek, 1960 Saksena and Lau, 1979 Waalkes and Rehm, 1994). Testicular atrophy and necrosis and decreased fertility have been observed in animals at nearly fatal doses of cadmium (Bomhard et al., 1987). In rats, long-term exposure to cadmium through the drinking water (10 mg L for 52 weeks) led to pathological testicular changes, as well as liver and kidney damage, whereas reproductive capacity was reduced in 40 of animals (Saygi et al., 1991). Both the route and duration of cadmium administration is relevant for male reproductive effects. In rats exposed to 50, 100, or 200 ppm cadmium in drinking water for 3 or 6 months, significantly increased (rather...

Dorcas gazelle

Dorcas gazelles are well suited to desert climates. They may go their entire lives without drinking water, obtaining necessary moisture from plants that they eat. Being well adapted to dry climates, they produce very concentrated urine during dry weather. They are usually active, especially during hot weather, only at dawn, dusk, and throughout the night. However, they can withstand very hot temperatures, if necessary. Animals will migrate and run in herds over large areas in search for food. Herds tend to consist either of single-sex animals with up to 40 animals or mixed herds of up to 100. When not foraging for food, groups usually only reach about 12 in number, with one adult male. In order to defend against predators, groups of 2-5 males sometimes form. They tend to congregate in areas where recent rainfall has stimulated plant growth, and may also associate with other gazelles and camels.


From 15 to 25 countries are currently suspected of possessing biologic weapons where political and economic instability threatens control of stockpiles. Terrorist groups have included these weapons in their armamentarium. These agents are more deadly on a compound-per-weight basis than chemical agents. They can be produced at relatively low cost and delivered surreptitiously via a building's ventilation system, aerosolized via an aircraft or rooftop dispenser, or placed into the food or water system. Biologic agent attacks have a slower course than other WMD attacks, but have the greatest potential impact for casualties by weapon size and cost.

Blanfords fox

The species eats mainly insects and fruits. In the Negev of Israel, beetles, ants, termites and grasshoppers were all snapped up together with dates and the fruits of other palms. In central Asia, olives are a staple food. Rats and mice are taken when encountered but constitute less than 10 of the diet. The species can survive without drinking water. Its fluid comes from its food and it has been calculated that the water provided by food may often be more important than the calories. Foraging is almost always solitary and consists of slow and systematic investigation stones and bushes in search on insects. The foxes dash after small vertebrates when flushed.


Activity of calcium chromate has been convincingly demonstrated by Roe and Carter (1969), who obtained a 75 tumor yield in 24 rats injected subcutaneously over a period of 20 weeks with 19 mg calcium chromate suspended in arachis oil (Roe and Carter, 1969). Laskin et al. (1970) introduced into the rat bronchus a small capsule saturated with the test material, thus providing continuous, long-term exposure to the bronchial epithelium (Laskin and Drew, 1970). Squamous cell carcinoma at the impaction site developed in six rats and adenocar-cinoma developed in another 2 of 100 rats exposed to calcium chromate. Chromic chromate, chromic oxide, and chromic trioxide were without effect. Inhalational exposure to calcium chromate dust at a concentration of 13 mg m3 for 35 hours week for life produced alveolar adenocarcinoma in mice in a single experiment (Nettesheim et al., 1971). Levy and Venitt (1975) produced squamous cell carcinoma in the rat lung by implanting calcium chromate and zinc...


In rats, mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters exposed to inorganic mercury (mercuric chloride, intraperitoneally, 1, 2, or 5 mg kg day for 1 month), the highest dosage caused testicular degeneration and cellular deformation of the seminiferous tubules and the Leydig cells in all species, whereas the lowest dosage caused testicu-lar degeneration only in the hamster partial degeneration was observed in the rat and mouse, and no change was noted in the guinea pig (Chowdhury and Arora, 1982). In rats orally exposed to mercuric chloride (9 mg kg day, for 60-180 days), testicular morphological changes and decreased testosterone levels were found (Agrawal and Chansouria, 1989). In mice exposed to inorganic mercury through drinking water (4 ppm mercuric chloride, for 12 weeks), degenerative testicular changes, decreased absolute and relative testicular weight, and decreased epididymal sperm count were found a protective effect of zinc was reported (Orisakwe et al., 2001). Vitamin E, administered...

Pseudomonas spp

Pseudomonas spp. may be isolated from the respiratory, digestive, and genital systems of rats and mice, the more common ones being P. aeruginosa and P. diminuta. P. aeruginosa causes conjunctivitis and rhinitis and, under more severe or experimental conditions, pneumonia and septicemia in rats and guinea pigs.5 In septicemic animals, abscessation of the liver, spleen, kidneys, and middle ears may be observed. Disease due to P. aeruginosa is mainly observed in immune-deficient, immune-suppressed, or stressed animals,87 and, in general, it is secondary to something else. The prevalences in infected colonies of immune-competent animals kept in a high quality environment seldom reach more than 5 to 10 , but the prevalence of diseased animals in colonies of immune-deficient animals kept under poor environmental conditions may reach 100 , e.g., during ventilation breakdowns. Poor hygienic conditions, especially in relation to water used for drinking and cleaning may play an important role...

Animal Watering

Potable water from municipal water treatment plants is commonly used for laboratory animals on the assumption that if it is good enough for humans it is good enough for laboratory animals however, this is not necessarily so. It is possible that potable water may contain chemical contaminants at a level too low to be considered toxic, but that may be at high enough levels to confound study results when given to laboratory animals. The use of reverse osmosis (RO) to consistently provide high-quality drinking water for the animals greatly reduces the potential for such and therefore is rapidly becoming the standard. In addition, because water quality and content varies from community to community, the use of RO water provides a practical and economical means of standardizing drinking water for research animals throughout the world. It is common to acidify animal drinking water, especially water delivered to the animals in bottles, to a pH of 2.5 to 3 in order to limit the growth of...

Indicator Plants

Municipal water treatment facilities often use aluminum sulfate as a water-clarifying agent in a process similar to that described above for treating eutrophied lakes. The basic process is ancient, originating in China thousands of years ago. When aluminum sulfate is added to turbid water at pH 6.5 to 8, aluminum hydroxide forms as a gel-like precipitate (floc). Suspended particles and oils are trapped in the floc, which is then removed by various methods. Some aluminum, however, can remain in solution. Concentrations of aluminum in treated drinking water have ranged from unde-tectable to 2.7 mg L 1, with a median of 0.1mg L 1 (354). The Environmental Protection Agency has suggested a maximum contamination level for aluminum in drinking water at a concentration range of 0.05 to 0.2mg L 1. Recently, other types of aluminum-based clarifying agents such as polyaluminum chloride have been used that may result in less residual aluminum and different chemical species of residual aluminum in...

Federal Laboratories

The EPA operates 10 regional environmental testing laboratories across the United States. These laboratories have a research and environmental monitoring mission they analyze air, drinking water, ground water, surface water, soil, sediment, and hazardous materials for biological, chemical, and radiological materials that are toxic to the environment. EPA develops standard methods for the analysis of environmental samples. EPA maintains large databases of environmental monitoring data produced by its own laboratories and others. Its Office of Research and Development (ORD) directs laboratory activities at 12 locations, including the National Center for Environmental Assessment in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.

Esophageal tumors

Fundamental biological data are needed to make reliable predictions from multistage clonal expansion models, and data solely from standard bioassays are inadequate for this purpose (1, 31). For this reason, the multistage polynomial, with its ability to accommodate various dose-response data from the bioassay, is frequently used. Routine application of the multistage and similar models has led to databases of cancer potency values for use in risk predictions under a variety of scenarios. Examples are the cancer unit risk or guidelines values of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in its Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database (32), air quality and drinking water guidelines values of the World Health Organization (33, 34), and no significant risk levels of California's Proposition 65 (35). For genotoxic chemicals, some regulatory and advisory institutions decline using the approach out of concern for error in low-dose prediction (Table 1). Still, nonthreshold...

State Laboratories

State laboratories provide services to health departments healthcare organizations local, state, and federal law enforcement local hazardous materials (hazmat) teams civil support teams and other private and governmental laboratories. State laboratories analyze thousands of water and air samples daily. State laboratories involved in the analysis of drinking water and other environmental samples are accredited by the NELAP, certified by EPA Office of Drinking Water Programs, or accredited by state-specific accreditation programs.

Laboratory Networks

The EPA has established the eLRN from a network of environmental laboratories to provide laboratory assistance during a natural disaster or a chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear incident. The network focuses on all aspects of the protection of the nation's drinking water supply, including safety guidelines, sampling regulations, and transport documentation. This network is designed to provide laboratory support during an incident in the event that the initial jurisdic-tional laboratory cannot respond or requires additional assistance. An incident involving a select agent has much stricter guidelines than does one involving a natural water-borne pathogen. A laboratory, when responding to an incident may request aid and can receive assistance through either a federal EPA laboratory or state public health laboratory. In the event of an act of biological terrorism, the eLRN laboratories respond and analyze specimens by using validated protocols available through the LRN....

Water Surveillance

There are two complementary approaches to monitoring these biological contaminants. Ongoing comprehensive surveillance is intended to signal the occurrence of contaminated water before its distribution to the general public. The underlying intent of this approach is to detect contaminates to prevent illness, in terms of an early warning detection system. A secondary surveillance approach involves analysis of water supplies that is initiated once presence of a biological agent has been confirmed. This second method is a detect-to-treat strategy, intended to uncover the original contamination point and the route(s) of dispersion. A combination of the two approaches facilitates tracking of the contamination to the source, essentially activating the public health response for detection of additional exposures and the development of triage protocols. The principal roles of water supply biosurveillance are to communicate with utility regulators and governmental public health (as well as law...

And Health

The connection between the built environment and public health became painfully apparent and widely recognized during the industrial revolution of the 19th century. The burgeoning cities were crowded, dirty, unsanitary places. Poor residents lived in tenements with little or no light, ventilation, or sanitation facilities, and frequently located close to noxious industrial uses. Epidemics of infectious disease were all too common. Sanitarians and progressive reformers understood the connection between disease and the physical environment and sought to change that environment (Peterson, 1983 Garb, 2003). Cities were rebuilt with sewers and water systems tenement housing was improved parks and recreation spaces were created. All of these physical changes were understood to be important steps in improving public health.

Ginseng And Sleep

Many ginseng users claim improved sleep patterns as an advantage gained by regular ingestion of the roots. That Panax ginseng extract given orally in drinking water modulated sleep in unrestrained rats was demonstrated by Rhee et al. (1990) who observed that the amount of wakefulness was significantly decreased during a 12 hr period of light whilst the amount of slow wave sleep was increased. Sleep was apparently unaffected during the dark period. The same group (Lee et al., 1990a) observed that the amount of slow wave sleep and wakefulness fluctuated significantly during 48 hours food deprivation and also during the following recovery periods. However, employing age-matched male rats chronically treated with ginseng extract via drinking water, the fluctuation was markedly reduced. Therefore it was suggested that the beneficial effect of ginseng might be related, in part, to improvement of sleep caused by a stabilising effect on sleep-waking disturbances.


2.3 Exposure Through Food and Drinking Water Human exposure to metal compounds in the general environment is usually greater through food and drink than through air. Even in occupational circumstances, exposure to metals by ingestion may be of importance, although absorption after inhalation is usually of primary importance in industry. Metals and their compounds occur naturally in food and drinking water, because they are intrinsic components of the earth's crust and of various biota. Depending on geological variation and agricultural and ecological processes, there are great geographical differences in metal intakes among populations living in various parts of the world. A striking modern example is the contamination of drinking water wells with arsenic in large areas of Bangladesh involving the exposure of millions of people (Wasserman et al., 2004).

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