Increasing Your Vitality
Of the thousands of different enzymes present in the human body, those that fulfill functions indispensable to cell vitality are present throughout the body tissues. Other enzymes or isozymes are expressed only in specific cell types, during certain periods of development, or in response to specific physiologic or pathophysio-logic changes. Analysis of the presence and distribution of enzymes and isozymes whose expression is normally tissue-, time-, or circumstance-specific often aids diagnosis.
Consumption of geckos is for medicinal purposes. Tokay geckos and other species are sold dried or pickled in wine or spirits to increase vitality and cure kidney ailments in China and parts of Southeast Asia. In much of the tropics house geckos are welcome as predators on insect pests, and in Europe and North America geckos are favorites of herpetocul-turalists. All geckos are harmless, but their mysterious nocturnal habits, large eyes, and climbing abilities have been interpreted as signs of evil in some cultures they are regarded incorrectly as venomous to the touch.
Kasarda (1995) or Frey (1995) would take issue with little in this capsule summary. Both endorse the notion that cities that made the transition from producing goods to providing services fared better in intermetropolitan restructuring over recent decades. They also note the resumption of the long-term decline of nonmetro areas despite the ''blip'' of the 1970s population movement toward the West and the South population movement from the interior to coastal areas (also see Rappaport and Sachs 2003), and the vitality of population growth in metro areas with high education and skill mixes (especially after controlling for immigration). Kasarda gives greater attention to globalization and how it is implicated in some of the macrospatial changes observed in recent decades. One interpretation of the positive education-growth relationship and the negative manufacturing-growth relationship is that in a global economy, cities specializing in most forms of manufacturing are vulnerable to...
Several investigators have attempted to assess overall QOL of survivors of testicular cancer. Methods for assessing this outcome vary widely among studies. Overall QOL may be reported as a component summary score generated from various weighted scale scores of more specific functional status outcomes (eg, physical role limitations, emotional functioning, and social functioning). For example, the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form (SF-36), a commonly used generic QOL measure, incorporates scores of eight different functional status constructs physical functioning, role-physical, bodily pain, general health, vitality, social functioning, role-emotional, and mental health.49 These eight scales can then be combined to generate two summary scores the Physical Component Summary and the Mental Component Summary. Alternatively, overall QOL is sometimes assessed on the basis of response to a single survey item. This single item typically has the participant rate his perception of an...
Using the Short-Form 36 (SF-36), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the Psychological Adjustment to Illness Scale (PAIS) (61,62). Significant correlations were observed between changes in neutrophil counts and measures of physical functioning, general health, vitality, and mental health. The greatest decrease in QOL was observed in patients with grade 4 neutropenia. An effort is currently under way to develop a more sensitive and specific measure for detected changes associated with severe or FN in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. This approach is modeled after the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT) health profile scales and is termed the FACT-N. The current version of the tool consists of 19 questions generated from semistructured interviews and previous studies. The measure has been found to have good construct validity and internal consistency (63). The entire issue of QOL assessment and the impact of rHuG-CSF in patients with cancer and human...
The goal of each instrument is to measure overall quality of life and various quality-of-life domains, such as physical functioning, social functioning, and mental health. Other domains include disease symptoms, pain, general health perceptions, vitality, and role functioning. Quality-of-life instruments usually include several individual questions, or items pertaining to a particular domain, and the domain score (also called scale score) is obtained by summarizing the responses from the associated items (e.g., average of the item responses). Each
The intervention described here aims to retrofit the layout of the grid city by integrating public gathering places into the public realm. These gathering places aim to reinstate the town commons that historically had been the geographic glue of community stewardship. These restorative public places with interactive art installations are intended to inspire a sense of belonging and identity, trigger conversations among strangers, spark creativity, cultivate civic capacity, and even stimulate local economic vitality. These commons are essential parts of the democratic process to facilitate collective responsibility and tolerance. The approach has been implemented by the local non-profit organization The City Repair Project, and has been field-tested and evaluated at numerous sites.
During the manufacturing process, contamination can occur through contact by the operators, the manufacturing equipment, and the air. The micro-organisms capable of contaminating a cosmetic from human sources are part of the rhinopharyngal, buccal skin, hair, hand skin, and, in some circumstances, intestinal floras. Among these, fecal streptococci, staphylococci, enterobacteria, and Pseudomonas have sufficient vitality to survive and even to multiply in a product.
Been challenged by urban sprawl in the 20th century, including the construction of retailing malls on the outskirts of cities, coupled with inefficient public transport. In contrast, the long-standing custom of mixed activities -still found in Manhattan, and some inner quarters of Paris -provides vitality, and social amenity accessible on foot. Traditionally, these mixed activities enabled interaction between different population groups. Cities of the 21st century should not only be important motors for national economic development but also functionally rich, having a sense of security and being people-friendly.
The term frail elderly is defined in the National Library of Medicine's MeSH database as ''Older adults or aged individuals who are lacking in general strength and are unusually susceptible to disease or to other infirmity.'' The concept that aging is associated with declining resiliency goes back to the dawn of western medicine, and likely, before. The Hippocratic tradition held that aging was caused by a progressive loss of the body's store of heat, which resulted in a depletion of vitality and increased vulnerability (Thane, 1993). At birth it was assumed that we were granted a finite supply of energy. During childhood it was used for growth. At maturity we were to maintain a balance with our environment, but in old age we decayed as our remaining energy was spent. Benjamin Rush, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, stated that the loss of vitality led to a ''predisposing debility.'' The older individual became unable to remain in balance with the world (Haber, 1986).
Eleven of the 16 studies discussed physical domain QOL outcomes for long-term survivors.2,4,32,41,43,46-51 Generally, survivors report lower physical domain QOL than healthy controls and poorer physical functioning.4,41,43,49 Arm pain, including swelling, loss of sensation, weakness, and stiffness, are common.4,32,48,50,51 Survivors also report fatigue,2,46 with one study finding that younger survivors report the lowest levels of vitality.51 Physical problems associated with treatment induced menopause are also common.2,32 One study shows that physical functioning was predicted by age at diagnosis,48 while another found that older age in general is related to worse physical domain QOL.47 Another study found that physical health was most affected among women who were both diagnosed with lymphoma and treated with chemotherapy.2
Before this transition most people died of infectious diseases (smallpox, scarlet fever, tuberculosis, influenza, and pneumonia, etc.), which affected all ages. The young were especially vulnerable, and most people did not survive to old age (Caldwell 2001 Riley 2001). With the conquest of infectious diseases, mortality is concentrated in the older ages, and the primary causes of death are chronic degenerative diseases (heart disease, cardiovascular disease, and cancer). Therefore, population aging may have significant implications for population health, as a growing proportion of the total population is comprised of older people with chronic diseases. Growth in the prevalence of chronic disease in a population raises concerns about declining vitality of its members, the overall burden of care for those with physical and cognitive limitations, and the health care costs to society. For example, the health care cost per capita is three to five times greater for the population over age...
Vitality testing, using the cooling effect of evaporation of ethyl chloride or small electric currents, can assess the health of the pulpal tissues. Tenderness to percussion (TTP) indicates involvement of periodontal tissues. Probing the junction between tooth and gum can assess the depth and extent of periodontal destruction, the presence of bleeding signifying active inflammation. Mobility is assessed in terms of buccolingual and vertical movement and is due to destruction of periodontal support, perhaps as a result of periodontal disease or because of an adjacent cyst or tumour.
Few could doubt that many central cities have shown recent sparks of vitality and that some suburbs face central city-like problems, but one should be cautious about downgrading the importance of suburbs as growth centers in American society. Many central cities have limited physical space in which to expand, while suburban rings continue to offer extensive undeveloped land. Indeed, the persistence of massive suburban growth is suggested by the growing political issue of suburban sprawl (Squires 2002). Many individuals dislike the formless, haphazard nature of peripheral metropolitan development and fear that highly valued land that might be used for recreation and nonresidential activities will be lost forever (Lindstrom and Hartling 2003).
Comparisons Of Longterm Effects Of Diagnosis And Treatment By Cancer Site Breast Cancer And Hodgkins Disease
In the breast cancer cohort, little change in the women's ratings of health was reported. Five years after diagnosis, 92 rated their health as good or excellent and only 10 said their health had been getting worse. Significant improvements were reported for surgical symptoms, and the following SF-36 scales (i.e., physical functioning, physical and social roles, vitality, and bodily pain). Overall, physical domain QOL ratings improved when compared to the first year following diagnosis. Using the composite physical measure from the SF-36, a greater increase in physical QOL was associated with reporting fewer chronic conditions (coefficient is -2.60, p 0.01), being employed (coefficient is 3.24, p 0.04), having been treated by chemotherapy (coefficientis 3.88, p 0.03), and fewer children under age 18 living at home (coefficientis -4.77, p 0.01).32 health (72.8 to 78.0, p 0.001), and the vitality (50.5 to 62.8, p 0.001) scales. In the multivariate analyses, the mental health dimension...
The first theme that guides a great deal of urban planning is economic development. Broadly defined, this theme includes transportation, housing, and community economic development, and is primarily concerned with the economic vitality of communities, cities, counties, regions, and states. From an urban health perspective, on the one hand, an economic development strategy for investigating urban health might consist of linking urban health disparities with maldistributions of wealth and concentrations of poverty in places and populations. This is relevant for the large public health literature on health disparities that shows that poor and minority populations typically are at greater risk of morbidity and mortality (e.g. CDC, 2004). Economic development planning seeks to address the sources of disparities in income and access to resources. Urban planners have often argued that uneven distributions of wealth and poverty stem from global economic shifts. Global economic restructuring...
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has existed for thousands of years, long before Western medicine. Rather than following the disease model of Western medicine, TCM focuses on a symptom approach such that a person with PD who has mostly tremor would be evaluated and treated differently than another person whose symptoms were mostly gait and balance difficulty with no tremor. The specific symptoms of the individual signal a deficiency in the body fluids blood that is unable to properly nourish the energy flow or chi or Qi of the entire organism. There are three main symptom approaches under TCM (5). The first is Qi and blood deficiency, which is believed to arise from anger, emotional stress, frustration, and resentment. The second is phlegm-fire-agitating wind (yang), which is the result of poor diet, in particular eating greasy, fried, sweet, sugary foods and alcohol. The third is kidney and liver (yin) deficiency, which results from a lack of rest and overwork as well as part of...
Parameters of physical quality of life (QOL) are impaired in MDS patients compared with healthy age and sex-matched subjects. These physical parameters include physical functioning and vitality (Short Form-36 tool) and the physical component of fatigue (Euro-QOL-5D Visual Analogue Scale instrument). Each of these physical parameters was correlated to hemoglobin concentrations in a cohort of regularly transfused MDS patients (Jansen et al. 2003). Mental components of the QOL instruments were not influenced by hemoglobin concentrations in this small study. In separate cohorts of patients with cancer-related anemia treated with recombinant Epo, a similar improvement in physical QOL parameters has been observed, correlating well with an improvement in hemoglobin concentration (Boogaerts et al. 2003 Fallowfield et al. 2002).
It can be stated with a great deal of certainty that the industrious level of research activity seen within the various theory fragments of organizational ecology will continue. The fragments have proven especially fertile in their ability to foster cumulative programmatic research and to spawn new theoretical ideas of broad interest. Seemingly simple issues, like the direction of age dependence in organizational mortality, often turn out to be much more challenging and interesting than expected, as reviewed above. Then, too, there is the demography of the researchers themselves young talented doctoral graduates continually enter the field and make important contributions, ensuring a certain level of vitality and innovation. So it is more than reasonable to expect that corporate demography will continue to make considerable progress within the various theory fragments, as it has for the last 25 years or so.
Historical note Siberian ginseng has been used for over 2000 years, according to Chinese medical records, where it is referred to as Ci Wu Jia. It was used to prevent colds and flu and to increase vitality and energy. In modern times, it has been used by Russian cosmonauts for improving alertness and energy, and to aid in adaptation to the stresses of life in space. It has also been used as an ergogenic aid by Soviet athletes before international competitions and was used after the Chernobyl accident to counteract the effects of radiation.
Kevin Lynch's (1981) work is a classic example of normative theory development related to urban design. Lynch (1981) examined normative theories of good city form implicit in thought and development patterns from a broad range of historical time periods and cultural settings, and then developed his own theory of city form. That theory is a deep discussion of seven criteria - vitality, sense, fit, access, control, efficiency, and justice. According to Lynch (1981), those seven criteria capture basic dimensions that can be used to judge the quality of cities. Lynch's (1981) criteria include a broad range of factors too diverse to discuss fully here. To give one a flavour of the scope of Lynch's (1981) criteria, his theory touches on the biological (the degree to which a city supports vital functions of human beings and other species), the aesthetic (the link between a city's urban form and the sensory perceptions of residents), and the economic (the cost, construed more broadly than
Historical note Gin refers to man and seng to essence in Chinese, whereas Panax is derived from the Greek word pan (all) and akos (cure), referring to its use as a cure-all. Ginseng is a perennial herb native to Korea and China and has been used as a herbal remedy in eastern Asia for thousands of years. It is considered to be the most potent Qi or energy tonic in TCM. Modern indications include low vitality, poor immunity, cancer, cardiovascular disease and enhancement of physical performance and sexual function. However, a recent systematic review of RCT found that the efficacy of ginseng root extract could not be established beyond doubt for any of these indications (Coon & Ernst 2002).
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