Welfare Economic Theory

Other critics have raised questions about welfare economic theory as a basis for cost effectiveness analysis. While a full review of theory is available elsewhere, I restrict my comments here to considerations that are important for applying CEA to urban health. Welfare theory is a branch of economics that examines the desirability of alternative allocation of resources (Garber and Phelps, 1997 Brouwer and Koopmanschap, 2000). (It is not at all about welfare, financial assistance to...

Eleven Principles Of The Who Health Cities Project

The following section considers those basic principles underlying the building of healthy cities. It briefly presents the eleven principles that the World Health Organization has repeatedly presented in documentation about the WHO Healthy Cities project to characterise healthy cities (Goldstein, 2000 Tsouros, 1990). Each paragraph explains how these principles can be interpreted to construct healthy cities. The 11 principles of a healthy city are shown in Table 1. 1. The meeting of basic needs...

Monetized Measures of Poverty

Researchers investigating the determinants of urban health in the U.S. or Europe often take for granted the availability of income data for households and aggregated data on median incomes, rates of poverty, and the like for census tracts and other geographic entities. In developing countries, however, data such as these are seldom available in general, and are almost never available from censuses. In part this is because wage and salary work is far from being the dominant form of employment in...

Chronic Diseases

Common chronic diseases, including hypertension, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), seizures, and musculoskeletal disorders, are often undiagnosed or inadequately treated in homeless adults. Relatively little research has focused on these medical conditions in the homeless population. The prevalence of hypertension was higher among homeless clinic patients than among non-homeless patients at an inner-city primary care clinic (65 vs. 52 ) (Szerlip and Szerlip, 2002). The...

References

Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis. (1992b). Prevention and control of tuberculosis among homeless persons. Recommendations of the Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis. Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, Recommendations & Reports 4 13-23. Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (1992a). Prevention and control of tuberculosis among homeless persons. Recommendations of the Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis. Morbidity &...

Specification of Research Question

Clear specification of a research question is the necessary first step in all etiologic and interventional epidemiologic research and is often one of the hardest. More specifically, the greatest challenge in the epidemiologic study of urban health is in adequate specification of research questions that address how and why urban living may affect health. There are three primary reasons why this task may be particularly challenging in urban health. First, much of what may be considered urban...

Community Organizing In Urban Neighborhoods

This particular intervention has been designed to enhance the urban core of American grid cities which tend to have been planned without any provisions of significant public gathering places. Community organizing in urban neighborhoods can reverse alienation and foster a sense of responsibility that counteracts urban blight it encourages residents to take initiative against social disorder and physical deterioration (Wilson, 1996). Neighborhood stewardship manifested in physical improvements of...

Equity and Social Justice in Planning

Equity and social justice constitutes another primary theme that guides planning practice and urban health. In terms of urban health, an equity and social justice perspective guiding urban planning research and practice would build on the health disparities approach to prioritize improved and expanded health care services to those individuals and populations experiencing the worst health outcomes and who are least able to pay for services, for example, low-income, elderly, racial ethnic...

Potential Strategies For Improving The Health Of People In Cities Of Nepal

The process of rapid urban growth is inevitable in Nepal but it should be harnessed in a planned way to ensure a safe urban environment as well as the health and well being of urban citizens. Therefore, health concerns should be the heart of urban planning and urban environmental management practices. Environmentally friendly urban planning and healthy city programs should be the key to planned development and management of urban growth. The Health Impact Assessment of urban policies, programs,...

Case Control Studies

The case-control design has been used extensively to characterize occupational and environmental causes of cancer, but much less frequently for other diseases, and it has had limited application specifically to urban environmental health problems. The design has proved particularly useful for cancer, as there is often a lengthy period from the time of first exposure until excess risk is manifest. The cases and controls themselves are the principal source of information on exposure. Some...

Demography Of Lgbt People

The nature, composition and size of the gay community have been the subject of much debate. Indeed, whether or not LGBT people constitute a community at all is often questioned. And if such a community exists, how ought it be defined Is this a community that can be defined geographically or by its institutions and organizations Or is this an imagined community that exists, not in any spatial location, but in the sense of a shared affinity and common purpose Woolwine, 2000 Are its members...

Framing The Problem 21 Life in the Grid City

Most American towns and cities have been laid out with a grid pattern comprised of streets and side streets crossing at right angles Figure 1 . Such a simple network of orthogonal streets that intersect in a regular manner creates rectangular or square city blocks. The rationale of city planning to shape the urban environment with this pattern of vertical and horizontal streets lies in increased connectivity the possible routes between any given two points is maximized. Short of diagonal...

Residential Segregation And Gentrification

A major problem of urban cities is the residential segregation of minority groups, which leads to economic constraints, lack of social and material resources, and diminished social capital. Residential segregation results, in part, from two of the most dominant demographic trends in almost all cities in the U.S., suburbanization i.e., white flight and metropolitan deconcentration Browne, 2000 Immergluck, 2001 Massey and Denton, 1988 . Metropolitan deconcentration reflects the process of...

Programs for Special Populations

Since special populations - for example, ethnic minorities, poor immigrants, and injection drug using IDU populations are concentrated in cities, the urban health services research literature includes many studies of programs for these groups Solomon, et al., 1991 Juday, et al., 2003 . Such programs include those for people with tuberculosis and HIV AIDS Ryan White as well as needle exchange and other programs for IDU populations. Infectious diseases like hepatitis, tuberculosis, and HIV AIDS...

The Costs of Longitudinal Approaches

None of the advantages from longitudinal research comes without cost, especially if long durations of observation are needed to monitor the health outcomes of interest. Consider studies of seasonal variations in health, the effects of climate or ecological change, mortality and morbidity due to diseases with long latency periods, and the impact of behavioral interventions whose effects are slow to develop. In rich countries such as the U.S., the extra costs have not precluded longitudinal...