Venezuelan equine encephalitis replicons

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Alphavirus replicon vectors derived from VEE virus have also been recently applied to antitumor immunotherapy. The original report of the split helper RNA production system for VEE virus replicon particles (VRPs) was published in 1997 (1). In addition to the use of two separate nonoverlapping helper RNAs, the coding sequences for the various structural genes have incorporated previously described attenuating mutations (74,129). To some extent, the BL3 restriction has limited the number of groups investi-

Table 4

VEE-Based Antitumor Vaccines

Table 4

VEE-Based Antitumor Vaccines



Tumor Model

Immune Responses


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