Gangliosides GM2 GD2 GD3 and Fucosyl GM1

Gangliosides are sialic acid-containing glycolipids that are expressed at the cell surface with their lipid (ceramide) moiety incorporated into the cell-surface lipid bilayer. Most gangliosides considered as potential targets for cancer therapy are expressed primarily in tissues and tumors of neuroectodermal origin. This is true for the melanoma, sarcoma, neuroblastoma, and SCLC antigens GM2, GD2, and GD3, and the SCLC antigen fucosyl GM1. The structures of these antigens are shown in Fig. 2. Surprisingly, however,

Fig. 2. Carbohydrate antigens expressed at the cell surface of human cancers that are targets for antibody-inducing cancer vaccines.

GM2 has also recently been identified in a number of epithelial cancers (22,23) and at the luminal surfaces of a variety of normal epithelial tissues.

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