Vaccinia As A Cancer Vaccine

The Revised Authoritative Guide To Vaccine Legal Exemptions

Vaccines Have Serious Side Effects

Get Instant Access

The experience with vaccinia in the eradication of smallpox led to research into its use as an antitumor vaccine. Vaccinia was engineered to express tumor antigens and serve as a cancer vaccine. The size of the potential transgene that can be put into the vaccinia vector allows for flexibility in engineering, such that immune enhancing genes and antigenetic genes can be recombined into the genome. The immunostimulatory effects and efficient transcriptional machinery of the virus were utilized to create various cancer vaccine vectors (Table 2).

Recently, a phase I clinical trial of vaccinia expressing prostate specific antigen (PSA) in prostate cancer patients was published. In this trial the Wyeth strain virus was delivered intradermally every 4 wk for three doses without producing significant systemic toxicities. A cutaneous reaction, consistent with viral replication was seen in all patients treated with the virus at a dose of 2.65 x 107 pfu. Several patients developed T-cell immune responses to PSA associated with prolonged periods before disease progression (55). Another phase II clinical trial by the NCI examines the potential of three strains of recombinant vaccinia virus expressing either PSA, B7.1, or of the fowlpox virus expressing PSA. Vaccinia expressing the tumor antigen carcino embryonic antigen (CEA) has been studied clinically as a priming vaccine followed by a boost with avipox expressing CEA. This regimen consisted of 1 x 107 pfu Wyeth strain vaccinia

Table 2 Recent Clinical Trials

First author

Vector

Results

Mastrangelo (58)

Vaccinia-GM-CSF

Regression of injected lesions.

Marshall (56)

Vaccinia-CEA

No clinical response.

Mukherjee (68)

Vaccinia-IL-2

No clinical response.

Eder (55)

Vaccinia-PSA

Stabilization of PSA levels.

Sanda (69)

Vaccinia-PSA

Stabilization of PSA levels.

Conry (70)

Vaccinia-CEA

No clinical response.

Tsang (71)

Vaccinia-CEA

No clinical response.

Adams (67)

Vaccinia-HPV

Response in cervical cancer.

Rochlitz (60)

MVA-Muc1

Response in metastatic disease.

Greiner (57)

rV-CEA TRICOM

Safe.

injected intradermally. Although specific T-cell immune responses were generated and the regimen was well tolerated, there were no positive clinical responses noted (56). Rochlitz et al. published their phase I trial of a modifed vaccinia (MVA strain) expressing human MUC1 for antigen specific immunotherapy in patients with advanced MUC 1 positive cancers (60). They found that patients tolerated repeated doses of the virus with minimal side effects and 1 of the 13 patients with advanced cancer showed a marked decrease in the size of his metastasis that lasted 14 mo. Greiner et al. developed a vaccinia expressing a triad of costimulatory molecules including B7.1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and leukocyte function-associated antigen-3 combined with CEA to produce a vaccine against CEA expressing cancers. This virus, known as rV-CEA TRICOM or a recombinant vaccinia vector that carries a triad of costimulatory molecules, has been encouraging in preclinical studies and is now the focus of clinical trials (57).

Was this article helpful?

0 0
10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

Learning About 10 Ways Fight Off Cancer Can Have Amazing Benefits For Your Life The Best Tips On How To Keep This Killer At Bay Discovering that you or a loved one has cancer can be utterly terrifying. All the same, once you comprehend the causes of cancer and learn how to reverse those causes, you or your loved one may have more than a fighting chance of beating out cancer.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment