Specific protocols have been developed to allow modification of APCs via direct loading with antigen(s) or by gene modification to generate cells that have increased capacity for antigen uptake and presentation to effector immune cells including T-cells. To the extent that these modified cells are introduced systemically and depending on the cell type used there is targeting capacity associated with antigen/gene modified cell-based systemic immunotherapy. Cells that have been developed for gene-modification based immunotherapy vehicles include tumor cells, APCs (macrophages and DCs) and more recently adult stem cells. Modification of these cells with cytokine genes is particularly attractive for prostate cancer therapy.
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