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From Task Group on Metal Accumulation, 1973. MMAD, Mass median aerodynamic diameter. Gastrointestinal absorption is assumed to be 5 . From Task Group on Metal Accumulation, 1973. MMAD, Mass median aerodynamic diameter. Gastrointestinal absorption is assumed to be 5 . because they can penetrate into and deposit in the alveolar or gas-exchange region. Thoracic particles are those that can penetrate the upper airways to the thoracic airways and beyond, whereas inhalable particles are all particles...

Acceleration of Spontaneous Autoimmune Diseases by Cadmium and Lead

Recent studies using Cd and Pb have expanded the results obtained by Hg. Cd in a high dose increased the ANA in autoimmune-prone NZBWF1 mice during the first months of treatment, whereas a lower dose increased the IgG2a serum level and the proteinuria, although without affecting the IC deposition (Leffel et al., 2003). As mentioned previously, Pb enhances the autoimmune manifestations in autoimmune-prone NZBWF1 hybrid mice (Rudofsky and Lawrence, 1999). A recent study on lead in four New...

Acceleration of Spontaneous Autoimmune Diseases by Hg

Hg is a potent de novo inductor of a systemic autoimmune disease condition in rodents with certain MHC (H-2) class II genotypes (Fournie et al., 2002 Pollard and Hultman, 1997). Although these rodent models continue to be very useful for explaining immunological mechanisms in systemic autoim-munity, dose-response studies applied to humans make it likely that de novo induction of autoimmu-nity by these agents will require exposure levels occurring only in specific hazardous work places or during...

Hfe

Lead is also linked to the uptake of iron in the gastrointestinal tract when the sources of iron are limited, lead absorption is increased (Cheng et al., 1998). As previously mentioned, the autosomal genetic disease hemochromatosis is caused by mutations in the HFE gene. The HFE gene is mutated at amino acid position 282, which leads to a cysteine-tyrosine exchange, among 85 of the affected. Another variant of this gene, His63Asp, is also associated with hemochro-matosis, but with a lower...