How I Put A Stop To Tourettes Tics
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome comprises multiple tics and compulsive utterances. Tics first affect the facial muscles, and then spread to other parts of the body. Involuntary utterances then occur, such as barking noises, and later obscene words or short phrases (coprolalia). Echolalia and echopraxia may be present. Onset is usually in childhood, and boys are affected three times more often than girls. The syndrome has a genetic component, and may be associated with organic brain disease or the presence of minor neurological signs. Medication with haloperidol, pimozide, or clonidine, and or behaviour therapy, may be effective.
Scientific research regarding trichotillomania has been conducted primarily in the past 10 years and causes are only theoretical. Psychoanalytic theories suggest that the behavior is a way of dealing with unconscious conflicts or childhood trauma (such as sexual abuse). Biological theories look for a genetic basis. For instance, people with trichotillomania often have a first-degree relative with an obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder. Researchers are also evaluating similarities between trichotillomania and Tourette's disorder. Behavioral theories assume that symptoms are learned, that a child may imitate a parent who engages in hair-pulling. The behavior may also be learned independently if it serves a purpose. For example, hair-pulling may begin as a response to stress and then develop into a habit.
Exhibitionism in Tourette's syndrome with haloperidol (162). Additionally, there have been case reports of other pharmacological interventions for the paraphilias. A report described success in eliminating pedophilic cognitions and behaviors with a combination of the anticonvulsant carbamazepine and the benzodiazepine clonazepam (163). These were selected to specifically target the patient's mixed depression and anxiety as well as his sexual impulsivity. Lithium has also been reported to be effective in reducing inappropriate sexual behaviors. However, the diagnostic classification of subjects in many studies has been vague and the use of mood stabilizers may reflect a comorbid mania or other psychotic state as the actual target of intervention (164,165).
Pediatric doses of clonidine are calculated based on the child's body weight. Clonidine dosage for ADHD in children is 5 micrograms per kilogram of body weight per day orally in four divided doses. Children who require a daily dosage of 0.2 mg usually can use the 0.3 mg dermal patch. If ADHD is associated with sleep disturbances, low to moderate doses of clonidine can be taken at bedtime. Oral doses in children with Tourette's syndrome range from 3 to 6 micrograms per kilogram of body weight per day divided into two to four even doses.
A transcriptional repression domain (TRD) overlaps a nuclear localization signal and interacts with HDAC1 2 via SIN3a. This links DNA methylation with histone deacetylation and the formation of inactive chromatin. In test systems, MeCP2 can selectively silence methylated reporter templates (Nan et al., 1997 1998). Rett syndrome affects up to 1 10000 births and the majority of patients are female, who develop normally for 6-18 months postnatally, but then suffer a developmental regression charac-tensed by loss of speech, head growth deceleration, perturbed hand use and Tourette-like involuntary hand movements (Renieri et al., 2003 Shahbazian and Zoghbi, 2002). After this initial deterioration, the condition of Rett individuals stabilizes and many survive to adulthood.
Clonidine tablets and patches are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of high blood pressure. However, clonidine has been found to be useful in the treatment of alcohol, opiate, and nicotine withdrawal syndromes, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and Tourette's syndrome, one of the tic disorders. Several studies of treatment for smoking cessation showed patients treated with clonidine had decreased nicotine craving. Clonidine skin patches appear to be more effective than tablets in this condition. Both dermal patches and tablets are effective in the treatment of Tourette's syndrome and ADHD.
Pimozide is an atypical antipsychotic drug used to treat serious motor and verbal tics associated with Tourette's syndrome. It is sold under the brand name Orap. Tourette syndrome Neurological disorder characterized by multiple involuntary movements and uncontrollable vocalizations called tics that come and go over years, usually beginning in childhood and becoming chronic. Sometimes the tics include inappropriate language. Pimozide is classified as an atypical antipsychotic drug. It is structurally similar to another drug, haloperi-dol, which was the first drug to be used in Tourette's syndrome. Pimozide is most often used to treat symptoms of Tourette's syndrome, although it has also been used for treating schizophrenia mania, and other behavioral disorders. Excess dopamine activity in the brain is associated with the verbal and physical tics observed in Tourette's syndrome. Like haloperidol, pimozide is believed to inhibit the actions of the brain chemical, dopamine.
Executive function deficits are associated with a number of psychiatric and developmental disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder, Tourette's syndrome, depression, schizophrenia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and autism. Executive function deficits also appear to play a role in antisocial behavior. Chronic heavy users of drugs and alcohol show impairments on tests of executive function. Some of these deficits appear to result from heavy substance use, but there is also evidence suggesting that problems with executive functions may contribute to the development of substance use disorders. Tourette syndrome Neurological disorder characterized by multiple involuntary movements and uncontrollable vocalizations called tics that come and go over years, usually beginning in childhood and becoming chronic. Sometimes the tics include inappropriate language.
The best known of these disorders is Tourette's disorder, or Tourette's syndrome. Tics are the core symptom shared by transient tic disorder, chronic motor or vocal tic disorder, and Tourette's disorder. It is the severity and course that distinguishes these disorders from one another. The age of onset for these disorders is between two and 15 years. In 75 of Tourette's disorder patients, the symptoms appear by age 11. The diagnostic criteria of all tic disorders specify that the symptoms must appear before the age of 18, and that they cannot result from ingestion of such substances as stimulants, or from such general medical conditions as Huntington's disease. Tic disorders can be seen as occurring along a continuum of least to most severe in terms of disruption and impairment, with transient tic disorder at one end and Tourette's disorder at the other. Transient tic disorder occurs in approximately 4 -24 of schoolchildren. It is the mildest form of...
Fragile X syndrome, PKU, William's syndrome, and other neurogenetic disorders. Examples of the second strategy are genetic studies of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, dyslexia, developmental speech and language disorders, schizophrenia, Tourette's syndrome, and other psychiatric disorders. Because the details of most of the discoveries using each strategy are described elsewhere, we will not review specific discoveries except in an illustrative way. Instead, this chapter focuses on methods and the general implications of what has already been discovered for developmental cognitive neuroscience.