The scientific name of a fungus follows a binomial system of nomenclature, governed by the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature. It is based on the name of the genus and species with both words italicized. For example, the scientific name of wheat stem rust fungus is Puccinia graminis Erikss., in which Puccinia refers to the genus, graminis is the species, and Erikss. is the abbreviation for Jacob Eriksson, a Swedish mycologist (1848-1931) who first founded the species by publishing the description of the fungus. After first use of full binomial name, the genus name is abbreviated to a single capital letter, as in P. graminis. When applicable, an infraspecies category (forma speciales) characterized by physiologic criteria (host adaptation) is added after the species name, for example, P. graminis tritici. For a name to be accepted, a Latin description must be validly published. Nomenclature is based on the priority of publication. If the vernacular name (e.g., wheat stem rust) is used, the organism should also be identified by the scientific name at least once (e.g., Puccinia graminis). Some fungi placed in Fungi Anamorphici (see below) have two names, one based on the asexual stage (anamorph) and another based on sexual stage (teleomorph), for example, Septoria nodorum (anamorph) and Mycosphaerella graminicola (teleomorph). However, after the connection between the two stages of the same fungus was proven, Septoria nodorum is referred to as M. graminicola.
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