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foods at <0.85 aw

Cladosporium sp.

found in Maheshwari et al. (2000). Designing culture media for the selective enrichment and isolation of desired types and manipulating environmental conditions (temperature, aeration, pH, osmotic pressure) from an infinite number of permutations and combinations of environmental variables is a challenge.

13.1.2 Basic Research

Because of biological diversity, no single species can serve as a universal model. Each species has its peculiar strengths and limitations.

David D. Perkins (1991)

The enormous diversity of fungi provides enough opportunities to biologists to choose fungi suitable to investigate a diversity of problems. It is through biochemical dissection of the wealth of genetic diversity that we will appreciate the fundamental design principles of living organisms. The currently favored fungi in research are given in Table 13.2.

Table 13.2 Currently Favored Fungi in Research

Fungus

Research area

Ascobolus immerses Ashbya gossypii Aspergillus nidulans Aspergillus flavus Aspergillus niger Candida albicans Colletotrichum graminicola Coprinus cinereus Fusarium oxysporum Magnaporthe grisea Neurospora crassa, N. intermedia, N. tetrasperma

Phanerochaete chrysosporium Phycomyces blakesleeanus Podospora anserina Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe

Saprolegnia ferax Ustilago maydis Uromyces phaseoli

Meiotic recombination

Nuclear migration and positioning

Conidial differentiation, nuclear migration, cytokinesis

Mycotoxins

Enzymology and metabolism Pathogenecity, dimorphism Topographical signals in pathogenesis

Morphogenesis of multihyphal structures Transposons

Mechanisms in pathogenecity

Hyphal growth, chromosomal rearrangements, function of het genes, mating type genes, meiotic drive, epigenetic phenomena, biological rhythm, mitochondrial biogenesis, vesicle trafficking, developmental genetics, biochemical regulation, speciation Biochemistry of lignin degradation

Photobiology

Senescence, mitochondrial genetics, prions

Cell cycle regulation, cell polarity, protein secretion, biotechnology

Hyphal morphology and growth

Mating recognition, cell signaling, pathogenesis

Surface signaling in pathogenesis

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