Concluding Remarks

Largely invisible, little studied, the vegetative mycelium of fungi still provides an almost endless series of problems whose investigation is long overdue.

Several questions pertaining to hyphal mode are being actively pursued. How is the hypha constructed as a tube with a tapering apex? What is the function of Spitzenkörper? How is the protoplasm drawn toward the tip? What is the role of microtubules in regulating hyphal extension and direction of vesicles to the polarization sites? How is the site of placement of septum regulated? What is the mechanism of construction of the septal pore? How are the sites of initiation of branches determined? What mechanisms determine that cytokinesis in yeast-like fungi result in complete separation of mother and daughter cells but septation in filamentous fungi leads to generation of individual compartments within the hypha? How does the cell wall extend and what determines the localized secretion of proteins?

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