Termite Control, How To Kill Termites eBook
You Might Start Missing Your Termites After Kickin'em Out. After All, They Have Been Your Roommates For Quite A While. Enraged With How The Termites Have Eaten Up Your Antique Furniture? Can't Wait To Have Them Exterminated Completely From The Face Of The Earth? Fret Not. We Will Tell You How To Get Rid Of Them From Your House At Least. If Not From The Face The Earth.
Most primates forage primarily in trees or bushes for insects, fruits, leaves and or gums. Regardless of the diet, the visual sense plays a major part in searching for food. Nocturnal primates generally have only a very restricted capacity for distinguishing colors and must rely on other dietary cues, but diurnal primates usually have some form of color vision. Fully developed trichromatic color vision of the kind found in humans occurs in Old World monkeys and apes and a few New World monkeys. Most New World monkeys and all diurnal lemurs have fundamentally dichromatic vision, although in certain New World monkeys there is an unusual polymorphism of the gene coding for a retinal pigment on the X-chromosome, such that some females have a form of trichromatic vision. Prosimian primates generally collect their food primarily with the mouth, but in higher primates the hands play an increased role. As a rule, food items are consumed directly, but in some cases there is some pretreatment...
The origins of pangolins are largely unknown. Many of their current features (such as lack of adult teeth along with signs of primordial teeth in the embryo, chewing musculature and stomach, lack of zygomatic arch, elongated facial skeleton, worm-like tongue, forelimbs as digging tools, and prehensile tail) imply a long independent history. There is a general acceptance that they had an early separation from primitive mammals. By the Eocene era pangolins were highly specialized with such adaptations as horny scales, no teeth, and a diet of only ants and termites. The common name pangolin (possibly from Malayan or French words) refers to the animal's ability to curl up into a ball.
The number of eggs per clutch varies by species, but is generally between two and seven. Eggs hatch after twelve or thirteen days. Chicks are precocial, meaning they hatch at a developmentally advanced stage, covered with feathers and able to move. They follow the father, who feeds them termites and seeds.
The head varies from shovel-shaped to elongated and narrow. The ears vary in length as well and can be pointed or rounded. Powerful limbs bear formidable claws for digging burrows and gathering food. Hind limbs always have five digits while the number of forelimb digits varies (three to five) depending on the species. Naked-tailed (Cabassous) and giant armadillos (Priodontes maximus) possess an enlarged claw on the forelimb used to tear into termite and ant mounds. Wielding this large claw and rotating their carapaces back and forth enable these armadillos to escape predators by burying themselves within minutes.
Teiids are not territorial, and several individuals' home ranges may overlap. Males are larger than females and compete for mates. Males follow receptive females and guard them against competing males. All teiids are egg layers. The number of eggs laid by females correlates with body size both among and within species. The largest species, Tupinambis merianae and T. rufescens, may lay approximately a dozen eggs when they reach sexual maturity, but by the time a female reaches maximum size, she may lay 30 or more eggs. The nesting ecology of most teiids is simple. Females deposit their clutches in the ground or within logs or debris. Tegus in southern South America, T. merianae, T. rufescens, and T. duseni, build elaborate nests of vegetation in their underground burrows into which they deposit their eggs. Females attend the nests throughout the incubation period. T. teguixin in northern South America lays its eggs in active termite mounds in trees.
Behavior and reproduction The gray-crowned babbler is not afraid of heights. It will forage as far as 66 feet (20 meters) up a tree, turning over leaves and poking into crevices in bark. In drier regions where trees do not grow as tall, this bird will also sift through the litter on the forest floor and even scratch in the dirt, looking for food. Sometimes, it will try to catch flying termites on the wing.
The recognition of symbiotic relationships has had a revolutionary impact on modern biological thought. The idea that mitochondria and chloroplasts are transformed by symbiotic bacteria provides a common thread to the biological world and raises hope of finding other symbiotic wonders among life's diversity. Plants and animals have acquired new metabolic capabilities through symbioses with bacteria and fungi. Mammalian herbivores and termites digest cellulose with the help of microbial symbionts. The luminescent bacteria contained in the specialized light organs of some fishes and squids produce marine bioluminescence. Diverse animal life around deep-sea vents is based on symbiosis with bacteria that oxidize hydrogen sulfide and chemosynthetically fix carbon dioxide into carbohydrates. Associations between fungi and algae have resulted in unique morphological structures called lichens. Early land plants formed associations with mycorrhizal fungi, which greatly facilitated their...
The rufous sengi (Elephantulus rufescens) eats termites, ants, worms, roots, berries, and fruits. (Photo by Kenneth W. Fink. Bruce Coleman, Inc. Reproduced by permission.) The rufous sengi (Elephantulus rufescens) eats termites, ants, worms, roots, berries, and fruits. (Photo by Kenneth W. Fink. Bruce Coleman, Inc. Reproduced by permission.)
Otters carry stones as anvils, elephants use twigs to swat flies, primates throw stones and branches not only to defend themselves but also to detach fruit from trees, chimpanzees angle for termites, etc. Remarkably, more forms of tool use have been described from captive than free-ranging animals, and only in some apes do we have sufficient evidence for observational learning of tool use from the field.
Macroherbivory feeders obtain food by consuming macroscopic plants. One of the best protostome examples of plant feeders is the order Orthoptera (crickets, locust, and grasshoppers). Members of this order have developed specialized mouthparts and muscle structures to bite and chew. The African Copiphorinae, for example, uses its large jaws to open seeds. Biting and chewing mouthparts are also seen in beetles and many orders of insects. Two other types of mouth-parts common to macroherbivory feeders are sucking and piercing. Sucking mouthparts enable insects such as butterflies and honey bees to gather nectar, pollen, and other liquids. Protostomes such as cicadas feed by drawing blood or plant juices. The leaf cutter ants (Atta cephalotes) are interesting example of macroherbivory feeders. These ants cut leaves and flowers and transport them to their nests where they are used to grow a fungus that is their main food source. A related feeding behavior is also found in termites...
A well-known active defense system is found in social insects such as honey bees, termites, and ants. The latter two organisms actually maintain a caste of soldiers for colony defense, as do several species of aphids (Colophina clematis, C. monstrifica, C. arma). When threatened, these organisms attack by injecting venom into the aggressor and can use their powerful mandibles to incapacitate. In aquatic organisms such as those found in the order Decapoda, cuttlefish and squid defend themselves not only by an ability to escape, but also by discharging ink that temporarily disorientates the aggressor. Some decapods in the order Octopoda, which includes the octopus, have a similar ink defense system. At least one case has been observed in which Octopus vulgaris was recorded actually holding stones in its tentacles as a defensive shield against a moray eel. In general, organisms during early ontogenetic development approach low-intensity stimulation and withdraw from high-intensity...
Diet Green woodhoopoes eat caterpillars, beetle larvae, spiders and spider eggs, adult and larval moths, and winged and un-winged termites. They occasionally eat centipedes, millipedes, small lizards, and small fruits. They are well suited for climbing on tree trunks and branches in search for food. Most often, they forage by probing within cracks or bark of tree trunks, branches, and twigs. Males search lower down on the tree, while females tend to forage higher where smaller branches, limbs, and twigs are located. Sometimes green wood-hoopoes dig in animal dung found on the ground, catch insets in flight, or steal food from nests of other species. Prey is often pounded and rubbed against a branch before being eaten.
White-necked puffbirds dig nests into former termite nests built in trees, or nest in holes in the ground. (Illustration by Dan Erickson. Reproduced by permission.) Behavior and reproduction The mating pair defends their territory. They do not migrate. White-necked puffbirds spend much of their time perching without motion on high open branches. Female and male pairs dig nests in former termite nests built in trees usually 40 to 50 feet (12 to 15 meters) off the ground, but can range from 10 to 60 feet (3 to 18 meters). Holes in the ground are also used as nests. Information about incubation and nestling periods and activities are not known.
Hawks, like other drongos, catching prey in mid-air or from vegetation surfaces and often carrying it in its claws to a perch for dismembering. Diet comprises mainly a range of large flying insects (termites, moths, beetles, dragonflies, ants, bees, locusts, and mantids) nectar is an important supplement.
Accurate census numbers on these animals have been difficult to obtain. They are solitary, have a low reproductive rate, are difficult to find, and seem to have large home ranges these factors make population studies very challenging. As a result, their natural history is poorly understood and their conservation status is difficult to assess. They are found in a wide range of habitats. However, much of their range is suffering from the pressures of habitat alteration, destruction and human encroachment. It has yet to be determined how well they can adjust and survive in disturbed habitat. Their survival is also linked to the availability and health of ant and termite populations. This group is in desperate need of detailed study.
However, instances of tool use and construction have been observed in great apes in the wild, particularly in the chimpanzee. The most widely known of these is the chimpanzee's use of twigs to fish for termites in termite mounds at the Gombe Stream Reserve (now Gombe National Park) in Tanzania, East Africa. Following the report of that first observation by Jane Goodall in 1968, many instances of tool use and tool construction have been discovered in chimpanzees and other animals in their natural environment. For termite fishing, the choice of an appropriate branch, twig, or grass blade involves judgments of length, diameter, strength, and flexibility of the tool. Any leaves remaining on a branch are removed, and the tool is dipped into holes in the termite mound. Termites attack the intruding stick, attaching themselves to it, and the chimpanzee withdraws a termite-laden stick and proceeds to eat the termites.
As mentioned above, a particular situation is given in eusocial insects as wasps, bees, ants and termites. They live in colonies with cooperating members of different castes, sharing a high level of genetic similarity with the queen. Aging process and life span of the colony members are widely determined by extrinsic factors such as nutrition and kind of work. The remarkable longevity of the queen ranging from 4 to 8 years in wasps and up to 30 years in termites is of great interest (Page and Peng, 2001). This topic is further dealt with in Chapter 23, ''Models of Aging in Honeybee Workers,'' and Chapter 24, ''Ants as Naturally Long-Lived Insect Models for Aging.'' For a more detailed description of aging and environmental conditions in insects see Collatz (2003).
Social life of clans often include up to four to eight members who often share common runs and trails, excrement depositories, feeding places, territories, and refuges. Running fast, swimming, and climbing are possible, and these animals are able to jump over 3 ft (about 1 m). Enemies include carnivores such as leopards, large owls, snakes, and humans. Normally shelter during the day in a hole among tree roots, rocky crevice, termite mound, cave, or eroded cavity along stream bank.
Owing to lack of limbs, snake diversity is restricted by morphologic features. Nevertheless, snakes have accomplished some rather spectacular things. Some snakes (Dipsas) pull snails out of their shells. Snail-eating lizards (Dracaena) crush snail shells with molariform teeth. Many lizards are termite specialists. Some, such as certain geckos, catch termites at night when they are active above ground. Others, such as lac-ertids and teiids, break into termite tunnels during the day. Still others, such as some fossorial skinks, find termites in tunnels and termitaria below ground. All termite-specialized snakes find termites below ground, and many actually spend most of their lives inside termitaria. If snake ancestors were subterranean, ancestors of snakes were the most successful among many scleroglossans that experimented with fossoriality. Considering the many times limblessness has arisen in autarchoglossans, why did evolution of limblessness in varanoids set off such an extensive...
Chinese pangolins have a head and body length of 21-32 in (50-80 cm), a tail length of 10-16 in (26-40 cm), and a weight of 4-20 lb (2-9 kg). They have about 18 rows of overlapping scales. The yellow-brown scales are bony, up to 2 in (5 cm) across, and encompass all of the body (including the tail) except for its snout, cheeks, throat, inner limbs, and belly. They have hairs at the base of the body scales. Their limbs are slender with comparatively long and sharp claws, an important aid in climbing. Chinese pangolins have a small, pointed head, a very round body, and a narrow mouth. The nose is fleshy and has nostrils at the end, and the thin tongue, as long as 16 in (40 cm), scoops up ants and termites. Their small, external ears are better developed than are those of the other pangolins. The strongly prehensile tail and long claws make this pangolin very agile in trees and a powerful bur-rower. They inhabit subtropical and deciduous forests and grasslands. Burrows are often built...
Planarians (Platyhelminthes) are an excellent example of animals that obtain food through hunting. The vast majority of planarians are carnivorous. They are active and efficient hunters because of their mobility and sensory systems. They feed on many different invertebrates, including rotifers, nematodes, and other planarians, and have several different methods of capture. One of the most common methods is to wrap their body around a prey item and secure it with mucus. An interesting example of this behavior can be found in terrestrial planarians. The terrestrial planarian Microplana termitophaga feeds on termites by living near termite mound ventilation shafts. The planarian stretches itself into the shaft and waves its head until a termite comes in contact, at which time the termite becomes stuck on the mucus produced by the worm. An interesting note is that it is not generally agreed upon that Platyhelminthes are protostomes.
To 12 mi2 (30 km2), but interactions between the pair are said to be very uncommon. Their bold white markings on the tail and throat allow visual signals to be communicated at a distance as does the harsh bark and typical patterns of marking by urine and feces. Maned wolves may leave feces high up on rocks and termite mounds.
They tear open termite mounds and ant nests, both in trees and on the ground, with their large claws, and lick up insects and their larvae. They are selective in what species of termites they eat. The termites of the genera Amitermes, Ancistrotermes, Macrotermes, Microcerotermes, Microtermes, Odontotermes, and Trinervitermes are most often eaten by first detecting (with their keen sense of smell) these preferred genera before opening the hill.
Termites and beetles (adults and larvae) are the principal food. Insect food is often detected by sound. The grazing termite, Hodotermes, makes a noise as it chews grass stems, and bat-eared foxes can hear the sound of termites foraging on the underside of ungulate dung and the noise of beetle larvae in a dung beetle ball. Mice and other small vertebrate prey will be snapped up if encountered and may be common in the diet when young pups are present. The bat-eared fox remains an inconspicuous but widespread inhabitant of dry areas in southwest and northeast Africa. It is not persecuted and has benefited from cattle ranching in southern Africa which creates short grass habitat, and grazing termites. Disease epidemics sometimes decimate local populations.
The species eats mainly insects and fruits. In the Negev of Israel, beetles, ants, termites and grasshoppers were all snapped up together with dates and the fruits of other palms. In central Asia, olives are a staple food. Rats and mice are taken when encountered but constitute less than 10 of the diet. The species can survive without drinking water. Its fluid comes from its food and it has been calculated that the water provided by food may often be more important than the calories. Foraging is almost always solitary and consists of slow and systematic investigation stones and bushes in search on insects. The foxes dash after small vertebrates when flushed.
Saddle-back tamarins are primarily frugivorous and insectivorous, but supplement their diet with exudates, nectar, small vertebrates, and soil from arboreal termite mounds. Depending on availability, nectar or exudates may become the dietary staples when fruits are scarce. They search for prey in the leaf litter, and dip into tree holes, crevices, and bromeliads.
However, the human side of the equation must never be forgotten when dealing with invasive mammals, as many of these animals in other non-pest contexts are highly valued. Hence, pestiferous feral cats, rabbits, wild horses, burros, pigs, and other mammals causing problems cannot be treated as the object of extermination like cockroaches or termites. Every mammal seems to be loved by some group, be it hunters and indigenous people who favor wild pigs or animal rights groups who champion freedom for minks. Right or wrong, good or bad, these varied human sensibilities need to be taken into account in designing any integrated pest management program to control invasive mammals. For example, in the western United States, capturing wild horses and letting people adopt them has replaced the old practice of herding the horses into canyons and shooting them. This type of solution may have more to do with politics or social science and consensus building than with biological or ecological...
Diet European rollers eat mostly insects such as beetles, grasshoppers, locusts, crickets, cicadas (suh-KAY-duhz), mantids, wasps, bees, ants, termites, flies, butterflies, and caterpillars. Occasionally, they eat scorpions, centipedes, spiders, worms, frogs, lizards, snakes, and birds. While on their perches, European rollers watch for ground prey. Seeing food, they expose long, broad wings as they attack. They then return to the perch. Before eating prey, they repeatedly strike the food against the perch. They also catch insects in midair. Undigested remains are regurgitated (re-GER-jih-tate-ud brought up from the stomach) in pellets.
These snakes feed mainly on ant brood and termites. They swallow ant larvae and pupae whole, but their prey-handling strategies vary when they feed on termites. They always attack termites from behind and sometimes swallow them whole. In some cases, they ingest only the abdomen and thorax and break off the head. In still other instances, the snakes merely chew on the termites, draining their abdominal fluids. Less common prey include ant lions, beetles, caterpillars, cockroaches, earwigs, fly larvae, and spiders. Texas blindsnakes are sometimes observed foraging amidst raiding columns of army ants. Eastern screech owls (Otus asio) often capture these snakes alive and bring them back to their nests, where the snakes feed on parasitic invertebrates amidst the nest debris.
Tropics and transitional zones (subtropics) bordering the tropics to the north and south sufficient numbers of ants and termites is paramount to survival, and is the overriding factor as to whether they will remain in a locality Tropics and transitional zones (subtropics) bordering the tropics to the north and south sufficient numbers of ants and termites is paramount to survival, and is the overriding factor as to whether they will remain in a locality
A chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) uses a stick to get termites in Sweet-waters Reserve, Kenya. (Photo by Mary Beth Angelo Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.) A chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) uses a stick to get termites in Sweet-waters Reserve, Kenya. (Photo by Mary Beth Angelo Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.)
Humans owe their relatively long life span to living in societies that reduce the risk of extrinsic mortality. Other organisms in organized societies are also expected to exhibit a similar lengthening of life span over evolutionary time. One hundred million years before the first human stood up and walked, social insects existed in societies with cities, roads, division of labor, farming, slave making, and organized group defenses (Holldobler and Wilson, 1990). Sociality has resulted in a 10- to 100-fold increase in the life span of queens in ants, bees, and termites, a trend that was rigorously demonstrated using phylogenetic methods to compare life span and social structure across the insects (Figure 24.1 Keller and Genoud, 1997). The evolution of sociality and its associated increase in life span show a general trend that has independently evolved several times.
Preaxostyla are flagellates that lack mitochondria with cristae. The taxon unites oxymonads (intestinal endobionts primarily of termites) and Trimastix (free-living organisms from oxygen-poor habitats that consume bacteria using a feeding groove). The grouping is supported by SSU rRNA phylogenies and ultrastructure (see Fig. 1.2 and Simpson 2003).
An opportunistic aerial insectivore, congregating loosely at concentrations of food and environmental disturbances that flush it, such as fire, grazing domestic stock, field clearing, and ploughing. Black drongos even chase other birds piratically for captured prey, and will sometimes settle on the ground to pick up ants and emerging termites. Their staple diet comprises a range of large, hard-cased field insects locusts and crickets, beetles, and bees and also some moths and butterflies and, infrequently, small reptiles, birds, and bats. Nectar is an important supplement, and the drongos may play a useful role in plant pollination.
Gray potoos live in the rainforests and grasslands of Mexico and Central and South America, where they eat moths, grasshoppers, beetles, termites, and fireflies. (Patricio Robles Gil Bruce Coleman Inc. Reproduced by permission.) Gray potoos live in the rainforests and grasslands of Mexico and Central and South America, where they eat moths, grasshoppers, beetles, termites, and fireflies. (Patricio Robles Gil Bruce Coleman Inc. Reproduced by permission.) Diet Gray potoos eat moths, grasshoppers, beetles, termites, and fireflies.
The male and female breed for life, and share the raising of their latest brood with older offspring. Nests are usually made in natural cavities, but can be formed from termite nests or soft dead wood. Females lay from one to five eggs. The incubation period is between twenty-four and twenty-nine days, with the female performing most of the duties, and other members performing other chores. The nestling period is from thirty-two to forty days. Young birds stay with their parents for several years as helpers.
Gray woodpeckers eat insects, ants, termites, beetle larvae, and other arthropods. They search for their food on the ground, in the air, and on live and dead trees. (Illustration by Gillian Harris. Reproduced by permission.) Gray woodpeckers eat insects, ants, termites, beetle larvae, and other arthropods. They search for their food on the ground, in the air, and on live and dead trees. (Illustration by Gillian Harris. Reproduced by permission.) Diet Their diet consists of insects, ants, termites, beetle larvae, and other arthropods. They forage on the ground, in live and dead trees, and in the air.
Diet Their food includes insects, insect larvae, ants, termites, beetles, slugs, grubs, snails, millipedes, caterpillars, and earthworms. The birds sit quietly and watch for prey. If none is found, they go to another perch or fly down to the ground to forage among the leaf-litter of the forest floor.
Diet Like all toucans, toco toucans eat a variety of fruits, but mostly figs. They also eat caterpillars, termites, and eggs and nestlings of other birds. Pairs preen each other and fence with their bills like swordfighters. They often nest in palm-tree cavities and can dig the hole a little deeper. They also nest in burrows, which they dig in soft, sandy riverbanks, or nest in tree-termite nests that have been opened by woodpeckers. A typical clutch is two to four white eggs. The male and female take turns incubating for eighteen days. The nestlings are fed insects at first. They fledge after forty-three to fifty-two days.
Behavior and reproduction Rufous-tailed jacamars live alone or in pairs, and like to forage from shrubbery near the ground. They do not migrate, but they do make short journeys. The birds signal danger or anxiety with a sharp trill. Males regularly feed females during courtship. They use former termite nests or earthen banks for their breeding sites. Both mates and females dig out nests to a depth of 7.9 to 19.7 inches (20 to 50 centimeters). Females lay one to four white eggs in ground-hole nests. The incubation period is ninteen to twenty-three days, while the nestling period is nineteen to twenty-six days. Both males and females incubate and take care of young. Nestlings hatch with whitish down feathers and are fed insects, especially butterflies.
Begins feeding after sunset, catching insects on the wing for 30-60 minutes. Flight low, often through bushes. Then rests for 60-120 minutes before foraging throughout night, fly-catching from a perch. Eats primarily grasshoppers, moths, beetles, termites, mosquitoes, and other Diptera.
A short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) feeds on termites. (Photo by Animals Animals K. Atkinson, OSF. Reproduced by permission.) A short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) feeds on termites. (Photo by Animals Animals K. Atkinson, OSF. Reproduced by permission.)
Burrows, consisting of long passageways with side chambers for bedding and storage however, they also use the burrows of other animals, termite mounds, or natural crevices such as rock crevices or hollow trees. Burrows usually have several openings that are camouflaged by dense vegetation. Burrow entrances are often plugged with vegetation from the inside. They can climb well and swim, and appear to be mainly solitary.
Bipes biporus feeds mainly on termites, insect larvae, and ants found below the soil surface. Evidence also exists that Bipes occasionally feeds on spiders and insects, which are surface-active prey, indicating that at least some feeding occurs outside of the tunnel system. Field studies indicate that B. biporus are more likely to be found outside of their tunnel systems during the night.
No studies examining the natural diet of Agamodon anguliceps exist. If we presume that the diet of A. anguliceps is similar to that of other amphisbaenians, then it would consist of small invertebrates such as termites, beetles, and beetle larvae. On the other hand, laboratory-based behavioral studies indicate that, when offered larger prey items, A. anguliceps is capable of attacking, killing, biting, and efficiently eating various vertebrates. This is not surprising considering the heavy jaws and chewing muscles exhibited in this species.
While we argue here that the honeybee is an emerging model organism in aging research, it has already attained the status of a model organism in several other biological disciplines and it serves as the model social insect. Social evolution has generated a wide variety of social systems with unique selection pressures and adaptations that provide many opportunities for testing ultimate theories of aging, as well as study the proximate causes of naturally evolved aging differentials. Sociality with overlapping generations, cooperative brood care, and (reproductive) division of labor, as in the honeybee, has evolved multiple times in insects, with termites, ants, wasps, and bees as prominent representatives (for other groups see Choe and Crespi, 1997).