Disorders of the urogenital tract can occur for a wide variety of reasons (see Refs. 236, 237). Those involving the autonomic nervous system range from trauma and diseases such as multiple sclerosis that affect the preganglionic autonomic neurons in the spinal cord to iatrogenic causes such as radical surgery or x-irradiation, which can result in local nerve damage, and, finally, metabolic disorders such as diabetes, which affect autonomic neuromuscular transmission. In some cases the precise nature of the changes that occur in human beings has proved difficult to determine and, where possible, much information has been derived from animal models.
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