Disorders of the Urogenital Tract

Disorders of the urogenital tract can occur for a wide variety of reasons (see Refs. 236, 237). Those involving the autonomic nervous system range from trauma and diseases such as multiple sclerosis that affect the preganglionic autonomic neurons in the spinal cord to iatrogenic causes such as radical surgery or x-irradiation, which can result in local nerve damage, and, finally, metabolic disorders such as diabetes, which affect autonomic neuromuscular transmission. In some cases the precise...

Slow Transit Constipation

Patients with idiopathic constipation with normal bowel diameter have an increased whole-gut transit time. This may be related to an imbalance of enteric transmitter release. For example, VIP levels are reduced in the myenteric plexus and muscle layers of patients with this colonic motility disorder, while levels of SP and NPY are normal (271,272). Disturbances in the function of cholinergic innervation of the taenia coli of the colon have also been reported. 5-HT levels are elevated in...

Diabetic Neuropathy

Diabetes is the most common cause of autonomic neuropathy in humans (294,295). Diabetic autonomic neuropathy has been implicated in dysfunction of the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and urogenital systems (295,296). Animal models have been used extensively in research in the field of diabetes. Studies of rats made diabetic by administration of streptozotocin (STZ) have provided a wealth of evidence for diabetes-induced changes in autonomic nerves throughout the vasculature and visceral...

Acute and Chronic Altitude Hypoxia

Increasing altitude is accompanied by decreased oxygen concentration. Studies on altitude natives and on sojourners at altitude have revealed the physiological and biological adaptations to short-term and long-term residency at high altitude that ensure adequate oxygen supply to tissues. Notable changes include altered ventilation rates, increased red blood cell number, and increased capillary volume. In recent years, the role of the autonomic nervous system in adaptation to altitude hypoxia...

Mark Tuszynski MD PhD

Associate Professor of Neurosciences Director, Center for Neural Repair University of California-San Diego La Jolla, California 1. Handbook of Parkinson's Disease, edited by William C. Koller 2. Medical Therapy of Acute Stroke, edited by Mark Fisher 3. Familial Alzheimer's Disease Molecular Genetics and Clinical Perspectives, edited by Gary D. Miner, Ralph W. Richter, John P. Blass, Jimmie L. Valentine, and Linda A. Winters-Miner 4. Alzheimer's Disease Treatment and Long-Term Management, edited...

Spinal Cord Injury and Decentralization

Following transection of preganglionic autonomic nerves or in spinal cord injury, there are marked changes in the nerves that remain. Such changes can be manifested not only as nerve growth and changes in neurotransmitter expression but, remarkably, in reorganization of nerve pathways and their function. The most dramatic examples of such plasticity occur in the urogenital tract, and it is probable that the anatomical organization of nerve pathways in this region accounts for this (see Refs....