Quality Stress Management Course

8 Minute Meditation for Stress Relief

When you skillfully learn to handle your stress, not only does your stress level go down, but your quality of life goes up. The skills you will learn in the 8 Minute Meditation Stress Reduction Program have a global impact. Just think about it: If you lower your stress, you feel calmer. Your heart rate is normal, your digestive and other systems are working normally, the way they were designed to. Your entire body and mind are in harmony, functioning to give you the most aware, joyful experience you can have. There's nothing in the way. Then, the world may appear totally different. Colors may seem more vivid. Your shoulders seem lighter, like some great burden has been lifted from them. Life is just good again. Read more...

8 Minute Meditation for Stress Relief Summary

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The Nature Of Stressful Life Events And Disasters

Historically, research on health effects of stressful life events commenced with clinical records of individual reactions to war. Following the American Civil War and World War I, shell shock and battle fatigue became known as extreme reactions to this kind of stress. After World War II, studies on the long-term effects of the Holocaust and other war-related events, such as the devastation of Hiroshima, were conducted. Disasters unrelated to war have been investigated by psychologists since the 1970s. At present, a broad variety of disasters, ranging from tornadoes and oods to re and toxic spills, are being examined for their health impact on

Research Examples Of Stressful Life Events

The relationship between stressful life events and the individual's response is indirect in that it is mediated by the perception and evaluation of the disaster impact on the individual as well as the community level. As shown in the empirical data, attempts to examine psychological and physiological correlates of disastrous traumatic events need to allow for short-term as well as long-term analyses of the effects to cover full symptomatology.

Stressful Life Events In The Light Of Individual Differences Gender Culture Ethnicity And

Another example of cultural differences in response to stressful events is the diversity of attitudes toward loss and grief. Often, those attitudes are closely related to religious beliefs within each culture. Gillard and Paton (1999) examined the role of religious differences for distress following a hurricane in the Fiji Islands. They compared the impact of hurricane Nigel in 1997 on Christian Fijians, Indians following Islam, and Indians practicing Hinduism. Results indicated that religious denomination had a differential impact on vulnerability. Gillard and Paton show that one major difference between all three groups lies in the amount of assistance that was provided for the victims of the disaster. Moreover, the unfullled expectations of Muslims and Hindus as to support provision constitute a stressor that may increase their vulnerability. Most widely used psychological principles and theories are derived from research that is anchored in Western scien-tic practices. Yet, there...

Health Outcomes Of Stressful Life Events

Most individuals who experience stress do not develop illness. Stressful life changes are usually temporary, whereas other risk factors for disease can be longer lasting, for example, smoking, alcohol consumption, a high-fat, low-ber diet, and risky lifestyle in general. When comparing a single life event with those long-term behaviors, the latter seem to be more inuential in developing illness. Moreover, the experience of a critical life event is related to coping and social support, whereby these two factors may moderate the stress-illness connection. How can we understand the mechanisms of the stress-illness association There are three major pathways that link stressful life events to ill health (Figure 2.2). Figure 2.2 Mediators between stressful life events and ill health (excluding other major mediators such as personality, appraisals, coping, and social support). Figure 2.2 Mediators between stressful life events and ill health (excluding other major mediators such as...

Adjustment disorder

Often, a person experiences a stressful event as one that changes his or her world in some fundamental way. The stressful events that precipitate an adjustment disorder vary widely. They may include the loss of a job the end of a romantic relationship a life transition such as a career change or retirement or a serious accident or sickness. Some are acute one-time stressors, such as relocating to a new area, while others are chronic, such as caring for a child with mental retardation. Psychiatrists have disagreed about the validity of the diagnosis of adjustment disorder, largely because of its lack of specificity. What qualifies as a stressful event, and what is an abnormal response to it While adjustment disorders are more difficult to quantify than other mental disorders, many researchers consider the category a useful one for two reasons 1) an adjustment disorder may be an early sign of a major mental disorder and allow for early treatment and intervention 2) adjustment disorders...

Studies from the Published Literature

One explanation for these findings is that living in the city, coupled with living within a lower income stratification often involves navigating an increased number of stressful life experiences which include increased conflict with interpersonal relations, increased sensory stimulation, noise, stress, and anxiety associated with citylife, which can often encompass situations involving increased exposure to crime and violence (Yonas, 2004 Fischer, 1984 House, 1978 Milgram, 1970). City residents often experience limited access to and ability to engage institutional resources such as nutritious food resources, healthcare, mental health counseling, and or social support networks necessary for successfully negotiating the stresses of living in

Acculturative Stress

There also is individual resistance to acculturate by some minority-group members. Some hold onto traditional cultural beliefs, values, customs, language, behaviors, and so on, while resisting mainstream cultural influences. These are referred to as separatist, as there is clear resistance to acculturate. This resistance is confounded, if not caused by, racism, political history, antagonism, and forms of injustice. Another mode of acculturation is to acculturate towards the two cultures simultaneously, as in the case of some second- and third-generation ethnic minorities. This is also true for African Americans who acculturate toward African-American culture and mainstream American culture at the same time. Some individuals relinquish their old beliefs and ideas while replacing them with ideas learned while undergoing acculturative processes. Still other individuals hold on dearly to their traditional culture while trying to integrate the old with the new (integrated biculturals)....

Does CBCA Differentiate between Liars and Truth Tellers

Which give the test psychological meaning and make interpretation possible (Kline, 1993). An intelligence test is a standardised test. If a person obtains a score of 130, then we know that they are very intelligent and also that they are more intelligent than someone who obtains a score of 70. This is not the case for CBCA assessments. A child with a low CBCA score is not necessarily fabricating. Other factors (for example, low mental capability of the child) may have influenced the CBCA outcome. Similarly, a child with a high CBCA score is not necessarily telling the truth (for example, the child might have been well coached by a parent, especially one who knows about CBCA). Without any norms at all the meaning of a test score is impossible to gauge. Therefore, standardisation of a test is essential. In an effort to standardise CBCA assessments, the validity checklist has been developed (Steller, 1989). This contains a set of topics which SVA experts address (such as 'cognitive...

Discussing psychological profile

A psychological profile is built up which furnishes the counsellor with important information about how the individual is likely to cope under the stress of genetic knowledge. It addresses resilience, coping style and whether these will successfully sustain and provide the support needed. The discussion will possibly include previous experience of stressful events and their management by the individual. In addition, it is useful to know the family's reaction to its genetic potential or history, and whether the individual has found that helpful or not. In the Huntington's disease protocol, the counsellor may suggest to the individual that they imagine taking different decisions or having different test results. This exercise helps the individual mentally rehearse the different scenarios and explore and consider their possible future reactions. In this way the counsellor is helping the individual prepare to confront any future anxiety or grief. Soldan et al. (2000) refer to this...

Uncertainty and the effects of knowledge

The speciality of medical genetics exists because one of the ways of dealing with uncertainty is to search for more information. It can help the individual to clarify, explain and to know. It fulfils a human need to try and understand, or in every day language 'to get one's mind round it'. Learning that one will develop a life threatening disorder may out weigh the benefits of uncertainty reduction. The extent to which the reduction in uncertainty outweighs the threat of the disease depends on the interaction between the individual and the nature of the disease (Baum et al., 1997). In a study by Codori and Brandt (1994) of Huntington's disease, knowing one's risk was thought to be helpful regardless of the result, but research has shown that reactions to testing are complex and whilst positive results are stressful, negative results are not always associated with stress reduction (Lerman et al., 1991).

Different coping responses

The individual is likely to have had previous experience of coping with difficult and stressful situations. As a result, an internal bank of confidence builds up and acts as a reference body which can be drawn on. Each time a difficult situation is managed it adds to the internal strength and reinforces the possibility that the future can be managed, even if painful. Pursuing hope, learning information, constructing meaning, acquiring new knowledge, developing new coping methods, increasing control and minimisation

Health Maintenance And Disease Prevention

Even in old age, there are many things that can be done to maintain a reasonably healthy state and consequently continue to enjoy life. Among the recommendations for adding both years to life and life to years are to maintain physical fitness and positive wellness by proper exercise, nutritional awareness, effective stress management, and refraining from or reducing cigarette

The holistic approach to management

In a healing profession obsessed with interventionism, invasive technology and drug management, the general practitioner has an obligation to his or her patients to use natural healing methods wherever possible and be very discerning and conservative with investigatory medicine. Patients appreciate natural remedies and taking responsibility for their own management wherever possible and appropriate. Examples include relative rest, exercise, swimming, stress management, meditation, spiritual awareness, antioxidant therapy (e.g. vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium), weight control, optimal healthy nutrition, avoidance of toxins (e.g. illicit drugs, nicotine, caffeine and alcohol) and sexual fulfilment.

Geneticization and BRCA1

Consider, for example, the ways in which biomedicine directs attention primarily to the level of the individual by encouraging each woman to develop high levels of fear about her own risk of contracting breast cancer. In the name of health promotion, women are repeatedly warned of the risk each faces of developing this disease. Many women are easily frightened into a mind-set where they are preoccupied with monitoring their bodies for threatening signs of change (or where they guiltily avoid checking their breasts for fear of discovering some suspicious lump) if a lump is detected, they are primed to quickly seek expert advice and biomedical interventions. This focus on individual responsibility and surveillance occurs as part of a much larger public health campaign aimed at self-regulation not only are women asked to pay worried and regular attention to their breasts, they are also advised to change lifelong eating habits, develop healthy exercise programs, learn stress management...

The Big Five Model And The Fivefactor Model

The facet scales measuring different aspects of Neuroticism make it clear that two individuals with similar domain-level scores might manifest this trait differently. The facets include Anxiety, Angry Hostility, Depression, Self-Consciousness, Impulsiveness, and Vulnerability. High scorers on Anxiety tend to experience both specific fears and free-floating worries, leaving them tense and nervous. Angry Hostility is associated with greater likelihood of experiencing anger, which may be expressed in a variety of ways depending on other NEO-PI-R components such as Agreeableness. Individuals who are high on the Depression facet scale manifest as dejected, hopeless, and guilty. The Self-Consciousness facet taps the experience of interpersonal shame or embarrassment. individuals who are high on impulsiveness find it difficult to exercise control over cravings, and their frustration tolerance is low. The Vulnerability facet scale describes individuals who have real difficulty handling...

Conversion and dissociative disorders ICD F44 formerly called hysteria

Conversion disorder is the current term for syndromes in which there is loss of physical function, such as paralysis of a limb, blindness, or fits, that cannot be explained by physical disease. The condition is regarded as not intentionally produced, thereby distinguishing it from factitious disorder (see below). It tends to develop acutely in stressful circumstances. Such symptoms appear to express an emotional conflict or need, and may bear some symbolic relationship to the nature of the stress. For example, one student developed a paralysed right hand the day before a written examination. The symptoms often appear to bring advantages for the patient a 'primary gain' of keeping psychological stress at bay, and a 'secondary gain' of attracting sympathy and support or avoiding unwelcome obligations.

Current theories about the origin of mental disorders

Stress is something O everyone in modern society seems to understand. There i are two basic kinds of stress inner stress from previous o traumas or wounds that affect one's present life and m outer stress, or the environmental issues that complicate en life on a daily basis, such as work or family problems. tal The interplay of these two forms of stress affects brain ill chemistry just as it can affect physical health. Numerous e studies have shown that when people are chronically se stressed in life, they are vulnerable to depression, anxiety, and other disorders. Interestingly, 70 of the adults in one recent European war situation were found to have depression, which is a normal human response to relentless stress. Researchers presently think that the mechanism that triggers this depression is the depletion of certain neurotransmitters, particularly serotonin and norepinephrine, which may lead to other biochemical imbalances. For instance, most people...

Stress and Personality

Reactions to stressful situations are a function not only of the severity of the event but also of the physical and psychological makeup of the affected individual. In a longitudinal study of men who had been psychologically examined as college students, those who were diagnosed as poorly adjusted were much more likely to become seriously ill and die in middle adulthood than those who had been diagnosed as well adjusted (Valliant, 1979). These findings led Valliant to conclude that personality adjustment in young adulthood influences a person's physical health in midlife. Good adjustment and positive mental health appear to slow the physical decline that begins in midlife, whereas poor adjustment hastens it. Another cognitive model of coping is Folkman and Lazarus's (1980) distinction between problem-focused and emotion-focused strategies. A problem-focused strategy consists of obtaining additional information to actively change a stressful situation, whereas an emotion-focused...

The attachment dynamic and systemic thinking

Whilst being relatively stable over time, the family also needs to be change to allow for developmental progress and crisis situations. Families differ in their degree of flexibility (Olsen et al., 1988) and that will determine the ability to cope with change. Folkman (1984) has categorised the resources needed by the family under three headings material (relating to the economic resources), physical (which are to do with health and fitness) and social (to include practical and emotional support within the family and wider system). The task for the family is how to collaborate to manage stress, conflict, share emotions and support one another.

The tasks of the counsellor when working with a family

At the beginning of the clinical encounter with a family the counsellor takes the family history and constructs a family tree. This provides information about the family interactional pattern and their relationship with the counsellor. In particular, the counsellor will be assessing the family's ability to collaborate to manage stress and the degree to which conflict interrupts its adaptive functioning. This clarifies the nature of the family attachment pattern and whether the family can act as a secure-enough base for one another to help in the challenge of genetic counselling. The families with an insecure attachment pattern will need more help from a counsellor than a family with a secure pattern. Families with a secure attachment patterns are able to express, share and contain emotions, in preparation for decision-making

Cultural Differences And Young Adulthood

Adolescence emerged only in modern societies, which expect the younger generation to postpone maturity to learn complex skills and to develop their own unique identity. Not everyone is cut out for this challenge. Adolescence is a stressful time for those who are vulnerable to stress. In traditional societies, young people are provided social roles and networks. In modern societies, adolescents give up the protection of assigned roles and networks. They must spend many years learning how to function as adults. Instead of identifying with family and community values, they are expected to find their own, developing a unique identity. Young people rarely do the same work as their parents and must learn necessary skills from strangers. Families may not even understand the nature of their children's careers. Finally, young people are expected to find their own mates. Because there is no guarantee that this search will be successful, the young need to deal with the vicissitudes of mistaken...

Analysis Of Stress Transcriptome From Other Plant Species

None of the classical enzymes involved in antioxidant defense, including catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase showed altered transcript levels. This was explained on the basis that candidates like aldehyde dehydrogenase and metallothionins might be fulfilling the role as antioxidant defense. Another gene which has been found to be highly up-regulated is cysteine proteases which have also been reported previously to be induced under both salt and drought stress (Koizumi et al. 1993). Thellungiella halophila is a closely-related to A. thaliana. In sharp contrast with Arabidopsis, Thellungiella tolerates extreme cold, drought, and salinity (Bressan et al. 2001 Inan et al. 2004 Taji et al. 2004, Amtmann et al. 2005). It has been noted that this naturally-occurring wild plant remains always ready to handle stress by keeping, in anticipation, the levels of stress responsive transcripts higher which are otherwise induced by stress signal in A. thaliana (Amtmann et...

Factors Unique To Older Minorities

Research has also identified certain factors unique to older minorities that influence the development of mental disorders among the elderly. Many groups of minority elderly are largely composed of immigrants almost 50 of older Hispanic Americans and 66 of older Asian Americans, for example, are immigrants (Hobbs & Damon, 1996). Studies on immigration have demonstrated both positive and negative effects regarding health and mental health. Overall, immigrants tend to be healthier than nonimmigrants, referred to as the healthy immigrant effect or migration selection (Moscicki, Locke, Rae, & Boyd, 1989). Immigration is also, however, a stressful event with lasting consequences such as reduced resources and social support. A recent study of older Mexican Americans (Black, Markides, & Miller, 1998) demonstrated that older male immigrants reflect the healthy immigrant effect in that they experience lower rates of depressive symptoms than males born in the United States. Among older...

Long TermCare Facilities

The negative perception that society, and older adults in particular, have of nursing homes is due in part to the desire of older adults to remain with their families in familiar surroundings rather than being placed in an unfamiliar environment to be tended by strangers and await death. Accounts of unsanitary and unsafe conditions and inadequate treatment of patients by nursing home staff during the 1970s and 1980s prompted a number of investigations of the entire nursing home industry. One result of these investigations and the attendant publicity was passage of the Nursing Home Reform Act of 1987, containing a set of regulations that apply to all nursing home facilities. This legislation resulted in the gradual phasing out of the distinction between nursing homes and intermediate care facilities, and, more importantly, to a greater respect for patients' rights. Nursing home patients are now more likely to be treated as individuals who merit respect and should be permitted and...

Etiology and Pathogenesis

Polymorphisms in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) may play a role in the pathogenesis and course of depression and anxiety (Hariri et al., 2003 Sen et al., 2004 Taylor et al., 2005). Geneotype has been related to hippocampal volumes (Taylor et al., 2005) and to amygdala reactivity to environmental stimuli (Hariri et al., 2005). These findings may be related to interactions between the serotonergic system and neurotrophic factors or cortisol response to stresses and may bias an individual's reactivity to stressful life experiences (Hariri et al., 2005 Taylor et al., 2005). Some studies report that genotype significantly predicts the development of depression after stressful life events (Lenze et al., 2005), although others did not find an association (Gillespie et al., 2005). Several studies have suggested that response to antidepressant therapy may be related to serotonin transporter genotype (Murphy et al., 2004). The short (S) allele was associated...

Government Facilities

A third implication of decisions concerning government facilities relates to parks and recreation facilities. Proximity to parks and recreation facilities is another factor that correlates with higher levels of physical activity (Huston, et al., 2003). Parks also reduce stress and improve psychological well-being for users (Ho, et al., 2003 Parsons, et al., 1998 Taylor, et al., 1998), as well as contribute to environmental quality. In times of tight budgets, parks and recreation facilities may seem like a luxury, but they can also be understood to be part of our basic health infrastructure.

Postmenopausal Dyspareunia

Attempts to lessen the pain through the use of water-based lubricants and topical estradiol cream had not been successful, and she did not wish to try systemic hormone replacement therapy for fear of developing breast cancer. A detailed sexual history revealed that Brenda had suffered from intermittent pain during intercourse for at least 15 years but had never complained about it, and that Alexander had always had difficulties with ejaculatory control. Over the past 4 years, Brenda reported difficulty getting sexually aroused, diminished lubrication, postcoital bleeding, and less interest in sex. Their current sexual frequency was less than once every 3 months, a frustrating situation for Alexander, who had hoped that their youngest child leaving home in the previous year would result in more frequent sexual activity. In the previous 5 years, the couple had also experienced significant life stressors including the sudden death of Brenda's mother and major financial problems....

Choosing the best time to plant fruits

In mild climates, the stressful time is the height of the hot summer, so you're often better off planting fruits in the fall or early winter. This timing allows young stock to establish their root systems before being called upon to produce new spring growth. Still-warm soil and, hopefully, drenching fall rains can welcome the new arrivals and hasten this process along.

Treatment of attempted suicide

A person who has attempted suicide and who is considered a serious danger to him- or herself or to others can be hospitalized against their will. The doctor will base the decision on the severity of the patient's depression or agitation availability of friends, relatives, or other social support and the presence of other suicide risk factors, including a history of previous suicide attempts, substance abuse, recent stressful events, and symptoms of psychosis. If the attempt is judged to be a nonlethal suicide gesture, the patient may be released after the psychiatric assessment is completed.

The Psychoanalytical View

Musaph defined vaginismus as a hysterical symptom, or a conversion symptom (18). In other words, a psychological complaint (anxiety) is changed into a physical symptom (a vaginistic reaction). According to Musaph, why some women are vaginistic whereas other are not depends on whether they have a primary disposition towards suppression as a defense mechanism this might be towards a disrupted mother-child relationship, or other stressful situations that occurred in the oral and oedipal phase of emotional development.

Clinical Case Example

Therapy also addressed many issues not directly related to her personality disorder as Georgia underwent chemotherapy, experienced ups and downs in relationships, and dealt with stressful situations at work. In addressing each of these situations, her therapist was alert for manifestations of her underlying conviction that her feelings didn't count and that drastic action was needed to get others to take her seriously. When possible, her therapist helped Georgia plan behavioral experiments in which she used real-life situations to test the validity of her assumptions and or to experiment with new approaches to problem situations. For example, after her life had been going well for several weeks, Georgia found herself thinking, I'm going to pay for this. It turned out that she had a strong conviction that if her life went well and she was happy, something bad would happen because she didn't deserve to be happy. In addition to addressing this belief verbally during the session, her...

Conclusionsthe Way Forward

To conclude, workplace stress is not going to be eliminated merely by passing legislation or having workable policies in the organisation. A thorough analysis of the sources of stress- and evidence-based stress management interventions will help to alleviate this problem in the workplace.

Theoretical Formulations

At its most ambitious the overall goal of therapy is to bring about a fundamental shift in coping from an essentially passive, worried, inhibited reaction to potential threat to an active, problem-solving approach in which stressful events and emotional reactions are accepted and managed. For those GAD sufferers who accept worry and tension as an unchangeable aspect of their personality and have only limited insight into the maladaptive nature of the disorder, therapists face a considerable change in bringing about active engagement with the demands of therapy. Motivational issues are frequently complicated by the presence of comorbid disorders and effective therapy is likely to depend crucially on the collaborative development of a formulation that emphasises the central role of worry and tension in maintaining the problems perceived to be most distressing. Treatment gains following CBT may, therefore, be less enduring than had been assumed from clinical trials with six- to 12-month...

Depersonalization disorder

The symptom of depersonalization can also occur in normal individuals under such circumstances as sleep deprivation, the use of certain anesthetics, experimental conditions in a laboratory (experiments involving weightlessness, for example), and emotionally stressful situations (such as taking an important academic examination or being in a traffic accident). One such example involves some of the rescue personnel from the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. These individuals experienced episodes of depersonalization after a day and a half without sleep. A more commonplace example is the use of nitrous oxide, or laughing gas as an anesthetic during oral surgery. Many dental patients report a sense of unreality or feeling of being outside their bodies during nitrous oxide administration.

The Caregiver Role In Managing Ad

The efficient diagnosis and successful management of AD depends on identifying a caregiver. Typically, family members and friends take on some part of the role and self-identify at the time of the initial presentation by providing a history of the cognitive problem. At this early stage, it is important to establish permission to speak openly with the caregiver to acknowledge and reinforce the notion that the caregiver is the advocate for the patient. Caregivers may be spouses of affected individuals however, in many instances, they are other family members or friends. Because AD is a long, progressive illness, many may be unprepared for the difficulties associated with caring for the demented patient. In addition, because many caregivers maintain and implement interventions for patients, their health status can become the concern of the patient's doctor (Lucero, Pearson, Hutchinson, Leger-Krall, & Rinalducci, 2001). Caregiver burden can be described in emotional, physical, and...

Age Differences in Coping Strategies

In their study of coping strategies in young, middle-aged, and older adults, Folkman et al. (1987) found that older adults were less likely than young and middle-aged adults to employ confrontation and aggression. Rather than becoming highly emotional when faced with stressful circumstances, older adults tended to cope by using denial, repression, and other passive strategies (Felton & Revenson, 1987 Folkman et al., 1987). As they become older, most adults relinquish coping strategies that, though presumably appropriate in young adulthood, have now outlived their usefulness. Confronting stress with detachment and humor is more characteristic of older than younger adults (Valliant, 1977). Lazarus and his colleagues (DeLongis, Coynce, Dakof, Folkman, & Lazarus, 1982 Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) also found that the reported number of stressful life events declined from middle to older adulthood. However, this does not necessarily mean that older adults experience less stress than...

Methods for the Study of Bats

There are several techniques for capturing bats, and success with any requires knowledge of the roosting and foraging behavior of bats, as well as their emergence and dispersal patterns (Kunz and Kurta, 1988). Regardless of technique, three critical pieces of equipment for capturing bats are a light source, gloves, and ''bat bags.'' Because bats are nocturnal, most capture sessions take place at dusk or at night when they emerge for foraging. Headlamps with halogen bulbs and battery packs are ideal for this work as they are reliable and keep a researcher's hands free for handling bats and manipulating equipment. Leather gloves should be used when handling bats to prevent bites and reduce stress to the animal. Lightweight leather gloves (e.g., baseball batter gloves) can be used for juveniles and smaller species, but heavier leather will be necessary for larger and more aggressive species, especially vampire bats and the large megachiroptera. The gloves should be soft and pliable to...

Sexual aversion disorder

There are a number of reasons that people lose interest in sexual intercourse. It is normal to experience a loss of desire during menopause directly after the birth of a child before or during menstruation during recovery from an illness or surgery and during such major or stressful life changes as death of a loved one, job loss, retirement, or divorce. These are considered normal causes for fluctuations in sexual desire and are generally temporary. Changing roles, such as becoming a parent for the

Social Anxiety In Children And Adolescents

An intervention called Social Effectiveness Therapy for children (SET-C) has been developed to treat socially anxious preadolescent children (ages 8 to 12) (Beidel, Turner & Morris, 1996). It was adapted from the adult SET programme (Turner et al., 1994b) and comprises separate group social skills training and individual exposure sessions for 12 weeks. A unique aspect of this treatment is that each child is paired with a non-anxious peer helper to assist in interactions in age-appropriate social outings. Parent involvement is limited to assistance with conducting the structured interaction homework assignments. Cognitive restructuring is not a fixed component of SET-C because the authors believe that children in Piaget's concrete operational stage may not endorse catastrophic negative thoughts during socially stressful situations.

Self Report Emotion Mood and Coping

Researchers studying coping have identified a long list of strategies for managing stress (e.g., problem solving, cognitive restructuring, catastro-phizing, emotional ventilation, physical activities, acceptance, distraction, avoidance, wishful thinking, humor, social withdrawal, alcohol or drug use, and seeking social support Comp s, Connor, Saltz-man, Thomsen, & Wadsworth, 2001). Some of these coping strategies likely assess emotionality (e.g., emotional ventilation) or outcomes of coping. Thus, investigators need to carefully consider what specific measures of coping assess and how they relate to measures such as emotionality. Moreover, researchers studying children and adolescents' coping often use self-report measures that assess coping responses to hypothetical vignettes involving emotion and emotion management strategies (e.g., Band & Weisz, 1988 Saarni, 1997). These vignettes involve having children or adolescents read about a stressful situation or problem (or an...

Minority Groups And The Urban Environment

To obtain relief from harsh living, working conditions and stressful environment induced by the social structures and unequal distribution of resources. In addition, there is also a strong association between availability of these products, specifically alcohol consumption (Rabow and Watts, 1983 1984). Blacks and latinos are more likely to hold stressful jobs and live in impoverished communities. To complement that, it is well known that blacks and latinos have been targeted by these industries, and in fact, over 80 of billboards in the U.S. contain advertisements targeted to blacks and latinos with a large majority placed in the neighborhoods in which these groups live (Hacker, et al., 1987 Maxwell and Jacobson, 1989). Fast food restaurants and convenience stores follow a similar pattern of product placement and advertisement in urban cities. Morland and colleagues (2002a and 2002b) found a greater number of fast food restaurants and convenience stores in black neighborhoods when...

Culturally Approved Illness Manifestation

Once we know to what extent individuals adhere to the Latino culture or the U.S. culture, it is important to understand how to culturally tailor further diagnosis and treatment. It would be inappropriate to use Latino culture-specific methods of diagnosis or treatment if the individual is highly assimilated, just as it would be inappropriate to ignore culture-specific methods if the individual is less acculutrated. Culture has been purported to have influences on the perception and definition of mental illness (Kleinman & Good, 1985) and the manifestation and expression of the symptoms (Draguns, 1973 Kleinman, 1988). Some researchers have identified culture-specific disorders in Latino cultures, and have demonstrated the inseparable connection between the mental and physical well-being in the Latino culture (see Molina & Aguirre-Molina, 1994). Some Latinos practice folk medicine and self-medicate through herbs and home remedies. Some examples of folk illness are mal de ojo (evil...

Diagnosis

The diagnosis of MDD involves a constellation of symptoms in addition to depressed mood. After taking a careful history, including asking the patient about his or her sleeping patterns, appetite, sex drive, and mood, the doctor will give the patient a physical examination to rule out other possible causes of the symptoms. Certain other disorders may resemble MDD, including cognitive dysfunction caused by the direct effects of a substance (drug of abuse, medication, or toxic chemical) various medical conditions (i.e., an underactive thyroid gland strokes or early stages of dementia), or other mental disorders. Such stressful life events as normal bereavement may also produce behaviors similar to those associated with MDD while a bereaved person may appear to have many of the characteristics of MDD, the disorder would not be diagnosed unless the symptoms continued for more than two months or were extreme in some way. As part of the diagnostic interview, the doctor may give the patient a...

Normal results

Meditation may be an effective treatment for coronary artery disease (CAD). For example, a study of 21 patients practicing TM for eight months increased their tolerance of exercise and their capacity for work. Also, meditation is an important part of Dr. Dean Ornish's program for the prevention or reversal of CAD. His program involves a low-fat vegetarian diet, moderate exercise (for example, walking 30 minutes per day), and techniques for reducing stress, including meditation. The scientific evidence also suggests that meditation is particularly helpful in treating anxiety-related disorders and in reducing symptoms of anxiety triggered by stress. For example, researchers conducted a study in 1998 of 37 patients with psoriasis a chronic, stress-related skin condition. They found that patients who practiced mindfulness meditation and who received standard ultraviolet light treatment experienced a more rapid clearing of their skin condition than the control subjects. Another study found...

Purpose

The goal of learning and implementing anxiety reduction techniques is to help reduce the intensity of anxiety that a person feels. These techniques are also helpful in teaching people how to relax and manage stress. Many of the techniques are used in combination with each other. For example, a person may be taught diaphragmatic breathing while also engaging in relax

Selfreport

Distress (Schwarz and Kowalski, 1992) or they fail to perceive that some symptoms are related to a stressful event (Solomon and Canino, 1990). This situation points to the simplicity of decision rules that employ dichotomous categories or cut-off scores because there may be numerous reasons why an individual may report a symptom in a particular way (Rogers, 1997b). Until there is a substantive increase in cross-validation studies, there is little evidence to guide interpretation of reporting patterns and one should be careful about placing excessive emphasis on detection strategies based on single studies.

Aromatherapy

Citrus aurantium var. dulcis The essential oil is used to convey warmth and happiness and improve mood (Battaglia 2003), reduce stress, and promote sleep (Miakeet al 1991), and aid concentration (Baron & Thomley 1994). It is traditionally known as 'the oil of communication and happiness'. It is also used to improve digestion and as a carminative to relieve gastric cramping and discomfort. Citrus aurantium var. amara The essential oil is used to reduce anxiety, muscle tension and promote relaxation. It is used in cosmetics to repair broken capillaries, stimulate cell regeneration and to manage acne-prone skin.

Hsps As Biomarkers

The significance of anti-HSP in the body is unclear, though, like the proteins themselves, anti-HSP levels are affected by disease (Chiba et al., 2006 Child et al., 2006 Pockley et al., 2000 Schett et al., 1995 Wright et al., 2000a Xu et al., 1993). Like HSP, anti-HSP also have the potential for use as clinical markers. We recently published findings of increased anti-Hsp72 antibodies in pregnant women who gave birth to babies with birth defects, suggesting a prior increase in Hsp72 due to a stressful event (Child et al., 2006). Hsp72 may have buffering roles in evolution as shown for Hsp90 (Queitsch et al., 2002) and this may be a mechanism whereby stress in pregnancy exposes undesirable phenotypes due to Hsp72 being relocated in response to stress (Child et al., 2006).

Exercise

It is a well-known fact that regular exercise can reduce the severity of system disorders (Hill, Storandt, & Malley, 1993). Oxygen consumption, ventilation capacity, cardiac output, blood flow, muscle tonus, muscle strength, and the flexibility of the joints can all be increased by exercises such as walking, swimming, calisthenics, jogging, and other moderate aerobic exercises (Blumentahl et al., 1991). Exercise also results in reduced body fats, poisons, blood pressure, the response times of body cells and organs, and nervous tension. Regular physical exercise also enhances one's sense of well-being, feelings of self-efficacy and control, the ability to cope with psychologically stressful situations, and general psychological health (King, Taylor, Haskell, & DeBusk, 1989). It can also have beneficial effects on depression,

Prognosis

M. and Gardner, C. O. (2001). Genetic risk, number of previous depressive episodes, and stressful life events in predicting onset of major depression. Am J Psychiatry 158, 582-586. Ustun, T. B., Ayuso-Mateos, J. L., Chatterji, S. et al. (2004). Global burden of depressive disorders in the year 2000. Br J Psychiatry 184, 386-392.

Social Phobia

Immigrants from countries with a high frequency of social unrest, wars, and civil conflicts may show high rates of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) (Boehnlein & Kinzie, 1995). These immigrants may be particularly reluctant to divulge experience of torture and trauma because of their political immigrant status (DSM-IV, 1994, p. 426). In the specific case of practitioners providing mental health services to American Indians and Alaska Natives, McNeil, Kee, and Zvolensky (1999) suggested an assessment of historical events leading to cultural abuses and discrimination against these groups (see Paniagua, 1998, pp. 77-81) and how these historical (aversive) events may lead to intergen-erational Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among members of these groups (McNeil et al., 1999, p. 62). In the case of Acute Stress Disorder, the severity of this disorder may be determined by cultural differences in the implications of loss. Coping behaviors may also be culturally determined. For example,...

Migraine

Gamma-linolenic acid may be beneficial in the prevention of migraine headache when used in combination with other nutritional supplements and as part of an overall management plan, according to an open, prospective, uncontrolled trial involving 168 migraine patients. In the study, patients took a combination of GLA and alpha-LA (1800 mg day), other vitamins, coenzymes and antioxidants, and were instructed to lower their arachidonic acid intake. They were also instructed on correct techniques of self-medication and in stress-reduction and progressive relaxation techniques. Of the 129 patients who were evaluated after 6 months, 86 reported an improvement, with 22 of the total being free from migraine, while 14 were not able to implement the self-management of progressive relaxation and stress reduction techniques. Severity and frequency of attacks were decreased in patients reporting a positive response. Significant reduction in nausea and vomiting was reported in all groups except the...

Absence has meaning

The interview was dominated by the man's anxiety and the request to let him have the test that day, as he did not want to think about it too much. Knowing that he was married, the counsellor commented on the absence of his wife and asked how he had decided to come, what discussion he and his wife had and how they had made the decision for him to come alone. His answer was that he had not told her as she would dissuade him. He explained that he and his wife disagreed about him being tested and under no circumstance could his wife consider telling their children if he were to be affected. He was then asked what he thought about this difference of opinion between him and his wife and he replied that his wife could not face any stress and that she would become very agitated, especially in this area where the children might need to be told. He was invited to reflect on other stressful events in his life and how he and his wife had managed. The thought behind the question was that he might...

Study design

Epidemiological studies, the only notable concern is the timing of the approach to the case, which requires a balance between imposing on subjects at the stressful time of diagnosis, with the concern that case mortality or extreme morbidity may impact on the representativeness of the cases included in the study.

Depression

Patients with malignant gliomas often develop progressive neurobehavioral deficits caused by the disease itself as well as treatments such as radiation and chemotherapy (19). Depression in brain tumor patients can be related to the stress of the diagnosis, treatment, loss of function, or medications. Almost all patients faced with a potentially terminal diagnosis will experience, at minimum, temporary grief and anxiety. Patients may benefit from counseling, psychotherapy, or medication. Some patients may resist but studies have shown that patients have an improvement in overall QOL when emotional distress is treated. One recent study showed that patients wanted and expected more support than they were receiving, especially psychological support. They wanted someone to talk to them and spend more time with them (21). A combination of drugs is often necessary and should not be withheld but neither should they replace compassionate care (22). Stress reduction is essential. Cautious use...

Unsettled Questions

Psychosocial Equated to the presence of depressive symptoms de Jonge wrote that ''Subjects experiencing depressive symptoms before the onset of a somatic event may have fewer resources to deal with a stressful event Depressive symptoms reported before by elderly people may thus signal psychosocial frailty'' (de Jonge et al., 2004) Katz elaborated upon this and stated that ''(late-life) depression is a state associated with cognitive dysfunctions that interfere with coping, adaptation, and resilience'' (Katz, 2004).

Coping with stress

Coping is defined as a person's patterns of response to stress. Many clinicians think that differences in attitudes toward and approaches to stressful events are the single most important factor in assessing a person's vulnerability to stress-related illnesses. A person's ability to cope with stress depends in part on his or her interpretation of the event. One person may regard a stressful event as a challenge that can be surmounted while another views it as a problem with no solution. The person's resources, previous physical and psychological health, and previous life experience affect interpretation of the event. Someone who has had good experiences of overcoming hardships is more likely to develop a positive interpretation of stressful events than someone who has been repeatedly beaten down by abuse and later traumas. The second set of categories distinguishes between control-related and escape-related coping styles. Control-related coping styles include direct action, behavior...

Stress Adaptation

Clinical studies have explored the effects of tyrosine in volunteers exposed to stressful situations, generally producing positive results on some parameters. (See 'Clinical note allostatic responses to stress' in the Siberian ginseng monograph for more information about stress adaptation.) Other studies indicate that high-dose tyrosine (1 50 mg kg) may also improve some aspects of performance and help sustain working memory when multi-tasking in stressful situations. One placebo-controlled trial involving 20 people found that administration of tyrosine significantly enhanced accuracy and working memory during the multiple task battery 1 hour after ingestion. However, tyrosine did not significantly alter performance on the arithmetic, visual, or auditory tasks during the multiple task, or modify any performance measures during the simple task battery (Thomas et al 1999).

Experimental Studies

Another method of research sometimes used to assess a variety of aspects of children's functioning is experimental studies (usually laboratory) in which some aspect of the situation is experimentally manipulated. For example, in studies of young children's regulation, investigators sometimes have manipulated the degree to which the mother is in the room or available to the child when the child is experiencing a potentially stressful situation (Diener & Mangelsdorf, 1999 Grolnick, Kurowski, McMenamy, Rivkin, & Bridges, 1998). In marital conflict research, studies have examined children's responses to conflict in a laboratory setting by having children view a video that portrays marital conflict or by having actors in a lab engage in varying forms of conflict in the child's presence (Cummings, Iannotti, & Zahn-Waxler, 1985 Davies, Harold, Goeke-Morey, & Cummings, 2002). The obvious advantage of such methods is the degree of control over the potential influences on the child....

Course

Trauma may lead to worsening, but in a detailed controlled study no significant associations were found between any form of trauma and an increased frequency of attacks (200). Similarly, surgery and anesthesia do not appear to aggravate the condition, despite earlier suggestions to the contrary (199,201). A recent review by a committee of the American Academy of Neurology concluded that physical trauma was not associated with MS exacerbation (202). However, the group found that evidence about the relationship to psychological stress was inconclusive. In a recent meta-analysis of 14 studies, Mohr et al. (203) did find a significant increase in the risk of exacerbations after stressful life events. However, they were not able to identify specific stressors.

Gender

There is ample evidence for gender differences in response to stressful life events. For example, Karanci, Alkan, Balta, Sucuoglu, and Aksit (1999) found greater levels of distress and more negative life events for women than for men after the 1995 earthquake in Dinal, Turkey. Ben-Zur and Zeidner (1991) found women reporting more anxiety and bodily symptoms than men, as well as higher tension, fear, and depression during the Gulf War. Bar-Tal, Lurie, and Glick (1994) came to a similar conclusion when they investigated the effects of stress on Israeli soldiers. Women soldiers* situ-ational stress assessment as well as stress experiences were higher than those of the men. Stressful Life Events in the Light of Individual Differences 43 Striking evidence for the importance of support as a predictor of negative affect and health complaints after a stressful life event comes from a study on East German migrants (Knoll & Schwarzer, in press). Women who reported the most social support...

Future Directions

Stressful life events constitute an important research paradigm for health psychology. They are commonly seen as independent variables called stressors that lead to a number of predominantly negative outcomes. From a stress theory perspective, however, this bivariate relationship is too simplistic. Stress is a process that takes place in context, and the amount of stress actually perceived is different from the objective magnitude of a stressor. Characteristics of the taxing event, such as intensity, duration, predictability, and controllability, have some bearing on the way this actual event is cognitively appraised by individuals, along with other determinants, such as personality, social networks, and coping resources or vulnerabilities (Aldwin, Sutton, & Lachman, 1996). Research on stressful life events too often adheres to a stimulus-based view of stress, neglecting transactional processes. rests mainly on checklists or interview schedules on life events that require the...

Background

I O psychology is, from one viewpoint, a pragmatic psychology. Much research is devoted to the prediction of behavior in organizations. For example, what are the psychological factors that lead a group of employees to attempt to change a dissatisfying or stressful situation by unionizing What factors go into decisions to quit one's job What psychological traits best predict job performance across a wide range of occupations Effort typically goes into identifying measures that accurately predict these types of outcomes because the outcomes themselves are important. Indeed, one popular method of selecting employees, biographical data, relies primarily on empirical keying to score individual items according to the options that best predict job success. Perhaps as a result of a tension to identify measures that predict our chosen behaviors well, we have not used the multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) approach to triangulate on theoretical constructs, preferring instead to use the measures that...

Supervision

Personal counselling or therapy is not the only path for personal development. The counsellor can also find a personal balance in relationships, sport, art, music and many other stimulating and relaxing pastimes and pleasures. A lot of these experiences are totally absorbing and therefore have the effect of stilling the mind and putting anxieties in perspective. This experience is described by runners, musicians, artists and many others who are totally engrossed in what they are doing. A more formal approach to stilling the mind would be to learn a meditative technique of mindfulness. This technique trains the mind to be in the moment, allowing intrusive thoughts to fall away. Such a skill has the additional effect of centring and grounding the individual and that can help in extremely stressful situations. These different life experiences are

Ayurvedic Medicine

Ayurvedic medicine is the traditional medical system in India, which has existed for over 5000 years. The term Ayurveda literally means science of life or life knowledge. PD is documented to have existed in ancient India and was called Kampavata. Similar to the TCM system, physical illness is thought to result from emotional imbalance, unhealthy lifestyle, and toxins that ultimately upset the balance of the three doshas or regulatory systems of a person (5). These three doshas are vata, which symbolizes physical movement, pitta, which represents heat, metabolism, and energy, and kapha, which stands for physical structure and balance. Although all three systems may be affected in PD, therapy focuses heavily upon treatment of the vata disturbance through oleation with massage along with enemas and ingestion of oils. Proper harmony of the three doshas is achieved by specific diet and nutrition, a number of herbs, meditation, breathing exercises, massage, and yoga poses. Stress reduction...

Massage Therapy

Massage therapy involves the use of a therapist's hands and sometimes elbows and knees or in some cases hand-held wooden thumbs or rocks along with special ointments and aromas that are directly applied to the body's muscles and soft tissues (5). Its origins date back to over 4000 years as a form of TCM therapy to promote health and prevent disease. It is also a primary treatment in the Ayurvedic system. Similar to acupuncture theory, the direct manipulation of the body tissues is thought to activate the immune system, clear waste products from the lymphatic system, increase endorphin production, and restore chi flow. Though massage therapy is not a proven therapy specifically for PD, the potential benefits often reported include stress reduction, emotional calmness, reduced muscle stiffness and associated pain, along with increased range of motion of the limbs, neck, and trunk and increased energy levels. These benefits are often immediate and relatively short lasting thus, similar...

A ring contacts

This is in contrast to Cortisol, which is released during stress (ACTH) but is also released in a biorhythmic pattern under the control of serotonin. Serotonergic stimulation of Cortisol release, starting with CRH, is maximal during the morning hours and falls off beforehand and afterwards until the end of 24 hr, after which time the Cortisol level begins to increase again to reach an early morning high due to the activity of serotonergic neurons. Superimposed upon this pattern would be the release of Cortisol generating from stressful events. Aldosterone has salt conserving actions, specifically for Na+, which is reabsorbed by the Na+ conductance channel in lumenal epithelial cells such as in the gastrointestinal tract, sweat glands, submaxillary glands, etc. and therefore is a part of the system of water balance in the body. K+ is pumped out of cells in response to aldosterone. However, the

Encopresis

Although involuntary encopresis, called by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) encopresis with constipation and overflow incontinence, is caused by constipation, the constipation may be the result of psychological factors. Experiencing a stressful life event, harsh toilet training, toilet fear, or emotionally disturbing events can cause a child to withhold bowel movements or become constipated. Historically, children separated from their parents during World War II are reported to have shown a high incidence of encopresis, indicating that psychological factors play a role in this disorder.

Hypertension

The impact of antihypertensive medication on coronary heart disease has been less than expected, however, most likely because of the influence of adverse side effects and poor compliance. There has led to renewed interest in the non-pharmacological management of hypertension, with the aim of reducing stress by focusing on cognitive and behavioural stress coping strategies and reducing sympathetic arousal. Psychological interventions to date have tended to focus on either one or a combination of biofeedback, relaxation and stress-management techniques. An early meta-analysis purporting to assess the efficacy of cognitive behavioural techniques for hypertension included biofeedback, meditation and relaxation as forms of CB therapies, concluding that there was a lack of support for such interventions (Eisenberg et al., 1993). However, Linden and colleagues have suggested that there is such a varied interpretation of the term 'stress management', ranging from transcendental meditation to...

Natural Disasters

A section about disasters caused by humans cannot be concluded without mentioning the most terrible disasters that continue to happen daily at some place in the world, namely, war and genocide. Research on the health effects of stressful life events started with recording reactions to war experience. During the two world wars, psychiatrists examined shell shock and battle fatigue among soldiers. Long-term effects of the Holocaust and the wars in Vietnam and Korea were studied as well. Posttraumatic stress disorder is one of the most frequently addressed phenomena in this line of research. Studies focus mainly on specic aspects of the war experience rather than the event as a whole. For example, there is a large body of research literature on torture victims (Neria, Solomon, & Dekel, 2000), Holocaust survivors (e.g., Lomranz, 1995), and combat stress (e.g., Z. Solomon, 1995). There is overlap with studies on migration effects, since ethnic conicts, combat, and political persecution...

Michael Feuerstein

As implied earlier, the field can also benefit from innovative models related to positive aspects of cancer survivorship. The chapter on a model of well-being was included as an example. State-of-the-art information regarding health behavior change (diet, activity, weight management, smoking, stress reduction) so important in optimal survivorship is also included. Consideration of prevalent symptom management of fatigue, pain, emotional distress, and relationships are also covered. Advanced cancer is not always covered in books on cancer survivorship. Chapters addressing adaptation, survivor, and provider perspectives of advanced cancer are covered to better inform research and practice in this area. Also, a chapter on survivors' view of quality care is included in the book. This is intended to give a voice to concerns that are often not heard as often as it needs to be given the exigencies of the moment. A chapter on approaches to cancer survivorship around the world was included to...

Stress Soothers

Stress Soothers

Free Your Mind And Achieve Peace. Discover How To Live In Peace And Harmony In A World Full Of Uncertainty And Dramatically Improve Your Quality Of Life Today. Finally You Can Fully Equip Yourself With These “Must Have” Tools For Achieving Peace And Calmness And Live A Life Of Comfort That You Deserve.

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