We now provide a detailed illustration of these approaches using one of our studies of the SCN8A gene. The first step is to download and format the genotype data from the HapMap project website. An excel spreadsheet provides an efficient platform for data formatting, the principal steps being to order samples as trios, and to code genotypes according to the haplotype inference program used. Once haplotypes have been inferred, the researcher can proceed to tSNP selection.
Wainer and Kiely (1987) suggested the use of what they termed testlets as an improvement on adaptive testing as described earlier. Testlets are the coagulation of items into coherent groups that can be scored as a whole (Wainer, Bradlow, & Du, 2000, p. 246). Perhaps the most common version of a testlet consists of a reading passage followed by four to six questions. Wainer, Bradlow, and Du noted several reasons for using testlets. First, and perhaps most important, is that the traditional multiple-choice test composed of many short questions has been criticized as producing a form of assessment constituted by decontex-tualized items that are abstracted too far from the domain of inference (Wainer et al., 2000, p. 245). Because a testlet consists of a stem and several interrelated questions, a meaningful context is created. A more pragmatic advantage of testlets is that reading a passage or studying a spreadsheet takes time asking several questions improves the information...
Target exon, enabling detection of copy number changes. For copy number measurements, peak areas for test probes from the gene of interest are normalized against peak areas of probes from a control gene. These peak area ratios are then compared to the ratios obtained from control samples with known gene copy numbers. Decreased peak area ratios are indicative of deletions, and increased peak area ratios are indicative of duplications. MLPA has rapidly gained acceptance both in genetic diagnostic laboratories and in the research community due to its simplicity, relatively low cost, capacity for high throughput screening, and perceived robustness. Available evidence suggests that MLPA offers several advantages over existing techniques (118). Implementation of the method in laboratories is facilitated by the existence of commercial MLPA kits that include all the required reagents with detailed protocols, minimal hands-on time, and the possibility to analyze MLPA data with free...
The project began formally with Board of Supervisors approval and authorization for the expenditure of project funds in June 2003.The County of San Diego contracted with Voxiva, a transnational company specializing in information solutions, to develop and customize Project SHARE as a dual web-telephony application. The objective was to allow higher and lower technology schools and school districts to collaborate on data entry by supporting data entry through both digital phone applications and Internet applications. Data collected through a password protected website or toll-free telephone portals are stored directly into a database. No confidential or student identifying information is collected. Rather, information is collected on a daily basis about overall attendance and the symptoms students experienced leading to health office visits. Reporting requires a minimal time commitment. The users of Project Share data (school nurses and health administrators) can monitor the...
It has come to my attention over the years that there are many interested in making their own nutrients so I have provided a few recipes. If you are reading the Acrobat version, you will find a nutrient calculator spreadsheet included with your download. Otherwise, consult the table on the next page which details the salts required to make three hydroponic nutrient solutions for use with vegetative, fruiting and flowering crops.
The readings from the plate reader will be linked with the identification (ID) of the original sample plate and can be outputted to a company-wide Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS). The data can also be reduced with reagent factors from the reagent manufacturer and presented in a spreadsheet format. Assay results are displayed with the plate bar code ID, and the resulting ''plate map'' shows the well locations for the samples, standards, controls, and blanks. With the robotic system's multitasking software and forward scheduling capabilities, multiple plates can be in process at one time. This ensures faster sample throughput, less robot waiting time, and higher system utilization.
In this section we provide a simplified method that provides a rough estimate of the number of replicates required for a parametric test, such as ANOVA or t test (van Belle 2002). The assumptions and limitations of the method are discussed. A spreadsheet program is sufficient for these calculations.
The Uniform Certified Public Accountant (UCPA) examination moved to a computer-based format in 2004. In addition to a multiple-choice section, the exam incorporates simulations of typical accounting tasks for entry-level certified public accountants (CPAs). The simulations require examinees to enter values into spreadsheets, conduct research, evaluate risk, and justify conclusions. This last component is particularly interesting Candidates must examine a searchable version of the authoritative accounting standards to find the regulation that justifies their
Measurements of MP joint flexion, extension lag, and radial or ulnar deviation were obtained. Oppositional pinch and grip strengths were obtained for all time points apart from the 6-week postoperative period, where it was felt that over-exertion may displace the implant or cause soft-tissue injury. All data were collected using the standardized computer assisted hand measurement tools (Dexter system). Strength measurements were performed in triplicate and averaged. All data were organized on a standard excel spreadsheet and tabulated. A student t-test was used for all statistical comparisons.
Accurate and user-friendly record keeping programs are vital for optimizing the expression of the mutation, maximizing the number of viable offspring, and minimizing the potential confounding influence of background genes from breeder parents. Record keeping systems should incorporate a combination of written and computer-based records. Either a commercial colony management software system or standard Excel spreadsheets can be used to maintain a master list of every mouse that is ear tagged or otherwise marked for identification using tattoos, ear punches, subcutaneous transponders, or toe clipping. Items recorded in the master list include birth date, transgene name, generation, line, sex, parents, phenotype and genotype, and information about the specific project. Establishing a pedigree for each founder mouse that is mated is a vital part of the recording system. Customized cage cards for breeder cages provide a summary of the breeding activity for each cage. Customized weaning...
In the special case of database and spreadsheet software that is (i) purchased OTS, (ii) designed for and widely used for general purposes, (iii) unmodified, and (iv) not being used for direct entry of data, the sponsor or CRO may not have documentation of design-level validation. The FDA suggests that the sponsor or CRO performs functional testing (e.g., by use of test datasets) and research known software limitations, problems, and defect corrections.
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