Organization of Part II

Some general remarks about objectives for the preparation of Part II can be found in the preface of this third edition. The following paragraphs explain the format in which diseases and conditions are listed in Part II.

Diseases and Conditions. All main entries are arranged in alphabetic order of the noun. Thus, "Viral hepatitis" will be found under "Hepatitis, viral" and "Lung abscess" under "Abscess, lung." In general, the organization of the entries corresponds to that used in Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 28th ed., W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, PA, 1994. Findings related to operative procedures are listed under the alphabetized entry of "Surgery,... " or "Transplantation, " Diseases or conditions that are not included in the alphabetic list may still be found in the index.

"See..." Such a reference to another disease or condition indicates that the autopsy procedures are the same for both but not necessarily that the two diseases or conditions are the same.

Diseases and Conditions, followed by a Table. If diseases or conditions (in bold print) are listed in both the right and left column of text preceding a table, the table always belongs to the bold entry in the right column.

Synonyms and Related Terms. This subtitle has been modified to either "Synonym(s)" or "Related Term(s)" whenever the entries seemed to fit definitely into one of these categories. An asterisk indicates a disease or condition that is included in the alphabetic list in Part II.

Note. Suggestions pertaining to the entire autopsy procedure are made under this heading. For instance, a warning will be given here whenever special precautions are indicated in the presence of certain infectious diseases or whenever a disease or condition must be reported to the authorities.

Possible Associated Conditions. Diseases or conditions listed under this heading are generally assumed to be linked to the main entry by a common pathogenetic mechanism. An example is the association of malformations, such as coarcta-tion of the aorta and congenital mitral stenosis.

Organs and Tissues. These are listed in the order in which they are generally handled during an autopsy.

Procedures. Ample reference is made to the appropriate page numbers in Part I. We have assumed that routine hematoxylin and eosin sections will be prepared in all instances. Most special stains that are listed below represent but one of several available methods; many pathologist undoubtedly will have other preferences.

Special Histological Stainsa

Name of Stain (as used in text)

Complete Designation and/or Purpose of Stain

Source and Comments

Alcian blue stain

Alcian blue and phloxine-tartrazine stain of Lendrum Aldehyde-Fuchsin stain

Aldehyde-thionin stain

Auramine-rhodamine Azure-eosin stain

Best's carmine stain

Bielschowsky stain

Bodian stain

Congo red stain

Cresyl echt violet stain

Crystal violet stain

Cyanuric chloride stain

Ferric ferricyanide reduction test

Fluorochrome stain for acid fast bacteria Fontana-Masson silver stain

Giemsa stain

Gomori's chromium hematoxylin phloxine stain Gomori's iron stain Gram stain

Grimelius silver stain (Grimelius' argyrophil stain)

Grocott's methenamine silver stain

(GMS stain) Hale's colloidal iron stain

Jones' silver stain

Kinyoun's stain Lendrum's stain

For demonstration of sulfated mucosubstances (at pH 1.0) or acid mucopolysaccharides (at pH 2.5).

For demonstration of mucus and squamous epithelial cells in one section.

For staining of beta cells of pancreatic islets, of elastic fibers, and of cells of adenohypophysis.

For staining of cells of adenohypophysis.

Truant's fluorescent method for tubercle and Leprae bacilli.

Routine stain (can be substituted for the hematoxylin and eosin methods).

Best's carmine method for glycogen. Bielschowsky's method for axis cylinders and dendrites. Bodian's method for nerve fibers and nerve endings. Bennhold's method for amyloid.

Lieb's method for amyloid (crystal violet). Cyanuric chloride method of Yoshiki for osteoid. Schmorl's ferric ferricyanide reduction test for the demonstration of melanin and other reducing substances. Truant's fluorescent method for acid fast organisms

Fontana-Masson silver method for demonstration of argentaffin granules and melanin.

May-Grunwald Giemsa method for hematologic and nuclear elements.

Gomori's method for pancreatic islet cells.

Gomori's method for iron. Brown and Benn, Brown-Hopps, Maccallum-Goodpasture, or Taylor's method for demonstration of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria.

For demonstration of argyrophil neurosecretory granules (e.g., in pancreatic islets).

Grocott's method for fungi.

The Hale colloidal ferric oxide procedure for acid mucopolysaccharides.

Jones' method for reticulum and basement membranes.

Kinyoun's method for acid-fast bacteria. Lendrum's method for inclusion bodies.

Levaditi-Manovelian method for spirochetes. Kluver-Barrera method for myelin and nerve cells.

Also used with periodic acid Schiff stain (Alcian blue/PAS). Ref. (2)

See also below under Lendrum's stain. Ref. (3)

Aldehyde fuchsin also stains sulfated mucosubstances and hepatitis B surface antigen. Ref. (3)

Can be combined with periodic acid Schiff stain (PAS) and with Luxol fast blue (LFB). Ref. (2)

The Giemsa stain and the Wright stain for blood cells also are azure-eosin stains.

See Luxol fast blue stain. Ref. (2) Ref. (4) Ref. (3)

See also Fontana-Masson silver stain. Ref. (2)

See also Ferric ferricyanide reduction test and Grimelius silver stain. Ref. (2)

Several modifications of this methods are in use. Ref. (2)

As shown in the middle column, several modifications of this method are in use. The Gram-Weigert stain (ref. [3]) also stains fungi and Pneumocystis carinii. Ref. (1)

The Fontana-Masson stain for melanin and argentaffin granules can also be used. Ref. (2)

Also stains Pneumocystis carinii. Ref. (5)

The alcian blue stain at pH. 2.5 (see above) also can be used. Ref. (3)

See also methenamine silver stain. Ref. (2) Ref. (2)

For use with alcian blue, see above. Ref. (2) Ref. (2)

Also used with periodic acid Schiff stain (LFB/PAS) or with cresyl echt violet stain (ref. [1]).

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