Info

Organs and Tissues

Procedures

Possible or Expected Findings

Brain and spinal cord Placenta

For removal and specimen preparation, see pp. 65 and 67, respectively. Prepare photographs of stained areas of brain.

Weigh and submit samples for histologic study.

Diffuse cerebral icterus or selective staining of subthalamic nuclei, globus pallidus, hippocampus, pontine nuclei, medullary nuclei in the floor of the fourth ventricle, thalamus, and cerebellar nuclei. Cortical and spinal gray matter is rarely involved. Villous edema; erythroblasts in vessels; inclusions consistent with Cytomegalovirus or Parvovirus infection; chronic plasma cell villitis.

Esophagus, Barrett's

Organs and Tissues

Procedures

Possible or Expected Findings

Lungs Diaphragm

Esophagus and stomach Neck organs

Perfuse one lung with formalin (p. 47). Record size of diaphragmatic hernia. Remove whole length of esophagus, together with stomach and portion of diaphragm with hiatus. Record diameter of esophageal stricture (a glass cone or wooden cone can be used) before opening narrowed portion of esophagus. After opening, pin esophagus and stomach on corkboard, photograph, and fix in formalin (in this position).

Aspiration (reflux) pneumonitis with fibrosis. Diaphragmatic hernia.* The esophagus (most commonly the distal portions) is lined by columnar epithelium that causes a brownish red discoloration of the mucosa. Chronic reflux esophagitis is present, and an ulcer and a stricture often are found at the squamoco-lumnar junction. Dysplasia and adenocar-cinoma are common complications and arise in the areas of intestinal metaplasia. Laryngitis and pharyngitis in cases of severe chronic reflux.

Ethanol (Ethyl Alcohol) (See "Alcoholism and alcohol intoxication," "Cardiomyopathy, alcoholic," "Disease, alcoholic liver," "Syndrome, fetal alcoholic," and "Syndrome, Wernicke-Korsakoff.")

Ethanol (Ethyl Alcohol) (See "Alcoholism and alcohol intoxication," "Cardiomyopathy, alcoholic," "Disease, alcoholic liver," "Syndrome, fetal alcoholic," and "Syndrome, Wernicke-Korsakoff.")

Exposure, Cold

NOTE: In all instances, the blood alcohol level should be determined and a drug screen should be done. The tissues tend to be well preserved.

Possible Associated Conditions: Age-related increased susceptibility to cold (in infancy and senility); alcohol intoxication;* myxedema; pituitary insufficiency;* poisoning by depressants, narcotics, or other drugs; stroke.

Organs and Tissues

Procedures

Possible or Expected Findings

External examination,

Prepare photographs of abnormalities, as listed

Red discoloration of the face and extremities;

skin, and subcutaneous

in right-hand column.

generalized edema; erythematous patches

tissues

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