A213

Atresia, Urethral

Organs and Tissues

Procedures

Possible or Expected Findings

Pelvic organs

Prepare urogram (see pp. 59 and 62). For removal and dissection of pelvic organs, see p. 59. Leave ureters and kidneys attached to bladder. Open penile urethra (see Figs. 5-12; p. 63). Search for fistulas. If there is evidence of drainage via the urachus, demonstrate this before removal of pelvic organs.

Posterior urethral valves; strictures; absence of canalization of penile urethra; dilated bladder; hypoplastic prostate; hydroureters and hydronephrosis;* renal cystic dysplasia; fistulas to rectum or via urachus to umbilicus. Ascites with attenuation of anterior abdominal wall; cryptorchidism.

Atrial Septal Defect (See "Defect, atrial septal.") Atrium, Common (See "Defect, atrial septal.") Atrophy, Multiple System

Synonyms and Related Terms: Olivopontocerebellar atrophy, Shy-Drager syndrome, striatonigral degeneration.

Organs and Tissues

Procedures

Possible or Expected Findings

Brain, spinal cord, and paraspinal sympathetic chain

For removal and specimen preparation of brain and spinal cord, see pp. 65 and 67, respectively. Modified Bielschowsky, Bodian or Gallyas silver stains are necessary to highlight the characteristic glial cytoplasmic inclusions (see p. 172). Record pallor of white matter tracts related to neuronal loss in affected areas. This can be seen especially in external capsule, striatopallidal fibers, cerebellar white matter, cerebellar peduncles and transverse pontine fibers. Immunostain for synuclein is positive in inclusions.

Cell loss and gliosis with characteristic cytoplasmic and nuclear glial and neuronal inclusions and neuropil threads in affected areas. Clinical subtype and duration of illness influence distribution of lesions. Involved areas include: putamen, especially dorso-lateral, substantia nigra, locus coeruleus, cerebellar cortex (Purkinje's cells), basis pontis, inferior olive, dorsal motor nucleus of vagus, intermediolateral column of spinal cord.

Atrophy, Pick's Lobar (See "Disease, Pick's.")

Atrophy, Progressive Spinal Muscular (See "Disease, motor neuron.") Atropine (See "Poisoning, atropine.")

Attack, Transient Cerebral Ischemic

Synonyms and Related Terms: Cerebrovascular disease; transient cerebral ischemia; transient stroke.

Organs and Tissues

Procedures

Possible or Expected Findings

Heart

Aorta and cervical arteries

Brain

If infective endocarditis* is suspected, follow procedures described on p. 102. For dissection of carotid and vertebral arteries, see p. 82.

For removal and specimen preparation, see p. 65. For cerebral arteriography, see p. 80.

Vegetative endocarditis; mural cardiac thromboses.

Aortic, carotid, and vertebral atherosclerosis (see also under "Infarction, cerebral"). Atherosclerotic or other type of stenosis of subclavian artery proximal to takeoff of vertebral artery (subclavian steal syndrome). Basilar atherosclerosis.

Avitaminosis (See "Deficiency, vitamin...")

Avitaminosis (See "Deficiency, vitamin...")

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