Soap Making Basics Workshop

Handcrafter's Companion Guide

The handcrafter's companion is a program designed to help everyone regardless of whether they have ever tried the making soap on their own and failed or whether they are newbies. This program uses step by step guide which contains information easy to read, understand and successfully apply to make your home-made soaps and spa treatments. All the techniques applied in this program have undergone through testing and results have proven that they work efficiently to guarantee you 100% positive results. When you enroll in this program, you will not strain in wondering where you will get the raw materials, how to package your product or where to supply the products as all these are already in place. This program has many benefits attached to it some of them being to ensure that your skin glows naturally and you save on the cost you could have otherwise spent on spa treatments. Read more here...

Guide To Creating Spa Products Summary

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Soapmakingmanufacturing Process

The process of making soap begins with the receipt of fats and oils and ends with a soap bar pressed into a desired shape and packaged for sale. There are many unit operations involved in soap making, from distillation (glycerin recovery) to drying to pneumatic conveying. The soap-making process involves the production of neat soap (wet soap) from fats and oils. The soap then goes through drying and finishing steps in order to complete the process. There are two basic routes of commercial soapmaking 17 , which are discussed in the following two sections.

Formulations Regular Soaps Combars And Syndets

Soap bars are formulated with a combination of longer carbon chain length fats (tallow, palm oil, palm stearin) and shorter carbon chain length oils (palm kernel oil, coconut oil). Common nomenclature for bar soaps is the ratio of the longer carbon chain length fat to the shorter carbon chain length oil. For example, a bar containing 80 tallow and 20 coconut oil as its soap base would be referred to as an ''80 20'' soap bar. Ratios used typically range from 90 10 to 60 40. The higher coco or palm kernel oil levels in a soap bar not only leads to a higher lathering profile 1 but also to a higher use-up rate due to the high portion of the shorter carbon chain length base. Regular soap bars generally contain approximately 75 to 85 soap. The remainder of the soap bar is made up of water, glycerin, salt, fragrance, and other additives that enhance its aesthetics and performance. Soap bars are frequently superfatted to ameliorate the harshness of the soap and improve the sensory profiles of...

Clinical Visual and Tactile Assessments

Several skin modifications induced by irritants can be easily evaluated visually and tac-tilely, e.g., by skin redness (erythema), skin dryness with increased desquamation, scali-ness, and flakiness, and skin roughness or edema. Moderate to very intense signs of skin redness erythema are the visual manifestations of a skin inflammatory process with vasodilatation of the capillary system and increase of the blood flow. After contact with an irritant (particularly with soaps and detergents), symptoms of skin dryness appear after a certain time with a whitish appearance, flakiness, scaliness, and roughness. In the most severe cases of irritation, fissuring, and cracking can also appear. Edema is the result of an accumulation of fluid from the blood vessels in the upper dermis. It appears only in very severe cases of irritancy, which happens very rarely unless in experimental conditions. The visual and tactile assessments of irritancy are made by dermatologists or trained evaluators....

Strategy Of Making Antiirritant Cosmetics

Strictly by definition, an anti-irritant is an agent which, by its presence, minimizes the irritating effect of a cosmetic preparation on the skin. The anti-irritant could reflect all mechanisms that have an opposed effect to an irritant insult. Hence, the term could reflect actions such as skin calming, soothing, and healing, and assisting in the recovery of the skin from an irritation provoked by, e.g., contact with soaps and household cleaning products. As has been demonstrated earlier, very often irritant reactions are associated with inflammation, the so-called anti-irritant effect could eventually also mean alleviation from the inflammatory symptoms that arise shortly after the impairment of the skin barrier. The concept of anti-irritant activity also includes skin protection with barrier creams, which decrease irritant potential of some harmful substances encountered in occupational dermatitis 33 . Despite the numerous claims of skincare products for anti-irritant or protective...

Products Available

Two commercial forms of the herb are available. White ginseng consists of the dried root and red ginseng is prepared by steaming the fresh, unpeeled root before drying (9). Many different formulations of the herb are available including capsules, gelcaps, powders, tinctures, teas, slices to eat in salads, and whole root to chew. There are also a wide variety of products that claim to contain ginseng such as ginseng cigarettes, toothpaste, cosmetics, soaps, beverages (including beer), candy, baby food, gum, candy bars, and coffee. Prices vary widely based on the quantity and quality of the ginseng root used (10). Tinctures are more expensive but last for years. Powder capsules are cheaper but have a shelf-life of only 1 year (11).

General Wound Management

All wounds should be regarded as contaminated. If the area is hairy, clip the hair adjacent to the wound with a pair of scissors. Shaving may increase the chance of infection and is not recommended. Disinfectants (alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, and soaps) should be used to wash the area around a wound and should not be poured into wounds, where they damage viable tissue and may increase the incidence of wound infection. Use a high-pressure irrigation syringe to clean the wound. Simply rinsing or soaking a wound is inadequate to remove bacteria. Irrigate with at least 100 ml of water per inch. Wound irrigation is the single most important factor in preventing infection. Deeply imbedded, visible debris not removed by irrigation may be

Protection Against Pathogenic Micro Organisms

The natural acid mantle of the skin on the newborn is already developed in the first few days of life, so that pathogenic micro-organisms generally find the conditions unsuitable for their survival. However, the alkaline-neutralizing properties of the skin of new-borns and small children is restricted. After contact with alkaline substances (e.g., alkaline soaps), the skin requires a longer time to restore its slightly acidic physiological pH value as compared with adult skin 15 .

Performance And Validation Of The Skin Stripping Technique

DPK studies should include validation of both analytical methods and the technique of skin stripping. Since the DPK approach involves two components of validation (sampling and analytical method), overall DPK variability may be greater than with other methodologies. For analytical methods, levels of accuracy, precision, sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility should be documented according to established procedures. Although the forearm, back, thigh, or other part of the body can be used for skin-stripping studies, most studies are conducted on the forearm, for reasons of convenience. Care should be taken to avoid any damage with physical, mechanical, or chemical irritants (e.g., soaps, detergents, agents). Usual hydration and environmental conditions should be maintained. After washing prior to treatment, sufficient time, preferably two hours, should be allowed to normalize the skin surface. Detailed and workable SOPs for area and amount of drug application, excess drug...

In Vivo Studies Of The Antiirritation Properties Of Some Cosmetic Ingredients

In vivo evaluation of the anti-irritant and or anti-inflammatory effect of dermatocosmetic formulations on human skin is usually based on the quantification of the inhibition presented by these products against an artificially induced contact dermatitis 42 . The model irritant for this purpose can be selected out of a wide range of skin-aggravating factors. Irritation of the skin can be provoked after topical application of Peru balsam 43 , solutions of anionic surfactants 44,45 , nicotinates 46,47 , after exposure to UV-B radiation 48,49 , skin abrasion 50 , or tape stripping 51,52 . There is clearly a difficulty in identifying the conditions under which these various irritants can be used for inducing a ''suitable'' irritation. The induced irritation should be great enough to be measurable with good reproducibility and to allow quantification of its inhibition by the tested products. The anionic surfactant sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) has lately become the model irritant of choice,...

Detoxification of Saponins

Many plants constitutively produce triterpenoid, steroid or steroidal glycosylated compounds that are generally inhibitory to fungi (Figure 4.9). These are known by the general term saponin because of their soap-like properties, derived from the plant Saponaria officinalis, the extracts of which were once used to make soap (Osbourn, 1996). Saponins make complexes with membrane sterols, resulting in pore formation and leakage of cell constituents. The leaves and green fruits of the tomato plant contain high levels a steroidal glycoalkaloid, called tomatine (Figure 4.10). The pathogenecity of Septoria lycopersici (Anamorphici) on tomato plants was attributed to the production of a glycosyl hydrolase, tomatinase (Arneson and Durbin, 1967), which detoxifies tomatine by removing a single terminal glucose molecule by hydrolysis of a (3,1-2 linkage. The targeted gene-disruption technique was used to test the role of saponins in pathogenecity. The root-infecting fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis...

Anionic Surfactants

Soaps are salts of fatty acids and, not in the distant past, were the mainstay of shampoo products. In soft water, they lather copiously, cleanse well, and leave the hair in a well-conditioned style. Unfortunately, in hard water the lather is poor, and as the soap combines with calcium or magnesium salts present in hard water it deposits on hair a dulling film. The introduction of synthetic surfactants brought about the end of soap-based shampoos,

Antiirritant Applications2

Grove improved the method by defining the demographic profile of the subjects and recommending the exclusion of males and older individuals. He also established criteria limiting the frequency of use and determined that sensitive subjects often reported a history of problems with soaps, cosmetics, and other personal-care products. Subjects who repeatedly reported a stinging response to lactic acid applied under ambient conditions were also tested for a burning and itching response. A method for evaluating burning sensations using a 20 80 mixture of chloroform methanol pipetted into a greased aluminum cylinder covered and placed against the skin was used. To elicit itching, a 4 histamine base was also loaded into a grease-ringed cylinder and placed against the skin. Results found good correlation between burning and stinging, but individual response variability was rather high. A distinct correlation between itching and stinging was not observed 30 .

Axillary Malodor Efficacy

Generally, axillary malodor efficacy tests are conducted on three product types antiperspi-rants, deodorants, and soaps. Although antiperspirants are primarily designed to inhibit sweat production, they are also considered deodorants because they inhibit sweat, which acts as a culture medium for bacteria to produce, degrade, and form malodor. Deodorants are formulated to control malodor only, through absorption, fragrance masking, and or by reducing antibacterial activity. Some soap products may also reduce axillary malodor by fragrance masking and or inhibiting bacterial growth.

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Because of their ability to improve the skin tolerance against irritating anionic surfactants, and also because of their high price, betaines are usually used in association with other surfactants. Betaines are especially suitable in personal-care applications (e.g., shampoos, foam baths, liquid soaps, shower gels), fabric handwash products, and dishwashing products.

Surfactanttype Skin Cleansers

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Main surfactants used for surfactant-type skin cleansers are listed in Table 2. Soaps are used as a primary surfactant for solid bar cleansers and paste-type cleansers. Sodium soaps are commonly used for solid bars and potassium soaps are mainly for paste-type cleansers or shaving foams. Opaque soft bar is made from triethanolamine soap as gentle facial cleanser. Soaps have excellent lathering properties and superior detergency but some deposit in hard water and cause skin tightness. Additional surfactants are combined with soap in order to improve tightness and give better mildness. Alkylethersulfate, acylisethionate, acylglutamate, acylmethyltaurate, and acylglycinate are commonly combined as a secondary or tertiary surfactant with soap. Acylglutamate has a unique feature as weakly acidic similar to skin pH surfactant and is thus often used as a primary surfactant to give superb mildness for different formulation types.

Ionic Surfactants Anionic Surfactants

Surfactants belonging to this class generally derive from oleo-chemistry carboxylate salts (or soaps) can be directly produced by the alkaline hydrolysis (or saponification) of animal and vegetable glycerides or can result from the neutralization of fatty acids obtained by the acidification of carboxylates. Saturated sodium soaps are extremely soluble in water up to C8 they become less soluble up to C18 and insoluble above C20. The fatty acids can be either saturated or unsaturated (starting from Ci6 chain lengths). Unsaturated fatty acids are prone to undergo oxidation and form oxides and peroxides, which cause rancidity and yellowing. Potassium soaps and salts of alkanolamines are more fluid and also more soluble than sodium salts. The extremely low solubility of alkaline earth and heavy metals fatty acid salts makes this class of surfactants less appropriate for use in hard water. The main application of fatty carboxylates is found in the soap bars widely used in...

Soap Raw Materials Fats and Oils

The naturally occurring fats and oils used in soap making are glycerides with three fatty acid groups randomly esterified with glycerol (trihydroxy alcohol). The difference between fats and oils is merely one of their physical states fats are solids and oils are liquids. Fats and oils typically comprise both saturated and unsaturated fatty acid molecules containing between 7 and 21 carbons randomly distributed on the glycerol backbone. Overall, the reaction of caustic (lye) with triglycerides yields glycerin and soap in a reaction known as saponification. This is the most widely used soap making process. The second major soap making process is the neutralization of fatty acids with an alkali. Fats and oils are hydrolyzed (split) with high-pressure steam to yield crude fatty acids and glycerin. The fatty acids are then purified by distillation and neutralized with an alkali to produce soap and water (neat soap) 2-7 . The properties of the resulting soap are determined by the quality...

Hair Soiling and Soil Removal

Because of the adhesiveness and sticky consistency of sebum-containing soil, its adequate removal by simple mechanical means is virtually impossible, and satisfactory cleansing can only be attained by use of aqueous solutions of detergents. In the broadest sense, all materials used in cleansing that are water and other solvents, soaps and synthetic

Standard Precautions

Must be used, and the handwashing procedure should include the wrists and at least a 10- to 15-second soap application. This soap application represents significantly more time than most individuals spend in handwashing. It cannot be stressed enough that proper hand-washing using the recommended times is the first step in the decontamination protocol. Germicidal soaps are suggested. Hands must be washed with every patient contact, after gloves are removed, and if gloved or ungloved hands have been contaminated with a bodily fluid sample.

Calcium Deficiency

Rickets and osteomalacia A deficiency of either calcium or vitamin D can produce these bone disorders. (See Vitamin D monograph for further information.) Infants The percentage and type of fats within an infant formula and their ability to bind calcium salts and increase excretion has been shown to influence the bone mineral content (BMC) of infants. One hundred 8-week-old infants given formulas considered to be more similar to breastmilk and less likely to form calcium soaps in the gut showed increased BMC after only 1 month's treatment compared with those infants on standard formula (Kennedy et al 1999).

Humectants

Humectants are not substantive to the skin and are easily rinsed-off after cleaning. Consequently, skin-feel improvement is not obvious to perceive and their efficacy in terms of skin moisturization is difficult to document. Glycerin, propylene glycol, 1,3-butylene glycol, or sorbitol are typically used in body washes, bubble baths, shower gels, or soaps to prevent the dessication of the product itself and the formation of a dry layer at the surface. They also ensure stability and clarity of liquid cleansers at cold temperatures. Guar gum is a galactomannane polysaccharide derived from the endosperm of Cyamopsis tetragonolobus seeds (Table 5). Depolymerization of the gum by enzymatic or chemical processes allows modulation of its molecular weight, and consequently impacts its solubility, thickening properties, and the clarity of the finished product. Free hydroxyl groups on the polysaccharidic backbone can intervene in esterification and etherification reactions. Hydroxypropyl (HP)...

Application

As in the formulation, the pH of the skin before application may have an effect on the tonality of the skin color 4 . Alkaline residues from soaps or detergents may interfere with the reaction between DHA and the amino acids on the skin surface. Wiping the skin surface with a hydroalcoholic, acidic toner just before DHA application may improve results.

Cracking

Bar soaps are typically evaluated for dry specks and drag. Specks of dry soap (insoluble soap) can occur during the manufacture of the base soap or syndet or from the additives in the soap bar. These specks show up as distinct bumps on the surface of the bar. The bar is washed under controlled water conditions with cooler water bringing out more obvious dry specks. The bar is both evaluated during wash and after drying for feel and appearance and rated against standard quality bars. Clearly, next to the fragrance preference at the point of purchase, skin feel and lather are the most important attributes for consumers. Various skin feel attributes from bar soaps are evaluated by a trained panel of experts. These groups of panelists are trained to evaluate small (or large) differences in products focusing on a set of defined attributes. Products are usually compared with a reference product. Examples of attributes evaluated by a trained panel for skin feel include time to rinse, skin...

Quasidrugs

In the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law, quasidrugs are defined as articles having ''fixed purpose of use'' and ''mild action on the body,'' or similar articles designated by the Minister of Health and Welfare. Most of the products in this category are what we call ''pseudo-drugs'' or ''cosmeceuticals,'' a current definition of which would be ''those products that will achieve cosmetic results by means of some degree of physiological action'' 8 . The defined quasidrug products include mouth refreshers, body deodorants, talcum powders, hair growers, depilatories, hair dyes, permanent waving products, bath preparations, medical cosmetics (including medical soaps), medicated dentifrices, and so on 3,9 .

Slough Mush

Slough or mush is the undesirable soft part of the bar that results from the hydration of a soap bar as it sits in a wet soap dish. Slough is measured by placing a pre-weighed bar in a high humidity chamber for a fixed period of time, then removing the soft part of the bar and allowing the soap bar to dry. The weight taken before and after determine the slough or mush measured as the percent weight loss. Syndet bars tend to have high slough relative to regular soaps. High humidity conditions exaggerate typical home usage condi-

Soap Phases

The physicochemical nature of soap has been shown to be critical for the in-use properties. It is generally accepted that four distinct sodium soap crystalline phases exist. These soap phases are referred to as the beta, delta, omega, and liquid crystalline phases. Today, radiographic diffraction (XRD) is considered the simplest and most reliable method for distinguishing the different phases. The phases designate the lattice spacing between the hydrocarbon chains and are predictive of physical properties such as lather, slough, use-up rate, and even the degree of translucency of a soap bar 9 . The large crystals of the omega phase with the liquid phase are formed when neat soap is cooled down (after the drying step). Beta-phase conversion in soap bars depends on several factors, including temperature, type of surfactant, moisture level and number of millings. Delta phase is formed by the recrystallization of saturated higher chain soaps under specific temperature conditions and...

Acute ICD

Exsiccation eczematid is a subtype of ICD that mainly develops on the extremities. It is often attributable to frequent bathing and showering as well as extensive use of soaps and cleansing products. It often affects elderly people with low sebum levels of the stratum corneum. Low humidity during the winter months and failure to remoisturize the skin contribute to the condition. The clinical picture is typical, with dryness, ichthyosiform scaling, and Assuring. Patients often suffer from intense itching.

Additives

Fragrance is by far the most important additive for consumer acceptance of a personal cleansing product. Even though the primary purpose of the selection of a fragrance is to target a specific user group, it is also used to mask the characteristic base odor associated with the fatty acids. Fragrances are compounded from several components including car-boxylic acids, esters, aldehydes, ketones, and glycols where the selection of the components could adversely effect the stability and or the processability of the final product. For instance, fragrances with solvents such as dipropylene glycol (glycol) and dieth-ylpthlate (ester) tend to soften and cloud translucent soap bars 2 . The raw-material manufacturer's ability to provide cleaner base with significantly less base odor has greatly improved in the past two decades, thus allowing soap manufacturers to use less fragrance in the final product or even, in some cases, provide products that are fragrance free. Fragrances are also known...

Shampoo Additives

Fragrance is an essential ingredient, often deciding the market appeal and success of the product. Addition of alcohols (ethanol, isopropanol) or glycols may be required to maintain the clarity of clear shampoos, while the presence of sequestering agents like EDTA prevents the formation of insoluble calcium or magnesium soaps when the shampoo is rinsed off the hair. FD& C and D& C dyes are commonly added to enhance the aesthetics of shampoo formulations. ''Squeaky'' clean feel of shampooed hair is frequently accompanied by difficult combing and substantial ''fly away.'' To overcome this, the shampoos contain ''conditioning'' additives that are substantive to hair remaining adsorbed on the surface after rinsing. A plethora of materials has been used to this end. To these belong amine oxides, protein hydrolysates, cationic surfactants, cationic polymers, lanolin and its derivatives, as well as natural materials, such as beer, honey, and egg.

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