Homemade Skin Care Recipes

The Beauty of Food Turning Back The Clock

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An Overview Of Emulsionbased Skincare Products

A variety of skincare products exist in today's marketplace. They fulfill a variety of functions by either acting directly on the skin (e.g., moisturizers) or being a cosmetically elegant vehicle for the delivery of specific active ingredients (e.g., sunscreens or antipure-tic or antiacne medicaments). In general, these products may be categorized into three functional groups Cosmetics. To beautify and improve the feeling or sensory aspects of normal and or nondiseased skin. Dry skin would be included in this category. The three product groups can also be classified by their physical properties. Most common forms of skincare products are emulsions. Emulsions are mixtures of two insoluble materials that are stabilized against separation. An example is oil and water, which will not mix unless an intermediate emulsifier is incorporated into the mixture.

The Cosmetic Care Of Elderly Skin

Cosmetics for elderly skin can usually be divided into the categories of facecare and bodycare. Currently, a multitude of product types can be found. Although the number of products is overwhelming, there are common features to be mentioned. The following two sections will deal with product characteristics in various segments for the cosmetic care of elderly skin. Skincare 2 Concepts for cosmetics suited for elderly people are often based on the dry skin conditions typical for elderly skin. Many skincare formulations contain humectants, which enable 2 Several attempts have been made to check the skincare efficacy of estriol (0.3 ) or estradiol (0.01 ) in perimenopausal women. Daily application of a cream over a period of 7 months resulted in a significant increase of skin parameters like skin firmness, wrinkles, and skin moisture content. Hormonal levels showed a slight increase in the prolactin level, whereas the estradiol level was unchanged. Side effects were not found 19,20 ....

Skincare Suncare And Decorative Products Skin Feel Emolliency

The main reason that silicones are used in all types of skin care product is because of their sensory properties. Studies on the emollient properties of various materials have Cyclomethicones are used for transient effects giving slight lubricity, a light texture, fast spreading and good distribution of the product on application, whilst leaving no residual effects. They are often included in formulations to remove the greasy or oily feel of hydrocarbon-based emollients and are the basis for ''oil-free'' type claims 6 . They are used in light products for daily use such as facial cleansers, day creams or liquid foundations. Higher molecular weight silicones such as Dimethicone (and) Dimethiconol are used to give a more lubricious, longer lasting effect in richer, more nourishing skin treatment products such as night creams or after-sun products 7 . Silicone elastomers are used to give a dry, powdery feel to skincare formulations 8 . Silicones are also non-comedogenic non-acnegenic...

Botulinum Toxins


Botulinum toxins block or reduce muscle contractions and spasms by interfering with the release of acetylcholine, which transmits the contraction signal from the brain to muscle. Botulinum toxins may also block parasympathetic nervous system action. Intermuscular injections of botulinum toxin performed on an outpatient basis three or four times per year are used to treat many conditions that involve abnormal muscle contraction. Hsiung et al. reported that, during a 10-year period, they found substantial benefit in 63 of patients treated for cervical dystonia and 56 of those treated for writer's cramp (70). When used for treatment of whiplash, botulinum toxin relived pain significantly compared with a placebo treatment, but showed a nonsignificant trend in improving subjective functioning (71). In another study, 46 patients with coexisting chronic tension headaches and temporomandibular disorders reported a 50 or greater improvement in headache pain. A randomized, double-blind study...

Other Health Conditions

Foot problems are very common among homeless adults due to prolonged standing, long-term exposure to cold and damp, ill-fitting footwear, and inadequate foot hygiene. Problems can range in severity from mild blisters and fungal infections to debilitating chronic venous stasis ulcers, cellulitis, diabetic foot infections, and frostbite. Other common skin problems include sunburn and bites due to infestations by head lice, body lice, scabies, or bedbugs (Stratigos and Katsambas, 2003). The prevalence of serious dermatologic conditions, while probably quite high among street-dwellers, appears to be relatively low among homeless people

Excipients and Emulsifiers

Many excipients and emulsifiers are common ingredients to topical pharmaceutical and cosmetic products, the former being likely to induce sensitization. Typical examples are wool alcohols, fatty alcohols (e.g., cetyl alcohol), and propylene glycol 13 . They may also be sensitizing in cosmetics, as is the case with maleated soybean oil 44 . Emulsifiers in particular have long been regarded as irritants, but their sensitization capacities should not be overlooked. It is imperative, of course, that patch testing be properly performed to avoid irritancy and that the relevance of the positive reactions be determined. This is certainly the case for cocamidopropylbetaine, an amphoteric tenside mainly present in hair-and skin-cleansing products. Whether the compound itself or cocamidopropyl dimeth-ylamine, an amido-amine, or dimethylaminopropylamine (both intermediates from the synthesis) are the actual sensitizers is still a matter of discussion 45,46 . It is also not clear whether...

The Future Of Liposomal Preparations

Remarkably, phosphatidylcholine need not be applied in high concentrations because the experience shows that formulations are stable at lower amounts. Also, there is a cumulative effect in the horny layer with repeated application of phosphatidylcholine. In many cases, liposomes, nanoemulsions, and DMS are compatible with each other in a sense that they can be used as a sort of construction kit. So these formulations are believed to still have a great future in cosmetic science. How far new findings about the importance of the choline moiety of phosphatidylcholine 16 will impact skincare research and development cannot be estimated today.

Strategy Of Making Antiirritant Cosmetics

Strictly by definition, an anti-irritant is an agent which, by its presence, minimizes the irritating effect of a cosmetic preparation on the skin. The anti-irritant could reflect all mechanisms that have an opposed effect to an irritant insult. Hence, the term could reflect actions such as skin calming, soothing, and healing, and assisting in the recovery of the skin from an irritation provoked by, e.g., contact with soaps and household cleaning products. As has been demonstrated earlier, very often irritant reactions are associated with inflammation, the so-called anti-irritant effect could eventually also mean alleviation from the inflammatory symptoms that arise shortly after the impairment of the skin barrier. The concept of anti-irritant activity also includes skin protection with barrier creams, which decrease irritant potential of some harmful substances encountered in occupational dermatitis 33 . Despite the numerous claims of skincare products for anti-irritant or protective...

Impact of Foodborne Illnesses

An intentional contamination might have even greater impact. Wein and Liu (2005) modeled the outcome of an intentional contamination of a milk processing facility with less than 1 gram of botulinum toxin. This model estimated that 100,000 casualties could ensue. Although some scientists have disputed the degree of vulnerability in the case of botulinum toxin, an intentional contamination of modern food distribution channels is possible.

Study Of The Effectiveness Of Five Products Containing Bisabolol Or Synthetic Bisabolol On Slsinduced Skin Irritation

Thirty female volunteers at the age of 18 to 63 years with healthy skin were included in the test. The participants were briefed on the study procedures and each gave written informed consent. Measurements were carried out at a temperature of 22 1 C and relative humidity of 60 10 . The test was carried out on the volar forearms. Skin irritation was induced in the test sites by applying sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) 2 in distilled water under aluminum chamber occlusion. After 24 hours, occlusion was removed, and 2 hours later skin redness and TEWL were recorded. After the initial measurement the five test products were applied, and one area remained untreated. The dose of application was about 2 mg cm2. In the following 5 days, the subjects applied the test samples in the morning and in the evening. Measurements were done during the treatment period on days 1, 3, and 5,2 hours after the last daily application. No use of other cosmetics was allowed on the test sites during the whole test.

New nucleoside analogs

What about long-term toxicity In monkeys, there were minor skin problems, usually hyperpigmentation, after 52 weeks of exposure. SPD-754 was thus significantly less toxic than its racemate BCH-10652, which caused severe degenerative derma-topathy in all exposed monkeys. Nevertheless, these results give cause for concern (Locas 2004). Other disadvantages are becoming apparent 3TC and FTC significantly lower intracellular levels of SPD-754 - probably competitively. Combination with cytidine analogs such as 3TC and FTC could therefore pose a problem (Bethell 2004). Further drugs that are in the pipeline at Shire Biochem include SPD-756 (BCH-13520) and SPD-761. However, these are not as far developed and might disappear completely, as not much has been heard about these recently.

Allergic Contact Dermatitis From Fragrances Epidemiology

Contact allergy to fragrances usually causes dermatitis of the hands, face, and or armpits 16-18 , the latter site being explained by contact allergy to deodorants and fragranced antiperspirants. In the face, the skin behind the ears and neck is exposed to high concentrations of fragrances in perfumes and aftershaves. Microtraumata from shaving facilitates (photo)contact allergy to aftershave fragrances. The sensitive skin of the eyelids is particularly susceptible to developing allergic contact dermatitis to fragrances in skincare products, decorative cosmetics, and cleansing preparations, as well as from fragrances spread through the air (airborne contact dermatitis) 19 . Most reactions are mild and are characterized by erythema (redness) only with some swelling of the eyelids. More acute lesions with papules, vesicles, and oozing may sometimes be observed. Dermatitis attributable to perfumes or toilet water tends to be ''streaky.'' In some cases, the eruption resembles other skin...

Clinical Evaluation of Sensory Irritation

A variety of chemical irritants used in cosmetics were used to induce sensory irritation. All clinical studies were conducted according to double-blind, vehicle-controlled, random treatment assignment protocols in which each subject served as her own control. Test subjects were healthy women, aged 18 to 65, who self-reported a history of sensitive skin and were sensitive to lactic acid facial challenge. Treated skin sites were first washed with Ivory bar soap, followed by sequential application of test materials and sensory irritation evaluation. Statistical analysis of the mean sensory irritation differences between vehicle and strontium-treated groups was conducted using the Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test for paired comparisons. All subjects provided informed consent and all protocols were reviewed by a safety committee.

Key Ingredients In The Cosmetics And Toiletries Industry

Dimethicone and Vinyldimethicone Crosspolymers or blends are silicone elastomers. They exist in powder form or as elastomeric silicone gels that are swollen with solvent (usually Cyclomethicone). The introduction of different functionalities into such products is also possible. They are used as rheology modifiers in skincare and antiperspirant products, providing a dry, powdery feel to formulations.

Treatment Of Chemotherapyinduced Febrile Neutropenia

The treatment of patients with chemotherapy-induced FN is multifactorial and includes not only antibiotic and CSF therapy but also supportive measures. Observational vigilance is an important aspect in the care of patients with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia there is no substitute for frequent observation and examination, particularly of the oropharynx, chest, and abdominal and perirectal areas. Frequent blood cell counts, blood cultures, and culture and examination of exudates and other bodily fluids in patients with fever remain the mainstay of good medical care. In addition to good skin care and oral hygiene, every effort should be made to maintain good functional status through nutritional support and exercise. Patients with cancer should be encouraged to decrease or eliminate smoking and maintain their immunization status, including influenza immunizations. Education of the patient and family, as observers of health status, is also important, particularly to recognize the...

Adverse Effects and Toxicity

Especially those that do not contain acidifying agents such as phosphoric or citric acid. Clostridium botulinum bacteria are dispersed throughout the environment, but are not dangerous in the presence of oxygen. The spores produce a deadly toxin in anaerobic, low-acid conditions. The garlic-in-oil mixture provides the environment for the spores to produce their toxin, leading to botulism. At least 40 cases of this poisoning were reported in the late 1980s.

Clinical Manifestations Primary Lesion

A primary lesion is the most common manifestation of malignant melanoma of the head and neck region. This lesion can vary in appearance from the classical black-pigmented, raised lesion to an enlarging, skin-colored (amelanotic) mole (Fig. 1A and B). Melanoma can arise from a preexisting nevus or normal skin. The appearance of melanoma may be

Cme Questionschapter

Botulinum toxins interfere with the release of acetylcholine. b. It is inadvisable to prescribe botulinum toxin to a patient using blood thinners. c. The therapeutic effect of a botulinum toxin injection lasts approximately 3 months. d. Botulinum toxins work by strengthening the injected muscle.

HAART Influence on skin and mucocutaneous diseases

The introduction of HAART in 1996 revolutionized the dermatological management of HIV-infected patients. Opportunistic infections and the clinical manifestations of Kaposi's sarcoma abated to a level of 10 compared to the pre-HAART era (Reinmoller 1997, Schofer 1998, Sepkowitz 1998, Calista 2002). An Italian hospital reported that HAART had reduced the total number of HIV patients with skin problems by 40 . The percentage of patients with cutaneous infections dropped from 66 to 53 the percentage of non-infectious, inflammatory diseases from 25 to 21 however, the percentage of patients with drug reactions increased from 8 to 23 (Calista 2002). Appendix 2 is a compilation of antiretroviral drugs, and their cutaneous side effects. Atypical clinical courses of skin diseases and resistance to therapy, which were very common in patients with severe immunodeficiency in the pre-HAART era, are rare conditions now. They still occur, however, in patients not taking antiretroviral therapy...

Pathological Conditions

Malignant melanomas malignant melanomas, like benign naevi, are derived from melanocytes. They may arise de novo or from within an existing melanocytic naevus. Changes in a pre-existing mole that cause concern include (a) asymmetry (b) irregular borders (c) change or variation in colour (d) size > 6 mm (e) elevation and also itching, bleeding or symptoms associated with a naevus. When the clinician is suspicious of a diagnosis of malignant melanoma the lesion is removed in total, usually with an ellipse of normal skin around it. Depending on the degree of certainty of the clinical diagnosis, a wide excision may or may not be done at that time. Melanomas are the third most common malignant skin tumour. Their incidence is rising and they are the primary skin tumour most likely to metastasise and cause death. Malignant melanomas typically occur after puberty and their incidence increases with advancing age.

Quality Management In Baby Care

Despite careful research with respect to the good skin tolerability of each individual ingredient in baby-care formulations, it should be made certain that this data will also apply to the final product after these ingredients are integrated into the formula. In order to rule out the possibility of contact allergies or sensitizing skin reactions, products are frequently tested using the repeated-insult patch test (RIPT). This test is a validated, recognized method for the testing of skin sensitization. The test preparations are repeatedly applied to the same localization for 3 weeks. After a 2-week break, the test materials are applied once again on another location and the skin is assessed for any allergic reaction that could possibly have been induced 34 . Exposure to sunlight can cause certain ingredients to trigger photoallergic or phototoxic skin reactions. Photopatch or phototoxicity tests enable the detection of UV-induced irritant or allergic skin reactions. In a clinical...

Biopsy and Excision Specimens

Diagnostic elliptical biopsy an ellipse of skin may be removed to establish the diagnosis in skin rashes. This may involve lesional skin and surrounding normal skin, or only lesional skin. Where the biopsy is taken depends on the clinical diagnosis, and where the most likely diagnostic pathology is to be found. The dermatologist on the advice of the dermatopathologist must take the most appropriate site for diagnosis. Diagnostic elliptical biopsies are also done for skin tumours before, if necessary, formal excisions are carried out. They are not recommended for lesions where malignant melanoma is a suspected diagnosis clinically. Elliptical excisions elliptical excisions are carried out to remove skin tumours, both benign and malignant. The dermatological surgeon will usually remove the lesion with a surrounding rim of normal skin.

Conservation status

The bill of a duck-billed platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) is fleshy and covered by soft, sensitive skin. (Photo by Peter Marsack Lochman Transparencies. Reproduced by permission.) The bill of a duck-billed platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) is fleshy and covered by soft, sensitive skin. (Photo by Peter Marsack Lochman Transparencies. Reproduced by permission.)

Brefeldin A Inhibits the Coating Process

(g) The fusion of synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane of neurons involves a series of events similar to that described above. For example, one v-SNARE is designated synaptobrevin and two t-SNAREs are designated syntaxin and SNAP 25 (synaptosome-associ-ated protein of 25 kDa). Botulinum B toxin is one of the most lethal toxins known and the most serious cause of food poisoning. One component of this toxin is a protease that appears to cleave only synaptobrevin, thus inhibiting release of acetylcholine at the neuro-muscular junction and possibly proving fatal, depending on the dose taken.

Epidemiological Studies

Recent findings suggest that higher sensitivity can be attributable to different mechanisms. Hyperreactors may have a thinner stratum corneum with a reduced corneocyte area, causing a higher transcutaneous penetration of water-soluble chemicals 4 . In 1977, Frosch and Kligman 5 , by testing different irritants, showed a 14 incidence of sensitive skin in the normal population, likely correlated to a thin permeable stratum corneum, which make these subjects more susceptible to chemical irritation. In 1982, Frosch 10 , using dimethylsulfoxide, show a correlation between the minimal erythema dose (MED) and the response to irritants the higher the inflammation, the lower the MED. Subsequently, a correlation between skin reactivity and skin type was reported higher reactions were detected in subjects with skin type I 11 . Moreover, in eczema skin reactivity is enhanced 12 . Studies performed on animal models showed that strong irritant reactions in guinea pigs significantly reduced the...


An advantage of IHC is that it provides direct visualization of staining in tumor cells with the ability to give spatial information. In a leading example, Baselga et al. (2002, 2005) have provided proof of concept studies using IHC in tumor and normal skin for gefitinib and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor RAD001 (see specific later sections). A recent paper used IHC to implicate EGFRvIII and PTEN mutations as molecular determinants of the sensitivity of glioblastomas to EGFR kinase inhibitors (Mellinghoff et al., 2005). Paraffin-embedded tissue sections underwent IHC analysis for PTEN and EGFRvIII, and the results were verified independently by two pathologists using a predetermined set of scoring criteria. Quantitative image analysis to confirm the pathologists' scoring was also performed with the use of Soft Imaging System software.

Diseases of the Esophagus

The cricopharyngeal muscle, an injection of botulinum toxin may be considered. Specific other findings, such as weak stripping motion of the tongue, weakness of the soft palate, or food getting stuck in the valleculae or piriform sinus, can aid the speech pathologist in figuring out a new swallowing technique for the patient affected by these abnormalities.

Assessing Moisturizer Efficacy Overview of Lotion Function

Moisturizer Assay

Hand and body moisturizers have two primary functions. The traditional view of moisturizer function is that they alleviate pre-existing dry skin and prevent its return. Recently, however, reports in the scientific literature have shown that moisturizers can prevent the induction of some signs of irritant contact dermatitis 9,10 . The ability to prevent irritant contact dermatitis has relevance to a significant segment of the population. Epidemiological studies have shown that the prevalence of diag-nosable hand and forearm eczema can be as high as 5.4 of the population at any one time, and from 8 to 11 in the preceding year 11,12 . This often has an irritant component especially from repeated exposure to surfactant solutions. Being able to prevent irritation may provide a significant benefit to these individuals, as well as those with dry skin (xero-sis), which frequently affects the arms and legs of consumers. Although symptoms are usually less intense than eczema, dry skin probably...

Hair Conditioning Improved Combing

As in skincare, silicones impart a soft smooth feel to the hair. Sensory evaluations of cuticle coat formulations consisting entirely of blends of silicone showed that, in addition to ease of combing, they improve spreadability, silkiness and softness, gloss and perceived repair of split ends compared to the control 16,18 .

Formulating Hydrating Creams And Lotions

The continuing development of biophysical instrumentation and test techniques has enabled formulation of highly effective skincare formulations. Formulators now have several Multiple emulsions are of interest to the skincare formulator because of the elegant appear- encountered in skincare (w o w), where the internal and external water phases are separated by oil, and oil-in-water-in-oil (o w o) where the water phase separates the two oil phases. The method of preparation for each multiple emulsion type is similar. Benefits of these types of formulations are the claimed sustained release of entrapped materials in the internal phase and separation of various incompatible ingredients in the same formulation.

Immunological Contact Urticaria

SENSITIVE SKIN This term is a neologism for consumers' feelings about their intolerance to a variety of topical agents, be it topical medicaments or cosmetics and toiletries. Individuals present with very similar complaints, such as burning, stinging or itching sensations, on contact with certain cosmetic products that most people do not seem to react to, sometimes accompanied by slight erythema or edema. They frequently complain of a ''tight feeling'' in their skin, secondary to associated dry skin. Sensitive skin describes the phenotype noted by the consumer mechanisms include sensory irritation, suberythematous irritation, acute and cumulative irritation, contact urticaria, allergic contact dermatitis, as well as photoal-lergic and phototoxic contact dermatitis. Sensory irritation and suberythematous irritation are believed to be far more common than the remaining mechanisms. Status cosmeticus is a condition in which every cosmetic product applied to the face produces itching,...

Evaluation Of The Protective Efficacy Of Synthetic Bisabolol Against Sodium Hydroxideinduced Irritation

Fifteen volunteers between the age of 25 and 44 years with healthy skin were entered into the study. The participants were briefed on the study procedures and gave written informed consent. Measurements were carried out at a temperature of 22 1 C and relative humidity of 60 10 . The test was carried out on the volar forearms. The dose of application was about 2 mg cm2. Two products were tested. One contained 0.56 synthetic bisabolol in mineral oil, the other pure mineral oil. Two hours after the application, 50 L 0.1 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) was applied to the volar forearms with occlusive aluminum chambers for 12 hours. At the end of exposure, the skin was wiped with a soft paper towel to remove remaining solution, rinsed with distilled water and gently dried with a soft paper towel. Measurements were performed after 15 minutes.

Ascorbic Acid Vitamin C And Its Derivatives

Structure of vitamin C is shown in Figure 1. Although the lightening effect of vitamin C is considered, it is quickly oxidized and decomposes in aqueous solution and is thus not generally useful as a depigmenting agent. Numerous stable derivatives of vitamin C have been synthesized to minimize this problem 12-14,17 . Magnesium-L-ascorby-2-phos-phate (VC-PMG) is a vitamin-C derivative that is stable in water, especially in neutral or alkaline solution containing boric acid or its salt 12 . VC-PMG is hydrolyzed by phosphatases of liver or skin to vitamin C and thus exhibits vitamin C-reducing activity 12 . Kameyama et al. 12 investigated the effects of VC-PMG on melanogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Results from this non-placebo-controlled study suggested the topical application of VC-PMG was significantly effective in lightening the skin in 19 of 34 patients with chloasma or senile freckles, and in 3 of 25 subjects with normally pigmented healthy skin.

Other Experimental Drugs

Apocrine glands produce sweat, which becomes smelly after bacterial degradation. Heckmann et al. 13 reported that botulinum toxin may decrease the production of sweat by apocrine glands, similarly to the effect on eccrine glands. The mechanism is related to the cholinergic stimulation of apocrine glands, which is inhibited by the botulinum toxin. Although based on an erroneous concept of apocrine gland involvement, botulinum toxin has been tried in the treatment of HS. Two cases of treatment of Verneuil's disease (HS) with botulinum toxin have been reported 14 . The first patient was a 29-year-old woman with recalcitrant HS, who experienced relapses after isotretinoin, zinc gluconate and antian-drogen therapy. The lesions were located in the axillary regions and mammary folds. Botuli-num toxin A (Botox ) was injected at a dose of 50 units in each axillary region and 10 units in each of the mammary folds. A complete remission was observed after 1 month. The duration of the effect was 6...

Skin Cleansing And Decontamination

Soap-and-water wash may not be the best method to cleanse skin. Soap and water will remove visible dirt and odor, but may not be a good skin cleanser. Figure 9 shows methylene bisphenyl isocyanate (MDI) (an industrial chemical) decontamination with water, soap and water, and some polyglycol and oil-based cleansers. Water and soap and water didn't work well but the polyglycol and oil-based cleansers did the job. The unknown question that remains is whether soap and water would then remove the polyglycol and oil-based cleansers 11 .

Definition of Cosmetics

Cosmetics are a category of consumer products marketed worldwide, the purpose and functions of which are universal to people of all cultures. The 1998 global cosmetics and toiletries market was valued at 125.7 billion 1 , including skincare, fragrance, haircare, personal hygiene, and makeup products. In the United States alone there are over 1400 domestic manufacturing and repacking establishments, which in the aggregate use more than 10,500 different cosmetic ingredients 2 and a corresponding number of fragrance ingredients to make over 25,000 product formulations 3 . Once considered luxuries by consumers of modest economic means, cosmetics and toiletries are seen today as necessities by growing numbers of consumers, regardless of their relative states of affluence 4 . Indeed, cosmetics are regarded not as mere pampered indulgences, but as key aids to maintaining and promoting better standards of personal hygiene and health. Yet, what are these products that we call cosmetics...

Water Monitoring Tests

Many biological agents produce toxins, such as botulinum and cholera toxins, whereas other toxins are naturally occurring, such as ricin toxin, which originates from castor beans. Implementation of surveillance for bioagents occurs primarily at the local and state levels, and is part of any comprehensive water protection plan. Security measures can range from physical barriers (deterrents for unauthorized access such as walls and fences) to cyber-safety protections (firewalls and restriction of computer access to monitoring facilities), to actual biosensor surveillance technologies. Ideally, each level of security is implemented at several checkpoints, covering multiple sites along the distribution chain, including main plants, remote sites, distribution systems, wastewater collection systems, pumping stations, treatment facilities, and water storage depots. Although the entire spectrum of security measures is needed to protect our water supplies, experts cite more comprehensive,...

Strontium Mechanism Of Action

Burning Strontium Nitrate

The fact that strontium can block the rapid intense irritation caused by a 70 (pH 0.6) glycolic acid chemical peel without causing numbness or other detectable changes in cutaneous sensations suggests that strontium is highly selective in its ability to regulate type-C nociceptors (Fig. 4). In contrast, local anesthetics like lidocaine or procaine not only block irritant sensations, but also block tactile sensations that produce numbness 36 . Recent studies support the concept that strontium is highly selective for only nocicep-tive subsets of sensory neurons because strontium nitrate (20 ) applied to normal skin did not alter sensory thresholds for cold sensations, warmth sensations, or pain caused by cold or heat 24 .

Ionic Surfactants Anionic Surfactants

In aqueous solution, anionic surfactants form a negatively charged ion provided the composition pH is neutral to alkaline. The ionized moiety can be a carboxylate, sulfate, sulfonate or phosphate. Among most frequently used surfactants in skin care products, the alkyl sulfates and alkyl ethoxylated sulfates can be mentioned for their high foaming capacity. Anionics are generally used in association with other surfactants (nonionics or amphoterics), which bring improvements in the skin tolerance, in the foam quality, or in the product viscosity. Alkyl Ether Sulfates. Alkyl ether sulfates (AES), which are also called alcohol ethoxy sulfates (AEOS), result from the sulfation of an ethoxylated alcohol. Compared with alkyl sulfates, the ether sulfates show higher water solubility, improved foam stability in hard water, and better skin tolerance. The viscosity of surfactant solutions of ether

Factors That Influence Skin Responsiveness To Irritants

Many factors can influence the responsiveness of a consumer's skin to a potential irritant. Some factors are intrinsic, inherent to the subjects themselves (e.g., sensitive skin, atopic skin), the body site, and previous traumas to the considered skin area. Other factors are external, such as composition of product, conditions of exposure, occupation of the subject, and climatic factors 4,5,7 . The reason why these factors are covered in this chapter are evident. Some cosmetics with anti-irritant ingredients are designed for some specific skin sites, such as the face, or considered as seasonal products, such as cosmetics against winter dryness of the skin. Factors inherent to the constitution of the skin of the subjects that may influence skin responsiveness are numerous. A marked interindividual variability in response to irritants have been reported and ascribed to host-related factors. Considering the interindividual variability of subjects to skin irritants, one must mention here...

Summary And Conclusions

Skincare products now exist that have various degrees of utility for preventing, minimizing the appearance of, or treating wrinkles caused by UVR. Conscientious use of sunscreens can minimize photoaging and wrinkle formation. Rigorous consumer-panel testing can show consistent improvement of the appearance of wrinkles with many products of a purely cosmetic nature. Application of well-established clinical methodologies and increasingly sophisticated instrumental techniques have conclusively shown pharmacologically mediated wrinkle improvement, especially with topical use of retinoids or alpha-hydroxy acids. aging skin 26 m 2. Fisher GJ, Wang ZQ, Datta SC, Varani J, Kang S, Voorhees JJ. Pathophysiology of premature S skin aging induced by ultraviolet light. N Engl J Med 1997 337(20) 1419-1428. 2 20. Schmidt JB, Binder M, Demschik G, Bieglmayer C, Reiner A. Treatment of skin aging with topical estrogens. Int J Dermatol 1996 35(9) 669-674. 22. Callens A, Vaillant L, Lecomte P, Berson M,...

Angiogenesis In Lymphoma

Angiogenesis may be involved in disease progression. Arias et al. found a similar difference between low grade and high grade NHL, but not between intermediate and high grade NHL, or between follicular hyperplasia and follicular lymphoma. Schaerer et al.104 found higher microvessel density in primary cutaneous lymphomas compared to reactive lymphoid infiltrates, although assessment of microvessel density was not useful as a diagnostic tool. Vacca et al.105 documented higher microvessel density in mycosis fungoides lesions compared to normal skin, with an increase in microvessel density with disease progression.

Surgical Complications

Infection risks are probably the most feared complication with the use of intraspinal opioids. Infection can occur at the pump insertion site, along the catheter track, and within the intrathecal space. The hardware must be placed under sterile technique according to manufacturer recommendations with the use of perioperative antibiotics and intraoperative antibiotic irrigation. After the initial pump filling before implantation, the first puncture to refill the pump should not be earlier than 10 days after implantation. While bacteri-ostatic filters are present in the pump and the catheter tubing, great care should be taken by trained practitioners to not introduce bacteria during subsequent refills. Meningitis, although rare, should be suspected in the presence of fever, headache, stiff neck, rigors, and photophobia. If an infection develops, normal skin flora, such as Staphylococcus aureus and S. epider-midis, are the most common offenders.

Sensory Irritation Scale

Alpha-hydroxyacids (AHAs) including lactic and glycolic acids are used in cosmetics and in professionally applied chemical peels to reduce the visible signs of skin aging. To maximize AHA efficacy, the formulation must be acidic, which increases the active ''free acid'' form of the AHA molecule and, unfortunately, directly contributes to their irritation potential 11,12 . To evaluate the ability of strontium salts to reduce lactic acid sensory irritation, either lactic acid alone (7.5 in 10 ethanol water vehicle, pH 1.9), or an identical vehicle at the same pH containing various concentrations of strontium nitrate or strontium chloride was applied (0.1 g) to cheek sites using cotton swabs (6 swipes) extending from the nasolabial fold to the outer cheek. Test materials were applied to the right or left side of subjects' faces sequentially followed by sensory irritation assessment on each side for 10 minutes. A typical time-response curve for lactic acid (7.5 , pH 1.9) on the face is...

Special Techniques and Considerations

Immunofluorescence immunofluorescent examinations are required for the diagnosis of chronic blistering diseases and are useful in connective tissue diseases. The site of biopsy is important for immunofluorescence, particularly in the blistering disorders. In dermatitis herpetiformis a biopsy for immunofluorescence should be taken from clinically normal skin away from the area of blistering. In the other blistering disorders, perilesional skin is submitted. The skin should have an intact epidermal dermal junction. In most of the connective tissue disorders lesional skin is submitted for immunofluorescence except for the lupus band test, where normal non-sun-exposed skin is used. Most patients having skin submitted for immunofluorescence should

Physical characteristics

There is a sensitive skin area on the ventral side of the tail of all tarsier species. Being endowed with papillary skin ridges, this is friction skin that is used as a support area. Tarsiers spare much of their energy budget by sitting on their tails when resting on a vertical support, much like woodpeckers do.

Adverse Reactions

At doses greater than 30 mg day beta-carotene may cause an orange-yellow colouration of the skin (carotenodermia), which is usually seen first as yellowness of the palms and soles. This condition is harmless and reversible when intake ceases (Micozzi et al 1988). Carotenodermia is distinguished from jaundice by the absence of yellowed ocular sclerae. For some people, this skin colouration is actually considered desirable (Mathews-Roth 1990b) and is utilised in tanning tablets to produce a natural-looking skin tan (DerMarderosian & Beutler 2002).


The treatment of drooling in PD has been attempted with anticholinergic drugs such as benztropine, scopolamine, and glycopyrrolate the latter having been recommended as the agent with the fewest troublesome side effects (40). Most recently, several authors have reported results of botulinum toxin injections as a treatment for drooling in PD. Mancini et al. (41) injected 450 U of botulinum toxin type-A (Dysport ) into the parotid and submandibular glands using ultrasonographic guidance in PD and MSA patients with disabling sialorrhea. They reported a reduction of drooling within one week that lasted about a month and was unassociated with adverse effects such as dysphagia. Dogu et al. (42) compared ultrasound-guided botulinum toxin injections (Botox ) in the parotid gland with blind injections (using no guidance) and measured postinjection salivary output in the two groups. Although subjective sialorrhea improved in both groups, the group receiving ultrasound guidance experienced a...


As the cause of constipation in PD is multifactorial, its management requires a multimodality approach. All patients should be advised to increase daily water consumption and add bulking agents to the diet, such as psyllium preparations and high-fiber foods however, rarely is this sufficient therapy. Cisapride, a prokinetic agent that directly stimulates acetylcholine release in the gut, has been shown to improve constipation and shorten colonic transit time in PD (52). However, this drug was withdrawn from the market in most countries due to QT prolongation and its proarrhythmic effect in some patients. Mosapride citrate is a newly synthesized agent with a similar mechanism of action as cisapride but without known cardiac toxicity. It was recently studied using an open-label design in 14 patients with PD and MSA, where it was well tolerated and effective in producing subjective improvement in bowel frequency and difficult defecation (53). The value of this agent remains to be...

Clinical Course

The disease may be restricted to a single region - e.g. axillary - or expand to all possible areas. The disease severity may also vary. It may be active in all areas or only in one or two areas and in each involved area the degree of involvement may vary. It may be massive with no normal skin left or the disease may be represented by only one or two nodules or draining sinuses. In a given region, each new attack may be a revival of an old lesion or alternatively the appearance of new nodules and abscesses each time.


Age changes in appearance and physical functioning in adulthood are inevitable, but they occur at different rates in different individuals and species. The effects of these changes on the self-concept also vary from person to person. Greying hair, wrinkles, and other signs of old age are obviously of greater concern to individuals for whom a youthful appearance is more important for occupational success and social prestige. Physical appearance, of course, is not the exclusive concern of aging women, though the cosmetics industry and purveyors of other treatments for aging skin and bodies focus principally on the female sex.


Fer of the ADP-ribosyl group of NAD+ to a protein acceptor, producing the modified protein and free nico-tinamide. The reaction scheme catalyzed by the cholera toxin A subunit and a rabbit muscle protein has been determined to be random1. The amino acyl residues that have been reported to have been modified in these reactions include a cysteinyl residue (e.g., via pertussis toxin2), an arginyl residue (via cholera toxin A), an asparaginyl residue (via botulinum toxin), and a modified histidyl residue (via diphtheria toxin). In addition, the subunit structure appears to have a role in substrate specificity13.

Future Trends2

The cosmetic patches, as previously explained, need to present a more potent solution for the cosmetic treatment of skin problems. For this reason, there is the need for the use of very potent ingredients or extracts, that are probably especially designed for the patches in order to achieve a very fast and effective action.

Near Response

Miscellaneous The toxin of Clostridium botulinum can produce large, nonreacting pupils, paralysis of accommodation, ptosis, and extraocular muscle palsies. The patient is wide awake, with progressing respiratory distress. He may have vomited but is usually constipated. Diphtheria can produce paralysis of accommodation and also affects bulbar originating nerves and cardiac rhythm.

Nonionic Surfactants

Nonionic surfactants do not dissociate into ions in aqueous medium. They generally deliver a weak to moderate foam. They are appreciated for their good skin and eye compatibility as well as for their anti-irritant potential when they are combined with anionics in appropriate concentration ratio. Therefore, numerous products for sensitive skin, babies, or the face incorporate nonionics as major surfactants.

Animal Studies

Brownish guinea pigs have melanocytes in their skin and the skin pigmentation is enhanced by ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation, similar to the human situation. The preventative effect of EA on skin pigmentation was investigated by applying EA topically, on the back, for 6 weeks and irradiating by UV for first 2 weeks 8 . The appearance of skin to which EA was applied became similar to normal skin. The melanin content of the skin to which EA had been applied was reduced, not only in the basal layers but also in the stratum spinosum, -granulosum, and -corneum, in comparison with the same structures in control sections to which EA had not been applied. Tyrosinase activity was similar. Furthermore, application of EA to the skin after UV-light irradiation had almost the same affect as applying EA concurrently with the initial irradiation. Furthermore, the efficacy of EA was almost the same as that of hydroquinone (HQ), a well-known depigmentation agent (Fig. 5). When the same animals were...

Effect On Human Skin

A skin cream containing EA was applied for 6 weeks to the brachium before each irradiation by UV light 9 . The sites were irradiated three times at 1 MED. Skin pigmentation was partially suppressed after only 1 week's application, and completely suppressed after 3 and 6 weeks' application (Fig. 6). Eighty-six percent of the efficacy of EA evaluated by a double-blind controlled test was rated ''moderately preferable'' or better (Fig. 7). Similar efficacy rates were calculated by the image analysis method. Side effects such as depigmentation were not observed throughout the application period.

Primary Deficiency

Myxoedema is characterised by swelling of the hands, face, feet and peri-orbital tissues and can lead to coma and death if sufficiently severe and left untreated. Endemic cretinism is divided into two forms, neurologic or myxoedematous, depending on the interplay of genetics and iodine deficiency. Usually children with neurologic cretinism are mentally deficient and often deaf mute but of normal height and strength and may have goitre. Myxoedematous cretinism is characterised by dwarfism, mental deficiency, dry skin, large tongue, umbilical hernia, muscular incoordination and puffy facial features. Concomitant selenium deficiency may be a contributing factor in myxoedematous cretinism. Early treatment with thyroid hormone supplementation can promote normal physical growth however, intellectual disability may not be prevented and in very severe cases death may ensue.

Sectioned Sebaceous

Human Skin Showing Sweat Gland 45x

As vertical sections of human skin are observed, remember that the lenses of the microscope invert and reverse images. It is important to orient the position of the epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous (hypodermis) layers using scan magnification before continuing with additional observations. Compare all of your skin observations to figure 10.3. Use low-power magnification of the compound microscope and proceed as follows


Considering the lifelong duration of antiretroviral therapy with complications such as drug intolerance, development of epithelial tumors induced by UV-light exposure or oncogenic viruses, it is recommended that patients have a dermatologic consultation before the start of antiretroviral therapy. Complete skin examination with attention to the presence of STDs should be performed. Education should include prevention of photodamage, safe sex practices, and skin care to avoid infections, especially when HIV-associated xerosis is already evident.

Skin Cleansing

Bath additives usually contain a mixture of various anionic, nonionic, and amphoteric surfactants. Numerous superfatting agents, solubilizing agents, plant extracts, and perfumes are also found in products within this category. However, only an oil bath for elderly skin may provide skin cleansing and conditioning at the same time. For serious dry-skin conditions, oil baths are indispensable. A variety of shower products, meanwhile, also contain high amounts of superfatting agents, thus securing their good skin compatibility and low drying-out potential.

Some Herbal Terms

Salves are a thickened oil usually created by melting beeswax into an infused herbal oil. Used externally to treat skin problems, they keep the healing properties of the herbs in place longer than alcohol or water-based products. Salves can be stored for many years in a cool, dark place. They are quick and easy to make once the herbal oil is prepared. Herb-infused oils. To make an herb-infused oil, you'll steep the herbs in the oil, which imbues the oil with the herbs' healing properties. You can use the resulting oil directly on your skin or combined with other ingredients to make salves and creams. Extra-virgin olive oil is the most

Sweating Dysfunction

Treatment of sweating problems in PD is difficult, and no clear guidelines or evidence-based recommendations exist. Since some episodes are associated with off periods and others with dyskinesia, efforts should be made to reduce off time as much as possible while avoiding dyskinesia by adjusting antiparkinsonian medications. Although some have suggested treatment with L-dihydroxyphenylalanine or beta blockers, no studies have been published which evaluate these treatments in PD (73). Although there is a growing literature on the treatment of focal hyper-hidrosis with botulinum toxin injections (74-78), this therapy has not been studied in PD-related sweating disorders and would not be expected to be applicable to those patients with whole-body drenching sweats due to the practical problem of administering the drug to the target tissue. Beyond attempted pharmacological

Excision Margins

The choice of margins is very much dependent on the extent and development of HS in the individual patient. Excision of inflammatory tissue including all occluded follicles and all fistulas is mandatory, otherwise immediate recurrence will follow surgery. In cases where the disease is limited, with fistulated processes separated by healthy skin (disease Stage II according to Hurley's classification), and when most of the region is spared, excision of the skin confined to the diseased tissues is satisfactory. In cases confined to a fistulating process, it is nec

Skin cancers

Although a large number of loci underlying rare Mendelian disorders in man have been identified following previous work in the mouse, until recently and with one exception, the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), the importance of these loci to normal physiological variation in pigmentation in man has been unclear. Studies not yet published (Brilliant, M. personal communication) however suggest that many SNPs in, or close to, loci implicated in coat color mutants in mouse influence human pigmentation. Additionally, following the elucidation of the genetic basis of the golden mutant in zebrafish, the human homolog, SLC24A5, appears to be a key determinant of physiological pigmentary variation in man (Lamason et al., 2005). In the section below I discuss in detail what we have learned of the relation between allelic variation at the MC1R and human pigmentary phenotypes. However, it is likely that within several years the majority of normal skin and hair colour variation in man will be...

Fennel face toother

For a refreshing herbal splash, herbalist and licensed aesthetician Stephanie Tourles, author of The Herbal Body Book and owner of Septembers Sun Herbal Soap Company, takes advantage of the skin-softening properties of fennel. Fennel creates a slipperiness that feels wonderful on the face and body, Stephanie says. I use this as a hair rinse as well. It restores the natural pH balance of your skin and scalp.

The Somatic View

Important consequence is that the woman loses control of her pelvic floor muscles, together with the control over her body and her right to self-determination. This is even more painful when the phenomenon vaginismus is used as a solution for relationship problems. It is remarkable that although this form of therapy was commonplace until recently, very little has been published on it. Treatment with pharmacotherapy including benzodiazepines and Botulinum toxin injections has been mentioned in the literature but no controlled trials are available (48,49).

Chagas Disease

The dysphagia that occurs with Chagas' disease can occur anywhere from weeks to years following infection. Initially, the dysphagia is intermittent however, as the disease progresses, it becomes persistent and more severe. Regurgitation, aspiration with pneumonia, and weight loss are common. Roberto Dantas described esophageal motor abnormalities as documented by barium esophagram or manometry in 25 of asymptomatic individuals (23). These findings typically consist of dysrhythmic contractions in early phases. As the disease progresses, the manometric findings show decreasing peristaltic amplitudes and eventually aperistalsis, which is the hallmark of this disease. Radiographically, barium swallows show a dilated atonic esophagus, similar to that seen in primary achalasia. The diagnosis can be confirmed by serology however, false positives can occur in patients with collagen vascular disease, leishmaniasis, malaria, and syphilis (24). Treatment of the acute disease, even when...


Destructive methods have to respect the general surgical principle of tissue conservation, i.e., that healthy tissue should be left intact. In HS sinus tracts normally occur under healthy skin which need not be destroyed. Precision in the application of destructive methods is therefore very important. While indiscriminately destructive methods such as cryotherapy, and probably also electrodesiccation, may be expected to work, they also induce unacceptable collateral damage. In addition unnecessary tissue destruction induces significant iatrogenic morbidity in the patients, as the lesions are often slow to heal, are susceptible to suprainfec-tion and cause additional scarring. With improved imaging techniques and more targeted delivery of treatment this could be overcome to some degree, but is unlikely to be removed altogether.

Hints For Daily Life

When it is a case of deep lesions covered by normal skin, it is useless to hope to make the lesions mature more quickly by using alcohol-impregnated wet dressings. This may perhaps be possible with superficial dressings. In some cases an antibiotic treatment adapted to suit the case may cause the lesion to disappear, but this is far from always the case. In fact, faced with the most typical lesions - that is to say deep lesions - only an intralesional injection of corticosteroids or excision with a scalpel will relieve pain and release pus. Depending on the place, the patient, the type of lesions and their seriousness and topography, the lancing of an abscess takes place under a general or a local anesthetic, with or without hospitalization.

Aging of Human Skin

All the factors contributing to the acceleration of the rate of accumulation of damages share the capability to induce the synthesis of I-CAM 1 in endothelial cells. This has prompted the proposal of the micro-inflammatory model of skin aging. According to this model, endothelial synthesis of I-CAM 1 allows the diapedesis of circulating monocytes, which enter the dermis and digest the surrounding extra-cellular matrix. During this process, nearby cells can be damaged and will secrete molecular signals to provoke vasodilation and diapedesis of more monocytes, to maintain the inflammatory cycle. Skin and Skin Aging The aging of the skin is more the consequence of way of life than of predetermination. Factors of skin aging such as solar radiation, cigarette smoke, tractional forces, electromagnetic fields, infections, psychological stressors, air pollutants, anoxia, wounds, and traumas have been identified. The genotype will play a role in the process of skin aging, too, because the same...

Paul F Robbins PhD

Several broad categories of antigens have been identified using these techniques. The family of melanocyte differentiation antigens are also expressed in normal skin melanocytes and pigmented retinal epithelial cells, but their expression in tumor cells is limited to melanomas. A wider expression pattern has been observed for the cancer testis (CT) family of antigens, which are expressed in melanomas as well as a variety of common epithelial tumors such as prostate, lung, and breast carcinomas. Expression of CT antigens in normal tissues is limited to normal testis cells. Certain antigens appear to be expressed in a wide variety of normal tissues however, the levels of expression in these tissues are generally lower than those found in tumor cells. Finally, antigens that are encoded by gene products that are expressed exclusively in tumor cells have also been identified. These include transcripts derived from mutated genes as well as a relatively small number of transcripts that are...


Koxylated methyl glucose derivative (lauryl methyl gluceth-10 hydroxypropyldimonium chloride), the hydrophilic moiety delivers humectant properties the hydrophobic chain at the cationic end of the molecule ensures both substantivity and skin conditioning. Inclusion of acrylamide into DMDAAC homopolymer (Polyquaternium 6 is not compatible with anionics) decreases the positive charge density leading to a skin-conditioning polymer more compatible with anionics (Polyquaternium 7) (29, 30). The same effect is obtained by copolymerizing DMDAAC with either acrylic acid (Polyquaternium 22) or with both acrylamide and acrylic acid (Polyquaternium 39). Polyquaternium 7 is probably one of the most often used synthetic cationic polymer in body-cleansing products it is highly substantive to the skin, delivering soft, silky, moisturized afterfeel (28).


Pantothenic acid is an unstable substance. In topical preparations such as skincare, haircare, nailcare, and derma products, pantothenic acid is used in the alcohol form, called panthenol. Its use is based on its dual role as a vitamin precursor and as an ingredient with ideal cosmetic properties. When topically applied, panthenol is absorbed by the skin and can be bioconverted into pantothenic acid 31 . As such it exerts all functions of vitamin B5. Because it has a distinct humectant character, panthenol acts as a skin moisturizer 32,33 . This hygroscopic substance not only provides water to the skin surface but it also penetrates deep into the epidermis and brings water to, and retains water in, the inside of the skin. Panthenol imparts a smooth, light feel to the skin without any greasiness or stickiness. Because it is well tolerated by the skin, it is an ideal and widely used ingredient in baby care products as well as in products for sensitive skin. Dermatologists have long...

Visual Receptors

Albinism is an inherited condition in which a missing enzyme blocks pigment synthesis, causing very pale, highly sun-sensitive skin. More severe forms of albinism also affect the eyes, making vision blurry and intolerant to light. A person may squint even in very faint light. The extrasensitivity is due to the fact that light reflects inside the lenses, over stimulating visual receptors. The eyes of many people with albinism also dart about uncontrollably, a condition called nystagmus.

Ure 614

Blood Vessels

(a) If normal skin is (b) injured deeply, (c) blood escapes from dermal blood vessels, and (d) a blood clot soon forms. (e) The blood clot and dried tissue fluid form a scab that protects the damaged region. (f) Later, blood vessels send out branches, and fibroblasts migrate into the area. (g) The fibroblasts produce new connective tissue fibers, and when the skin is mostly repaired, the scab sloughs off. We are more aware of aging-related changes in skin than in other organ systems, simply because we can easily see them. Aging skin affects appearance, temperature regulation, and vitamin D activation.


Shenefelt studied the frequency of visits by university students to campus prepaid-health-plan dermatologists for irritant and allergic contact dermatitis compared with other types of dermatitis and skin problems. In contrast to other studies, he found slightly more cases of allergic (3.1 of all first visits) than irritant contact dermatitis (2.3 ) 46 .


Benefits brought by additional skin conditioning agents are sometimes hidden by a mild or very mild cleaning-surfactant system delivering by itself very good skin feel properties the sensorial baseline is high to start with and the increment in performance brought by skin feel agent is leveled off, and sometimes not even perceivable. It is, however, important to notice that several mild anionic and most of the nonionic surfactants, if they provide a pleasant afterfeel, are characterized by a ''water feel'' (feel in solution) that is often unpleasant, with rough and drag feel sensations.

United Kingdom

Directive implemented June 1996, nonconform products accepted until January 1, 1999. Notification for manufacturing site and importation per categories perfumes, decorative cosmetics, skincare, haircare, and toiletries. Animal testing forbidden from 1998, but the delay will be regulated soon. Qualification Safety certificates must be signed by pharmacist or a physician holding a United Kingdom diploma. Poison Information Center via competent authorities Consumer Safety Unit, Department of Trade and Industry, 1, Victoria street London SW1H OET, fax preferred 44 171 215 0357.

Sensory Testing

Although most individuals don't realize it, they conduct sensory tests on a daily basis. Throughout the day, personal sensory assessments are made about the taste acceptability or liking for different foods for many different attributes. Individuals evaluate haircare products for various properties, not only while using the product but also for feel of the hair after shampooing. Every time a cosmetic product, moisturizer, or any other skincare product is applied to the skin, sensory assessments are made. Using carefully controlled sensory applications, sensitive-skin subjects can be identi- fied and selected. The response of these subjects can then be trusted to aid in the development of and or to identify acceptable sensitive-skin cosmetic products. Finally, by -c applying sensory scaling techniques and controls to the design of self-assessment question- < naires, they are often added to clinical studies to provide a potential insight to consumer response. The primary focus of this...


Adequate skincare, which reinforces the skin's vital barrier, is a meaningful prophylaxis for avoiding a first outbreak of neurodermatitis in high-risk allergy children. The following measures can help Skincare products with proven skin tolerability Skincare products and cleansers with few, carefully selected ingredients, in order f to keep the risk of allergies as low as possible 23-25 Soft towelets containing mild oil-in-water (o w) cleansing milks or, alternatively, clear cleansing lotions are also frequently found. They normally contain anionic and or nonionic surfactants in low concentrations as well as varying amounts of skincare ingredients like plant extracts and protein hydrolysates. These towelets are also offered in dispenser boxes.

Acute ICD

Lactic acid serves as a model irritant for diagnosis of so called ''stingers'' when it is applied in a 5 aqueous solution on the nasolabial fold after induction of sweating in a sauna 67 . Other chemicals that cause immediate-type stinging after seconds or minutes include chloroform and methanol (1 1) and 95 ethanol. A number of substances that have been systematically studied by Frosch and Kligman may also cause delayed-type stinging 67,68 . Several investigators tried to determine parameters that characterize those individuals with sensitive skin, a term that still lacks a unique definition 69,70 . It could be shown that individuals who were identified as having sensitive skin by their own assessment have altered baseline biophysical parameters, showing decreased capacitance values, increased transepidermal water loss, and higher pH values accompanied by lower sebum levels 70 . Possible explanations for hyperirritability (other than diminished barrier function) that...

Categories Of Claims

For sensitive skin This type of evaluation concerns a cosmetic effect that can be determined by visual, tactile, or olfactive assessment. Examples of scoring scales for the assessment of dry skin have been given by Serup 14 . The evaluator is trained to make such an assessment, reliable and fully independent of the product manufacturer. In some cases, the evaluator will be a dermatologist, an ophthalmologist, or a dentist, but this is not mandatory provided that the evaluator can justify his her qualification. When the test protocol is appropriate, expert evaluations are frequently combined with other assessment methods. Examples of claims easily supported by expert evaluation are skin whitening, antiwrinkle, hair shine, and deodorancy. Safety claims are also appropriate for such an assessment to check the absence of erythema or dryness after product application. The self-perception of the product effect by the volunteers can be obtained independently of a clinical test in such a case...


Fragrance is by far the most important additive for consumer acceptance of a personal cleansing product. Even though the primary purpose of the selection of a fragrance is to target a specific user group, it is also used to mask the characteristic base odor associated with the fatty acids. Fragrances are compounded from several components including car-boxylic acids, esters, aldehydes, ketones, and glycols where the selection of the components could adversely effect the stability and or the processability of the final product. For instance, fragrances with solvents such as dipropylene glycol (glycol) and dieth-ylpthlate (ester) tend to soften and cloud translucent soap bars 2 . The raw-material manufacturer's ability to provide cleaner base with significantly less base odor has greatly improved in the past two decades, thus allowing soap manufacturers to use less fragrance in the final product or even, in some cases, provide products that are fragrance free. Fragrances are also known...


Even with recent improvement in DHA formulations, the color achieved remains dependent on skin type. Individuals of medium complexion with skin phototypes II or III 14 , as opposed to those who are lighter or darker, will obtain a more pleasing color. Individuals with underlying golden skin tones will achieve better results than individuals with rosy, sallow, or olive complexions. Older consumers with roughened, hyperkeratotic skin or mottled pigmentation with freckling may be less pleased with their use. Dermatologists regularly recommend these products for tanning as a safe alternative to UV exposure. They may be used to camouflage some skin irregularities such as leg spider veins. Light-to medium-complected patients with vitiligo who show increased contrast with the vitiligi-nous areas with natural or unavoidable tanning in their normal skin may also benefit. They may even provide some protection for individuals with certain photosensitivity disorders 15 .

Vitamin E2

The availability of the free form of vitamin E needs to be considered when analyzing possible health benefits. The majority of studies have been carried out in animal models, while only limited data exists for human studies. Lipid peroxidation is inhibited after topical application of a-tocopherol 16 . Several studies indicate that topically applied a-tocopherol inhibits UVB-induced photodamage of DNA in a mouse model 17 and keratinocyte cultures (trolox) 18 . Protection against Langerhans cell depletion by UV light was observed after topical application of a-tocopherol in a mouse model 19 . a-Tocopherol and its sorbate ester were studied in a mouse model of skin aging. Both antioxi-dants were found to be effective, sorbate even more so than a-tocopherol 20 . Systemic administration of vitamin E in humans (only in combination with vitamin C) increased the MED and reduced changes in skin blood flow after UV-irradiation 21,22 . Yet several studies indicate that a-tocopherol acetate is...

Deodorant Sticks

Spray products containing a solution of an antimicrobial active in an ethanol and or propylene glycol carrier blended with a liquidified propellant are typical for deodorant aerosols. The difference from an antiperspirant active containing aerosol is that the deodorizer is solubilized in an alcohol- or polyol-based formulation and not suspended. Deodorant sprays provide a dry skin feeling to the underarm skin since they are anhydrously formulated.


A relatively small number of tumor-specific transcripts that do not appear to have arisen as a result of somatic or germline mutations have also been identified. Approximately 50 of all melanomas that were tested appear to express an aberrant transcript that initiated within an intron of the A-acetylglucosaminyltransfease V gene (45). The transcript was not expressed at significant levels in any of the human tissue samples tested including skin, which contain normal melanocytes, indicating that this may represent a tumor-specific transcript. An intronic sequence derived from an aberrant transcript of the TRP-2 gene was found to encode a T-cell epitope (46). Normal skin melanocytes and retinal tissue expressed the normal transcript but failed to express significant levels of the aberrant transcript, indicating that this gene may be expressed in a tumor-specific manner.

Kojic Acid

Kojic acid, a fungal metabolic product, is increasingly being used as a skin-lightening agent in skincare products marketed in Japan since 1988. It was first isolated from Aspergillus in 1907 31 . The structure is shown in Figure 1. The mode of action of kojic acid is to suppress free tyrosinase, mainly attributable to chelation of its copper 11,16,31 , and it has been shown to be responsible for therapy and prevention of pigmentation, both in vitro and in vivo 11,31 . In Japan it is used in nonprescription skincare products up to a concentration of 1 . To increase percutaneous absorption and thus therapeutic activity, it is usually used at the highest concentration allowed 31 . Because it is used intensively in foods (e.g., bean paste, soy, and sake) in some countries, particularly Japan, its oral safety has been studied. Shibuya et al. 28 , investigating the mutagenicity of kojic acid by the Ames test, forward mutation test in cultured Chinese hamster cells, and dominant lethal test...

Anorexia Nervosa

Although physical complaints are remarkably few given the degree of emaciation (73), patients present with a variety of signs and symptoms referable to low body weight, including constipation, abdominal pain, cold intolerance, hypothermia, hypotension, bradycar-dia, edema, lanugo, and dry skin (74).

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