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Thyroid Factor

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A. Hashimoto thyroiditis, normal thyroid, and Graves disease (Figure 21-2)

Figure 21-2. (A) Light micrograph of Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT). HT is characterized by a high lymphocytic infiltration that may form lymphoid follicles with germinal centers (L). Normal thyroid follicles (TF) also are observed. (B) Light micrograph of a normal thyroid gland showing numerous thyroid follicles (TF) containing colloidal material. The follicles are lined by follicular cells arranged as a simple cuboidal epithelium. (C) Light micrograph of Graves disease (GD). Graves disease is caused by a diffuse, hyperplastic goiter. The follicular cells are increased in number (hyperplasia) and arranged as a simple tall columnar epithelium. In addition, the follicular cells can form buds that encroach into the colloidal material (arrow). (A and C: Reprinted with permission from East Carolina University, School of Medicine, Department of Pathology slide collection.)

Figure 21-2. (A) Light micrograph of Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT). HT is characterized by a high lymphocytic infiltration that may form lymphoid follicles with germinal centers (L). Normal thyroid follicles (TF) also are observed. (B) Light micrograph of a normal thyroid gland showing numerous thyroid follicles (TF) containing colloidal material. The follicles are lined by follicular cells arranged as a simple cuboidal epithelium. (C) Light micrograph of Graves disease (GD). Graves disease is caused by a diffuse, hyperplastic goiter. The follicular cells are increased in number (hyperplasia) and arranged as a simple tall columnar epithelium. In addition, the follicular cells can form buds that encroach into the colloidal material (arrow). (A and C: Reprinted with permission from East Carolina University, School of Medicine, Department of Pathology slide collection.)

B. Papillary carcinoma and medullary carcinoma (Figure 21-3)

B. Papillary carcinoma and medullary carcinoma (Figure 21-3)

Figure 21-3. (A) Light micrograph of papillary carcinoma (PC). Normal thyroid parenchyma can he observed (Nor). PC infiltrates normal thyroid parenchyma and forms elaborate branching papillae that are lined by single-to-multiple layers (if follicular cells. The nuclei of follicular cells do not contain nucleoli ("Orphan Annie eyes"). Psammoma bodies sometimes surrounded by calcific lamellations are generally found within the core of the papillae. (B) Light micrograph of medullary carcinoma (MC). MC is an endocrine neoplasm of the parafollicular cells that secretes calcitonin. The parafollicular cells are usually arranged in cell nests (arrow) surrounded by bands of stroma (str) containing amyloid. Reprinted with permission from East Carolina University, School of Medicine, Department of Pathology slide collection.)

Figure 21-3. (A) Light micrograph of papillary carcinoma (PC). Normal thyroid parenchyma can he observed (Nor). PC infiltrates normal thyroid parenchyma and forms elaborate branching papillae that are lined by single-to-multiple layers (if follicular cells. The nuclei of follicular cells do not contain nucleoli ("Orphan Annie eyes"). Psammoma bodies sometimes surrounded by calcific lamellations are generally found within the core of the papillae. (B) Light micrograph of medullary carcinoma (MC). MC is an endocrine neoplasm of the parafollicular cells that secretes calcitonin. The parafollicular cells are usually arranged in cell nests (arrow) surrounded by bands of stroma (str) containing amyloid. Reprinted with permission from East Carolina University, School of Medicine, Department of Pathology slide collection.)

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