Selected Photomicrographs

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A. Cerebral cortex (Figure 29-1)

B. Alzheimer disease (Figure 29-2)

Figure 29-1. (A) A light micrograph of the cerebral cortex (Nissl stain). The molecular (J), external granular (II), external pyramidal (111), internal granular (JV), internal pyramidal (V), and multiform (V/) layers are shown. Cortical areas that contain six layers of cells are referred to as the neocortex or isocortex. (B) A light micrograph of cells within layer V that are called large pyramidal neurons or giant cells of Betz (Golgi stain). Pyramidal neurons give rise to apical dendrites (arrow I), basal dendrites (arrow 2), and an axon (arrow 3). Apical dendrites often reach layer I and give off collaterals that branch at 90° angles. Basal dendrites give off collaterals that branch at acute angles. (Courtesy of Dr. G. Petersen, East Carolina University, School of Medicine, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology.)

Figure 29-1. (A) A light micrograph of the cerebral cortex (Nissl stain). The molecular (J), external granular (II), external pyramidal (111), internal granular (JV), internal pyramidal (V), and multiform (V/) layers are shown. Cortical areas that contain six layers of cells are referred to as the neocortex or isocortex. (B) A light micrograph of cells within layer V that are called large pyramidal neurons or giant cells of Betz (Golgi stain). Pyramidal neurons give rise to apical dendrites (arrow I), basal dendrites (arrow 2), and an axon (arrow 3). Apical dendrites often reach layer I and give off collaterals that branch at 90° angles. Basal dendrites give off collaterals that branch at acute angles. (Courtesy of Dr. G. Petersen, East Carolina University, School of Medicine, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology.)

B. Alzheimer disease (Figure 29-2)

B. Alzheimer disease (Figure 29-2)

Figure 29-2. Pathologic lesions associated with Alzheimer disease. A senile plaque (SP) is shown, which consists of a core of extracellular amyloid surrounded by a halo of dystrophic neurites (arrowheads). In addition, a number of dark-staining pyramidal neurons are present due to the neurofibrillary tangles within the cytoplasm. A major component of neurofibrillary tangles is the tau protein, which enhances microtubule assembly. Normal pyramidal neurons arc also present (arrows). (Reprinted with permission from Siegel GJ, Agranoff BW, Albers RW, et al: Basic Neurochemistry, 6th ed. Philadelphia, Lippincott-Raven, 1999, p 951.)

Figure 29-2. Pathologic lesions associated with Alzheimer disease. A senile plaque (SP) is shown, which consists of a core of extracellular amyloid surrounded by a halo of dystrophic neurites (arrowheads). In addition, a number of dark-staining pyramidal neurons are present due to the neurofibrillary tangles within the cytoplasm. A major component of neurofibrillary tangles is the tau protein, which enhances microtubule assembly. Normal pyramidal neurons arc also present (arrows). (Reprinted with permission from Siegel GJ, Agranoff BW, Albers RW, et al: Basic Neurochemistry, 6th ed. Philadelphia, Lippincott-Raven, 1999, p 951.)

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