Improving Confidence

Finding Your Confidence

Finding Your Confidence

Confidence is necessary to achieve success in life. Some effective confidence tips must be followed if you genuinely want to gain accomplishment in your work. So how do you build your confidence that will work for you in any situation? Initially, make an effort to spend time with confident people. Their vigor and strength is so stirring that you will surely feel yourself more powerful just by listening to their talk. To build confidence it is vital that you are in the midst of self-assuring people.

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Quantum Confidence By Song Chengxiang

Quantum Confidence System With TMM is a useful guide for people who learn how to develop personality and confidence for changing a better life. Song Chengxiang, a psychologist is the creator of this program. With his experience in studying humans mind power, Song helped thousands of people in all over the world get their lives back with confidence and success. This recording is designed as a self-esteem and confidence building meditation. Strong, self-esteem and confidence in oneself is a major component needed to unlock your ability to be happy, successful and content. When its combined with a subtle, yet powerful brainwave entrainment rhythm, the possibilities become endless and allows this recording to be an integral part of the brain re-training process. This system must be considered much in the same way, it is important once you get to the point where you want to be that you keep up a maintenance routine, a routine designed to maintain your results, without it you definitely run the risk of returning to the state that you were in previous to your use of the Quantum Confidence system.

Quantum Confidence System Summary


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Author: Song Chengxiang
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This is one of the best ebooks I have read on this field. The writing style was simple and engaging. Content included was worth reading spending my precious time.

As a whole, this manual contains everything you need to know about this subject. I would recommend it as a guide for beginners as well as experts and everyone in between.

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The Self and Self Esteem

The psychodynamic theories of Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, and Erik Erikson, the phenomenological (self) theories of Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow, and the social learning theories of Julian Rotter and Albert Bandura have all provided suggestions and guidelines for the construction of a number of personality assessment instruments. The psychoanalytic concepts of the ego, Erikson's concept of identity, the phenomenological concept of the self, and associated concepts in social learning theory (e.g., Rotter's locus of control and Bandura's self-efficacy) have stimulated the development of many psychometric procedures and research on how the perception of the central core of the personality the I or me of the individual develops and changes over time. Research with such measures has shown, for example, that self-esteem changes with age but that the manner in which the change occurs varies with the sex of the person. Kermis (1986) found that, for men, the peak in self-esteem...

Self Esteem and Creative Expression

The importance of self-esteem for creative expression appears to be almost beyond disproof. Without a high regard for himself the individual who is working in the frontiers of his field cannot trust himself to discriminate between the trivial and the significant. Without trust in his own powers the person seeking improved solutions or alternative theories has no basis for distinguishing the significant and profound innovation from the one that is merely different An essential component of the creative process, whether it be analysis, synthesis, or the development of a new perspective or more comprehensive theory, is the conviction that one's judgment in interpreting the events is to be trusted. (Coopersmith, 1967, p. 59)

Predictive Testing In Children

It is important to recognize that parents have the authority to act in the best interests of their child however, when evaluating a competent, minor adolescent, it is critical to elicit his or her preferences and motivations with respect to genetic testing. Several counseling sessions, with a multidisciplinary team of professionals can help the family explore together the family context of the genetic diagnosis, which may help defuse any potential conflict between the parental and child's autonomy and help all parties involved to look at the broader implications of their decisions (88). It is also worthwhile to consider the involvement of a psychologist on the team, who may use formal assessment tools to gauge the child's competence in decision-making, self-esteem, coping styles, and relationship with his or her parents.

Borderline personality disorder

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a mental disorder characterized by disturbed and unstable interpersonal relationships and self-image, along with impulsive, reckless, and often self-destructive behavior. extreme, persistently unstable self-image and sense of self Psychotherapy, typically in the form of cognitive-behavioral therapy, is usually the treatment of choice for borderline personalities. Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), a cognitive-behavioral technique, has emerged as an effective therapy for borderline personalities with suicidal tendencies. The treatment focuses on giving the borderline patient self-confidence and coping tools for life outside of treatment through a combination of social skill training, mood awareness and meditative exercises, and education on the disorder. Group therapy is also an option for some borderline patients, although some may feel threatened by the idea of sharing a therapist with others.

Causes and symptoms

Certain social and behavioral characteristics, however, are more commonly seen among individuals who become dependent on opioids than those who do not. For instance, many heroin users come from families in which one or more family members use alcohol or drugs excessively or have mental disorders (such as antisocial personality disorder). Often heroin users have had health problems early in life, behavioral problems beginning in childhood, low self-confidence, and anti-authoritarian views. Among opioid-dependent adolescents, a heroin behavior syndrome has sometimes been described. This syndrome consists of depression (often with anxiety symptoms), impulsiveness, fear of failure, low self-esteem, low frustration tolerance, limited coping skills, and relationships based primarily on mutual drug use.

Is the patient trying to tell me something

Deep sexual anxieties and problems, poor self-esteem, and fear of malignancy or some other medical catastrophe are just some of the reasons patients present to doctors. The author has another checklist (Table 15.6) to help identify the psychosocial reasons for a patient's malaise. In the author's experience of counselling patients and families the number of problems caused by interpersonal conflict is quite amazing and makes it worthwhile specifically exploring the quality of close relationships, such as those of husband-wife, mother-daughter and father-son. Identification and transference of illness, symptoms and death, in particular, are important areas of anxiety to consider. Patients often identify their problems with relatives, friends or public personalities who have malignant disease. Other somatoform disorders and the factitious disorders, including the fascinating Munchausen's syndrome, may be obvious or extremely complex and difficult to recognise. The bottom line is that...

Depression in children

Major depression in children and adolescents may be diagnosed using the same criteria as for adults, namely loss of interest in usual activities and the presence of a sad or irritable mood, persisting for 2 weeks or more. 6 The other constellation of depressive symptoms including somatic complaints may be present. Examples include difficulty in getting to sleep, not enjoying meals, poor concentration and low self-esteem. It can present as antisocial behaviour or as a separation anxiety, e.g. school refusal. Although suicidal thoughts are common, suicide is rare before adolescence. Depressed adolescents are a serious suicide risk. Referral of these patients to an experienced child psychiatrist is advisable.

Toward Ethical Guidelines Of Terminal Care

Guideline 1 Respect and Self-Integrity to the End of Life The dying person should be accorded respect, dignity, and a sense of self-integrity with purpose and fulfillment to the end of life. Respect is both an attitude, which is commonly thought to be fundamental, and a principle of individual conduct and social organization. It is to value persons intrinsically. It is to have regard for a human being independent of particular characteristics. Some have argued that such respect is best described as love-agape (Downie & Telfer, 1969). In this sense, those who care for dying persons are being asked to be responsive to the highest level of relationship to another human being. Mere sentimentality and smothering care, on the other hand, are neither adequate nor appropriate. As much as a healthy person, the terminally ill patient has the need to be seen and treated as a self-integral individual. In practical terms, care of the dying cannot afford to be impersonal or insensitive to the...

Conclusions About Multicultural Assessment And Treatment Practices For African Americans

An understanding of positive factors that lead to competency, self-reliance, responsibility, healthy growth and development, and the pursuit of happiness in African Americans. 10. The advancement of scientifically derived knowledge that empowers African Americans with self-efficacy to live better lives, particularly those who suffer from poor mental health, from poverty, from depression, from apathy, hopelessness, helplessness, high crime rates, violence, poor schools and the like.

Power and Influence in Political Markets

Referent power derives from the fact that some people, organizations, and interest groups engender admiration, loyalty, and emulation from others to such an extent that they gain power to exert influence as a result. In the marketplace for policies, this form of power, when it pertains to individuals, is called charismatic power. Charismatic power usually belongs to a select few people, who typically have very strong convictions about the correctness of their preferences and great self-confidence in their own abilities and who are widely perceived to be legitimate agents of change. It is rare for a person, organization, or interest group to be able to gain sufficient power to heavily influence policymaking simply from referent or charismatic power, even in political markets where charisma is highly valued. But it can certainly give the other sources of power in the political marketplace a boost.

Societaland Organizational Issues

Today, many organizations have facilities or markets in countries throughout the world. This globalization requires communication among people from different cultures and frequently the relocation of personnel from one country or culture to another. Because of the enormous expense associated with these moves, the selection, training, adaptation, and repatriation of these international assignees has begun to receive research attention (Black et al., 1991). The empirical literature available suggests that previous experience, interpersonal skills and self-efficacy in dealing with people of diverse cultures, nonwork life concerns, and the nature of the host country's culture have been found to be critical in expatriate adjustment. Certainly, adjustment to other cultures requires a set of nontechnical interpersonal skills that are not normally evaluated by organizations.

Criteria of Science Communication Content and Choice of the Communicators

Most scientists see themselves as hard working, responsible, well controlled and more critical than ordinary people. This self-image is hard to convey to the public in an unrestricted way and the reputation of the scientific community at large is put into question by cases like human cloning that violate moral issues.

Depressed Adolescents IPTA

Rossello and Bernal compared 12 weeks of randomly assigned IPT (n 22), CBT (n 25), and a waiting-list control condition (n 24) for adolescents ages 13 to 18 in Puerto Rico who met DSM-III-R criteria for major depression, dysthymia, or both. The investigators did not use Mufson's IPT-A modification. Both IPT and CBT were more efficacious than the waiting list in improving adolescents' self-rated depressive symptoms. Interpersonal therapy was more efficacious than CBT in increasing self-esteem and social adaptation. (Rossello & Bernal, 1999).

Borderline Personality

Three major factors describe this character disposition. First is the superficiality and lack of depth of any existing relationship. Second, there is an intense reservoir of anger just beneath the surface of ordinary interaction. Finally, instability characterizes self-image, self-esteem, and personal and sexual identity. Along with the store of anger, a complement of tenuous, shifting controls exists. The borderline personality, unlike the schizoid type, may report discomfort with periods of isolation and loneliness. Additional traits include pessimism and impulsivity. Addictive problems or traits reflecting compulsive, obsessional, paranoid, schizoid, and narcissistic tendencies frequently may exist. Additional formulations, with respect to

Clinical features and epidemiology

Cases and are therefore classified as such rather than a ''unipolar mania''). In order to fulfill current criteria for depression (WHO, 1992 American Psychiatric Association, 1994) an episode must last at least two weeks but in practice most episodes last longer. In addition to low mood and low energy levels, other typical symptoms include anhedonia (the inability to enjoy), loss of self esteem, suicidal ideation, guilt and hopelessness. Biological symptoms are common such as disturbances of sleep, appetite, weight and sexual function. In mania the mood by contrast is one of elation (although irritability is also common). This is typically accompanied by racing thoughts, rapid speech, reckless overactivity, social and sexual disinhibition and overspending, sometimes to a ruinous level. There is almost always a reduced need for sleep and there are frequently expansive and grandiose ideas such as being in possession of special powers or abilities or of having become suddenly rich or...

Impact of Cultural Values

Second, given the different philosophies about learning, a Native husband and wife should not be automatically considered permissive parents in need of a strict behavioral plan if they rarely discipline their children. Culturally, this couple is also not considered neglectful if the children's grandparents take as much responsibility in child rearing. Lastly, a 10-year-old Ojibwe boy who is reluctant to participate in competitive activities at school isn't necessarily unable to complete the task or suffering from low self-esteem. In his family and tribal life, it might be highly offensive to try to look better than others.

What Defines A Culturally Competent Approach With The Mmpi2

Psychologists are advised to use more than just the traditional validity and clinical scales of the MMPI-2 when assessing culturally diverse individuals. We have observed many situations in which psychologists simply depend on the validity and clinical scales in the interpretation process. In our collective experience, we have found that oftentimes additional indices such as the Content and Supplementary scales, or the Harris-Lingoes subscales, are the most useful in underestanding the performance of ethnic minorities. At the end of this chapter, we present the case of Michael whose performance on the validity and clinical scales only made sense when some of the Supplementary scales were considered. Some of the scales that can be affected by a person's culture include the L, F, K, Hs, Psychopathic Deviate (Pd), Masculinity-Feminity (Mf), PA, Sc, Ma, Social Introversion (Si), Bizarre Mentation (BIZ), CYN, Low Self-Esteem (LSE), SOD, and Family Problems (FAM). For example, the PD scale...

Methodological Issues

Parkes (1972) suggested that an ambivalent relationship is more complicated to grieve as unresolved tensions are left with the survivor. Pincus (1974) explored how the psy-chodynamics of marital relationships influence living with subsequent bereavement. The apparently stronger partner may have gained self-esteem by caring for the apparently less confident but this need is unmet by the death of the latter.

The Structure of Cognitive Therapy Behavioural Techniques Cognitive Techniques and Homework

Table Disfunctional Thoughts Record

The third range of approaches takes place between therapy sessions as homework assignments. Homework is an essential element of cognitive therapy, aimed at building understanding and coping skills throughout the week, increasing self-reliance and rehearsing adaptive cognitive and behavioural skills. Homework moves the discussions in session from abstract, subjective discussion of issues to real day-to-day experiences. The therapist acts as coach, guiding and debriefing the client from week to week. Homework assignments are designed collaboratively, are tailored to the individual, are set up as no-lose propositions and may range from the therapist suggesting a relevant book to the person agreeing to undertake a long procrastinated assignment (such as telephoning a friend to resolve an area of unspoken conflict), while monitoring the thoughts and images that come to mind in preparing for the assignment (for example, 'the friend will be angry towards me'). As therapy progresses, the...

Credibility and the Therapeutic Dyad

On a simple level, Asian American clients' perception of the therapists' capacity to understand the uniqueness of the Asian American psychological experience may facilitate early rapport building. Perceived similarity is also likely to assist in the client's development of trust and rapport, liking for the clinician, openness to being influenced in the treatment context, motivation to commit to working in treatment, and the willingness to make changes that may be initially difficult or painful (Shiang, Kjellander, Huang, & Bogumill, 1998). On a more psychodynamic level, the introduction of race and culture into the therapeutic relationship is likely to invoke a number of transference themes such as self-image, race, social class, identity, and so on. Chin (1993) considers four variations of transference themes concerning Asian American clients

Theoretical Formulations

The standard therapies for GAD, evaluated in clinical trials from 1980 to 2000, have been broadly based on the procedures and principles of cognitive therapy as applied to the appraisal of threat (Beck, Emery & Greenberg, 1985) and behaviour therapy as applied to reducing muscle tension through relaxation training (Bernstein & Borkovec, 1973 Ost, 1987). These approaches will be familiar to therapists with a basic training in cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). The primary emphasis is on a process of self-regulation in which the sufferer learns to understand and then interrupt his or her particular cycle of anxiety triggers, bodily responses and worries with coping strategies based on either reducing arousal and muscle tension or changing the beliefs, and appraisal processes that underlie worrisome thinking. Clinical and research evidence suggests that confidence in either approach can bring about significant reductions in the severity of GAD but confidence in both is probably most...

Vulvar Vestibulitis Syndrome

Vulvar Vestibulitis Treatment

Factors such as psychological distress, anxiety, depression, low sexual self-esteem, harm avoidance, somatization, shyness, and pain catastrophization (41,55,56,60,68,69) have been found in women with vulvar vestibulitis. Whether they precede or develop subsequent to the pain remains to be elucidated however, it is crucial to investigate the role of these factors in the maintenance of dyspareunia as negative affect has been shown to modulate pain intensity (70). Negative affect is also associated with an increase in attention towards pain stimuli, otherwise known as hypervigilance (71), which in turn can increase perceived pain intensity (72). In a recent study (73), hypervigilance for pain stimuli was examined in women with vestibulitis and matched control women. Results indicated that women with vulvar vestibulitis syndrome reported hypervigilance to coital pain and exhibited a selective attentional bias towards pain stimuli, an effect mediated by anxiety and fear of pain. These...

Shrinking Of The World

The situation becomes one that can possibly be best described as Maslow in reverse. In Maslow's pyramid (1968), persons satisfy lower basic needs and move up to the top or pinnacle of the pyramid to reach a personal sense of achievement in intellectual or spiritual arenas. Older persons have spent their lives in striving to reach the top of the pyramid, and many achieve this task successfully. Now that they are at the top of the pyramid and are aged, they must move downwards, backwards, if you will, and this is a negative progression that is not happily attempted. To move down from the pyramid's top means preoccupation with biological and psychological functioning. Furthermore, since such basic needs had once been mastered, there may be anger and frustration at having to attend so exclusively to meeting these needs again, particularly when one's tolerance and ability to cope are waning. This move also constitutes a radical change in self-image, and those intellectual, spiritual, or...

Dysmorphology clinics

When a child is born looking different, odd, or disfigured, then the difficulty is initially the parents' who have to process their disappointment. The success or failure of that process will determine their perception of the child and, as a consequence, the parent child relationship. Later on, the child will have to make the adjustments to cope with being different, struggle with personal self-image, attempt to integrate and be accepted by the peer group. Siblings may also be affected (Lansdown et al., 1991). Being different puts the child at risk of being teased but it is interesting to note that the relationship between facial deformity and psychological effect is not linear (McGregor, 1970). The mild, rather than severe deformity, is harder to cope with (Lansdown et al., 1991). A possible explanation could be that the more obvious deformity has to be acknowledged, whereas the nearly normal may stimulate the desire and anxiety to be accepted as normal. The subject is difficult to...

Psychosocial Factors Involved In Hair Cosmetics

Haircare and psyche reciprocally reflect each other both positively and negatively (bad hair days). Contrary to the bad haircare and negligence of a depressed person or a man in grief, generally people tend to offer themselves the best of haircare when they are feeling happy or when they want to show their internal feelings to others through body language. This is particularly obvious during public appearances and important social gatherings (e.g., parties, marriage ceremonies). Haircare by itself can induce a state of self-confidence and may reflect social status. This may explain significant differences in shampooing regimens, which range from once or twice a week to once a day.

Ethics In The Multicultural Multidisciplinara Setting

As the contributors to this handbook point out over and over, we live in a multicultural society. Along with aging being a triumph of the twentieth century, we can also claim credit for great strides in human rights and the respect for persons of differing classes, color, cultures, and creed. In addition, we have recognized the value in seeing the individual in context and with a variety of needs, biological, psychological, social and cultural. The holism in clear. We cannot view an emotional problem as detached from the cultural definition and response, from its impact on our physical health and relationships with others. We cannot view a relational problem with others apart from cultural prescriptions, their impact on our personal identity, and the potential health consequences. The culture's characterizing of members of a social stratum affects their self-worth, the relationships they form, and the health care they receive as a consequence of being classified in a certain way in...

Other emotions frequently experienced in genetic counselling

Erikson (1950) has pointed out that the confusion happens because there is a developmental tendency for shame to be submerged by guilt, as both develop as part of conscience and are experienced in the context of having done something wrong. In the psychoanalytical theory of development, conscience develops around the resolution of the oedipal complex when the boy resolves conflicts and desires and identifies with his father. In his developmental schema, Erikson separated shame by proposing that it arose at the stage of conflicts around what he calls the stage of 'Shame versus Doubt and Autonomy'. It is important to understand the origins of shame and guilt and to clarify important differences to help the counsellor make the appropriate response. As Kessler (1984) has indicated, guilt arises as a result of mechanisms within the individual, where there is a harsh internal judgement with very high standards demanded. In contrast, shame arises in the context of feeling inadequate in the...

Debating the possibility of nondirectiveness

Is directed towards behaviour the latter towards the patient's thinking. He considers that non-directiveness is more than withholding advice, rather it is an active process and involves a way of interacting and working with clients that aims to raise their self-esteem and leave them in control of their lives and decisions. He defines non-directiveness as 'procedures aimed at promoting the autonomy and self-directiveness of the client' and concludes that 'non-directiveness is possible but that it requires good counselling skills'. McConkie-Rosell and Sullivan (1999) discuss non-directiveness and consider that the idea does not have guiding theoretical principles. Using ideas similar to those in this book, they also use Lazarus and Folkman's Theory of Stress and Coping (1984), but propose that the concept of empowerment be used to help the individual. They consider that empowerment incorporates non-directiveness and is directed to enhancing individual autonomy and effective counselling...

Increased Physical Activity

Increased physical activity improves cardiorespira-tory fitness, with or without weight loss. The latter improves the quality of life in overweight patients by improving mood, self-esteem, and physical function in daily activities. Physical activity reduces elevated levels of CVD risk factors, including blood pressure and triglycerides, increases HDL cholesterol, and improves glucose tolerance with or without weight loss. Furthermore, the more active an individual is, the lower the risk for CVD morbidity and mortality, and diabetes. Physical activity apparently has a favorable effect on distribution of body fat. Several studies showed an inverse association between energy expenditure through physical activity and several indicators of body fat distribution. Only a few randomized controlled trials that have tested the effect of physical activity on weight loss measured waist circumference. In some (but not all) studies, physical activity was found to produce only modest weight loss and...

Definitions of the Variables

Nevertheless, recent advances in understanding motivation have been made, particularly from an individual-difference perspective, and can be summarized as follows. First, motivation encompasses both distal (goal-setting) and proximal (self-regulation Kanfer, 1990 Kanfer & Ackerman, 1989) processes. These processes operate sequentially, varying in their proximity to outcome variables such as performance and satisfaction. Second, motivation represents a constellation of traits and skills, such as the taxonomy proposed by Kanfer and Heggestad (1997,1999). In their framework, Kanfer and Heggestad posit that motivation consists of stable, trait-based individual differences such as achievement, motivation, and anxiety, which in turn (combined with task and environmental conditions) influence more proximal self-regulatory skills such as motivational and emotional control. The constructs comprising this constellation will differ in terms of both their content (goal orientation, self-efficacy)...

Humanistic Therapies Theoretical Basis

There is, however, a substantial research literature on the effectiveness of some humanistic therapies. Carl Rogers himself was very much involved in the earliest studies in this area, which provided evidence of the effectiveness of the person-centred approach in, for example, enhancing self-acceptance and adjustment (Cartwright, 1957 Rogers & Dymond, 1954). Several subsequent studies have used person-centred therapy as a placebo control in comparison with cognitive-behavioural and other therapies. Although these have found cognitive-behavioural therapies to be superior, there are indications that this difference between therapies disappears when allowance is made for researcher allegiance (Elliott, 2001). In addition, some more recent studies (Kay et al., 2000 Tarrier et al, 2000) have not supported the superiority of cognitive-behavioural over person-centered therapies. The effect of the therapeutic relationship on outcome in person-centred and other therapies has also received...

Interpersonal Psychotherapy Rationale

Role transition is the most commonly selected focus area, reflecting the multitude and diversity of roles held by each individual. The IPT model identifies three interrelated phases of the intervention, during which the patient is assisted in moving away from the old role through realistic evaluation and mourning, reflecting on the process of change and its impact on successful transition, and finally re-evaluating the possibilities and opportunities in the new role and clarifying and mastering the current demands to restore self-esteem.

Representing Observational Data

With many measurement approaches, the question, How should one represent one's data does not arise. The standard rectangular data matrix suffices. Rows represent sampling units (participants, dyads, etc.), columns represent variables, and columns are filled in with the relatively few scores generated by the measurement approach. That is all the standard statistical packages need or expect, and even a preliminary step like scoring the items of a self-esteem scale, for example, is relatively straightforward. Such data matrices (e.g., the Data Editor window in SPSS) are useful for observational studies as well, but usually the columns are filled with scores that result from data reduction, not initial data collection.

Modes Of Acculturation

Acculturation changes at the individual level have characteristically included learning new words, idioms, expressions, ideas, customs, values, and behaviors. With the understanding that psychological stressors have individual specific effects, acculturative changes likewise have individual specific effects based on cultural meaning. In some individuals acculturation changes carry an increased risk for mental health-related problems. Stress, for example, is clearly linked as a predisposition for anxiety and depressive forms of illness. One of the most significant psychological studies in the last forty years is the Holmes and Rahe (1967) study showing the stress equivalents of change and assaults on self-integrity. Acculturation processes are replete with changes, and acculturative stress increases susceptibility to psychological problems just as does other forms of psychological stress.

CFA Approach to MTMM Studies of Different Self Concept Instruments

Examining preadolescent responses to three self-concept instruments. Marsh (1990b) demonstrated the CFA approach to MTMM data based on preadolescent responses to three widely used self-concept instruments. He demonstrated two interesting variations on the typical MTMM design in that not all traits were assessed by all the different measures. First, two instruments contained self-esteem scales, whereas the third did not. Hence, the general self-trait factor was represented by two indicators instead of three. Second, one instrument contained two separate physical scales representing physical appearance and physical ability one instrument contained only one physical scale apparently representing physical ability one instrument contained only one physical scale apparently representing physical appearance. An evaluation of alternative MTMM models demonstrated the need to separate physical ability and physical appearance trait factors. The MTMM analyses provided support for convergent...

Studies Of Psychological Treatments In Bipolar Disorders

List control condition (usual treatment). Each group was followed for 15 months. More individuals in the intervention group (75 ) than the control group (29 ) reported significant subjective improvements in self-confidence and those receiving psychoeducation also demonstrated significant improvements in behaviour and social functioning. However, these between-group differences did not extend to mood, anxiety or general symptom ratings. In their second study, Van Gent & Zwart (1991) randomly assigned 15 participants to five sessions of psychoeducation and 20 other participants to 10 sessions of psychoeducation plus psychotherapy. At 15-month follow-up both groups showed improved psychosocial functioning but the only between-group difference was that those receiving the extended intervention demonstrated a greater improvement in their thinking and behaviour as measured on a general symptom checklist. The last study by this group (Van Gent & Zwart, 1993) explored the benefits of...

Using Multiple Methods to Assess Different Predictors of an Outcome Variable

Of reasoned action planned behavior (Ajzen & Fish-bein, 1980 Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975), and the protection motivation theory (Rogers, 1983), as well as more dynamic health behavior models that describe the processes of health behavior change such as the transtheoretical (stages of change) model (Pro-chaska & DiClemente, 1984). All models conceptualize health behavior as being predicted by a variety of social-cognitive factors, including risk perception or perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, outcome-expectancies, perceived self-efficacy, attitude, intention, and so on. Numerous studies have been conducted testing the various models in different areas of health behavior (smoking, exercise, safer sexual behaviors, alcohol, etc.). Most of these studies, by nature, use solely self-report measures (questionnaires or psychometric scales) for assessing the predictor variables because these are social-cognitive variables that are difficult to assess using other methodologies.

The Psyche Skin And Cosmetic Product Triangle

There is in cosmetic-product use a triangle with the psyche at the top and the skin and the product at the bottom (Fig. 1). The consumer spontaneously coexists with her or his skin and develops her or his degree of self-esteem relative to the skin depending on her or his intellect and society's coding of her or his psyche. There are many examples of how use of cosmetics vary in different cultures and in different historical periods, and this is, of course, not explained by a different biology of the skin.

Models For Treating Sexual Dysfunction Sex Therapy

Sex therapy was based on the development of a treatment plan conceptualized from the rapid assessment of the immediate and remote causes of SD while maintaining rapport with the patient (6,7). The sex therapist assigned structured erotic experiences carried out by the couple individual in the privacy of their own homes. These exercises were designed to correct dysfunctional sexual behavior patterns, as well as positively altering cognitions regarding sexual attitudes and self-image. This home play modified the immediate causes of the sexual problem, allowing the individual to have mostly positive experiences and created a powerful momentum for successful treatment outcome. Interventions aimed at correcting or challenging maladaptive cognitions were incorporated into the treatment process (8). The individually tailored exercises acted as therapeutic probes and were progressively adjusted until the individual or couple was gradually guided into fully functional sexual behavior (4,6)....

Introduction To Mood Disorders And Limitations Of Current Treatments

Bipolar disorder and unipolar depression are classified as mood disorders. They are common, severe, and chronic illnesses. Depression is typified by a depressed mood, anhedonia (inability to experience pleasure), feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt, impaired sleep (either insomnia or hyper-somnia), cognitive and concentration deficits, psychomotor changes, recurrent thoughts of death or suicide, and a variety of neurovegetative symptoms. In bipolar disorder, patients typically alternate (albeit not in a one-to-one manner) between episodes of depression (mostly indistinguishable from unipolar depression) and episodes of mania, which is characterized by a heightened mood, hyperaroused state, racing thoughts, increased speed and volume of speech, quicker thought, brisker physical and mental activity levels, inflated self-esteem, grandiosity, increased energy (with a corresponding decreased need for sleep), irritability, impaired judgment, heightened sexuality, and sometimes...

Personalityguided Context

A major treatment implication recorded earlier in the chapter noted that the polarity schema and the clinical domains can serve as useful points of focus for corresponding modalities of therapy. It would be ideal, of course, if patients were pure prototypes, and all expressive psychic domains were prototypal and invariably present. Were this so, each diagnosis would automatically match with its polarity configuration and corresponding therapeutic mode. Unfortunately, patients rarely are pure textbook prototypes most, by far are complex mixtures, exhibiting, for example, the deficient pain and pleasure polarities that typify the schizoid prototype, the interpersonal conduct and cognitive style features of the avoidant prototype, the self-image qualities that characterize the schizotypal, and so on. Further, the polarity configurations and their expressive domains are not likely to be of equal clinical relevance or prominence in a particular case thus, interpersonal characteristics may...

An Integrated Etic Emic Approach

Integration of the etic and emic approaches involves learning about the general clinical principles but, at the same time, viewing the clinical method as fundamentally personal. Any relevant information is applied with regard to the uniqueness of the cultural context and the personal situation of the client. There are at least two aspects of the clinical issue that need to be considered. First, the issues presented by a client are fundamentally personal to the client, irrespective of whomever else may share the problem. For example, an adolescent girl suffering from anorexia nervosa will grapple with issues surrounding weight gain and body image. Despite the fact that many other young women may be facing these same issues, the problem is unique within this adolescent's own personal experiences. The second aspect concerns the client's specific life context or situation. How does the clinician define the context or gain understanding of the situation from the client's perspective In the...

Domains Of Inquiry And Action In Applied Developmental Science

Medicine Wheel Template

Developmental assets theory generates research models that call upon a system or catalog of 40 developmental assets, half of them internal (e.g., commitment to learning, positive values, social competencies, and positive identity) and half of them external (e.g., support, empowerment, boundaries and expectations, and constructive use of time). Assessments of these characteristics and processes in individuals and in communities then provide for problem definition, intervention design, and program evaluation. While the developmental psychopathologist might focus on similar constructs and word them only in a negative or deficit manner (e.g., a positive identity is merely the opposite of poor self-esteem), simultaneous consideration of both the assets and psy-chopathology orientations reveals that beyond the overlapping or synonymous concept or measure are complementing and augmenting meanings with important implications for both research and practice. Jason, meanwhile, is having his...

CFA Approach to MTMM Studies of Self Other Agreement

A study using teachers and parent responses about student self-concepts. Marsh and Craven (1991) extended this research in a comparison of the abilities of elementary school teachers, mothers, and fathers to infer multiple self-concepts of preadolescent children. Responses by mothers and by fathers were slightly more accurate than those by teachers, but the relative accuracy of teachers, mothers, and fathers in assessing different components of self-concept did not vary much with the specific component of self. All three groups were more accurate in their inferences about physical ability, reading, mathematics, and general school self-concepts than other specific scales or self-esteem self-concept. Self-other agreement in this study tended to be better than had been found in other research, but this was apparently because children and significant others all completed the complete SDQI instrument, whereas earlier studies typically relied on single-item ratings by teachers to represent...

Multiple Research Teams as Multiple Methods

(1991) demonstrated how frame of reference has different effects on self-concept and self-efficacy in response to Skaalvik's failure to replicate the internal-external frame of reference effect Marsh, Roche, Pajares, and Miller (1997) clarified methodological issues in Pajares' self-efficacy research Marsh, Plucker, and Stocking's (2001) reanalysis of Plucker's earlier research demonstrated that the SDQII worked well with gifted students Marsh and Craven (1998) pointed out methodological problems and logical inconsistencies in Gross's rebuttal of the BFLPE for gifted students Marsh (1993c) began an ongoing debate and dialogue with Pelham about the role of importance, certainty, and ideals in moderating or mediating relations between specific components of self-concept and global measures of self-esteem Marsh and Rowe's (1996) reanalysis of Rowe's earlier research clarified the effects of singlesex versus coeducational math classes and Marsh, Byrne, and Yeung's (1999) reanalysis of...

Psychological Assessment As A Treatment Intervention

Upon the completion of the administration and scoring of the instrumentation used during the assessment, the clinician first outlines all results obtained from the assessment, including those not directly related to the patient's previously stated questions. This is followed by a determination of how to present the results to the patient (Finn, 1996b). The clinician must also determine the best way to present the information to the patient so that he or she can accept and integrate it while maintaining his or her sense of identity and self-esteem. Noting the lack of direct empirical support for the therapeutic effects of sharing test results with patients, Finn and Tonsager (1992) investigated the benefits of providing feedback to university counseling center clients regarding their MMPI-2 results. Thirty-two participants underwent therapeutic assessment and feedback procedures similar to those described above while on the counseling center's waiting list. Another 28 participants were...

Personality Characteristics

Which sex (male or female) is more anxious, compliant with adults, demanding, depressed, empathic, fearful, immature, interdependent, irritable, people-oriented, socially sensitive, submissive, subtly aggressive (gossiping, snubbing, etc.), and timid And which sex is more active, aggressive, competent, competitive, dominant, exploratory, impulsive, independent, logical, mature, productive, self-confident, self-reliant, violent, and worldly Even if you did not grow up in mainstream American culture and disagree As discussed at length in Chapters 5 and 7 of this book, women are more relationship-oriented than men They discover their identities through the responsibilities and attachments that characterize their relationships with other people. Whereas the self-esteem of a typical male is based on being successfully independent, the self-esteem of a typical female comes from achieving positive relationships with people (Josephs, Markus, & Tafarodi, 1992 Stake, 1992). Women are more...

The Interactional View

The interactional view assumes that vaginistic complaints have a function in maintaining the balance between partners, or in the emotional functioning of the woman herself. In this sense, the complaint can form a solution There are very few authors who explain the phenomenon of vaginismus fully on the basis of this view. However, much of the literature mentions the behavior and the personality structure of the male partner. He comes forward as a low self-confidence, anxious, passive, dependent person who is afraid of failure and for whom sex is a loaded subject (27,38,39). The partners of vaginistic women are believed to often suffer from sexual problems themselves, such as impotence and premature ejaculation (29,35,39,40). Despite these problems, the couple usually look very harmonic on the outside. They give the impression of being very well suited (18,37). In a recent study, rates of parital discord were equal to the general population (3). It speaks for itself that within the...

Psychological Assessment As A Tool For Treatment Planning

Similarly, knowledge of the patient's weaknesses or deficits may also affect the type of treatment plan that is devised. Greene and Clopton (1999) provided numerous types of deficit-relevant information from the MMPI-2 content scales that have implications for treatment planning. For example, a clinically significant score (T 64) on the Anger scale should lead one to consider the inclusion of training in assertiveness or anger control techniques as part of the patient's treatment. On the other hand, uneasiness in social situations, as suggested by a significantly elevated score on either the Low Self-Esteem or Social Discomfort scale, suggests that a supportive approach to the intervention would be beneficial, at least initially.

Role Of Mutual Empathy In The Therapeutic Process

If, however, we are empathically failed, misunderstood, humiliated, violated, or abused and we attempt to protest or to register our injury and we are not responded to but are ignored, further hurt, punished, and so forth, we learn that we cannot authentically represent ourselves in this relationship. if this occurs in a relationship with a powerful and important other (e.g., parent, teacher, boss) on whom we are dependent, we begin to distort our experience to try to fit in. We begin to deny our own pain to be accepted by this other person. As a result, we disconnect from ourselves. As Gilligan (1982) notes, we begin to keep ourselves out of relationship to stay in relationship. We move out of authenticity to stay in the semblance of connection. Authentic connection, however, suffers both our connection with the other and the connection with our own experience are weakened. We can trace the effect of chronic disconnection most clearly in cases of childhood abuse, the most obvious and...

From Philosophy To Theory

Polarities, that is, contrasting functional directions, representing these three phases (pleasure-pain, passive-active, other-self) are the basis of the theoretically anchored prototypal classification system of personality styles and clinical disorders (Millon & Davis, 1996) that we will demonstrate for its interventional utility. Such bipolar or dimensional schemes are almost universally present throughout the literatures of mankind, as well as in psychology-at-large (Millon, 1990). The earliest may be traced to ancient Eastern religions, most notably the Chinese I Ching texts and the Hebrew's Kabala. In the life of the individual organism, each individual organism moves through developmental stages that have functional goals related to their respective phases of evolution. Within each stage, every individual acquires character dispositions representing a balance or predilection toward one of the two polarity inclinations which inclination emerges as dominant over time results from...

Complex Syndrome Treatment Goals

Self-Image Self-Image Assessment Domains Self-identity stems largely from conceptions formed at a cognitive level. The self is especially significant in that it provides a stable anchor to serve as a guidepost and to give continuity to changing experience. Most persons have an implicit sense of who they are, but differ greatly in clarity, accuracy, and complexity (Millon, 1986b) of their self-introspections. The character and valuation of the self-image is often a problematic one, such as an unhappy and dismaying self-reality, seen in the avoidant's feeling of being alienated, or the depressive's image of worthlessness, or the negativist's sense of self-discontent. On the other hand, there are those whose self-image is one of complacence, as is seen in the schizoid, or that of being gregarious among histrionics, or admirable among narcissists. Thus, self-image, despite the many particulars of his or her character, appear to be predominantly either of a positive or a negative quality....

Schizotypal personality disorder

Schizotypal personality disorder is believed to stem from the affected person's original family, or family of origin. Usually the parents of the affected person were emotionally distant, formal, and displayed confusing parental communication. This modeling of remote, unaf-fectionate relationships is then reenacted in the social relationships encountered in the developing years. The social development of people with schizotypal personality disorder shows that many were also regularly humiliated by their parents, siblings, and peers resulting in significant relational mistrust. Many display low self-esteem, self-criticism and self-deprecating behavior. This further contributes to a sense that they are socially incapable of having meaningful interpersonal relationships.

Gender Role Conflict Related to Perceived Expectations of the Majority Cultures Gender Role Norms

To cope, Black men have developed a psychological strategy known as Cool Pose (Majors & Billson, 1992) which is a facade of postures, gestures, language, and demeanor used to hide their true feelings of fear, hurt, and rage. Cool Pose is the appearance of being emotionless, calm, and detached in the face of pain and atrocities. Cool Pose is beneficial to Black men in that it provides them with dignity, self-worth, and strength. However, it is not without costs. To the extent that Cool Pose becomes deeply internalized, it can be difficult to discard when necessary, for example, in relationships with women. Routinely having to hide their feelings, their needs, and their weaknesses may prevent them from letting down the facade in order to achieve intimacy with women. Traditional Latino culture emphasizes expressive (feminine) traits over instrumental (masculine) traits among Latinas, whereas, the majority culture, relatively speaking, is more rewarding of instrumentality in...

General Multicultural Issues

Value around which one's life is focused (p. 123) including being concerned with issues of meaning, hope, self-identity, self-worth, one's image of God, forgiveness, and reconciliation (p. 123). The religious includes a more formal framework for an institutionalized system of beliefs, values, and code of conduct (Hoffman, 1996, p. 123). The applicability of this distinction in the present context can be appreciated in the following case vignette reported by Landau-Stanton et al. (1993). The case involved a homosexual diagnosed with AIDS who said to the chaplain (third author, in Landau-Stanton et al., 1993), I have become spiritual, not in the traditional religious sense, but in a very personal way the church was, after all, one of the institutions that condemned me and my (gay) lifestyle (p. 268).

Recovery and rehabilitation

Many patients have always done well, and there is the potential to improve outcomes and functioning for most patients through appropriate rehabilitation - in particular, vocational rehabilitation that is, getting patients back to work so that they can benefit from the positive effects of having routine, social contact, and from improved self-esteem and self-confidence (and possibly improved finances, although the extremely complex benefit system may provide perverse incentives against paid work).

Psychological factors

Research has substantiated the clinical experience that patients with depression frequently have had adverse experiences in childhood, especially inadequate parenting or loss of a parent, especially the mother. This may lead to lack of confidence and low self-esteem as an adult, making the person more likely to

The implications of the disorders

Cancer carries enormous fear of pain and death which is sometimes based on fact, but may include projected fears and fantasies. Huntington's disease is a late-onset disorder which is debilitating and disabling with a florid presentation of changes in mental state and behaviour. In dysmor-phology the distress of the disorder relates to the difference from the average person and the fact that it is visible. In addition, there may be implications related to the associated elements of a syndrome and these may necessitate treatment or educational help. However, the main challenges are psychological and involve attitude, acceptance, self-image and identity.

Ethical Issues Regarding Treatment Of Shortstatured Children

The treatment practices in non-GH-deficient, short-statured children by U.S. pediatric endocrinologists were recently reported in the Journal of the American Medical Association (130). Because of the controversial nature of this common practice among pediatric endocrinologists, this article was accompanied by an editorial (131). An arbitrary definition of non-GH-deficient children with short stature would include otherwise healthy children with heights

Implications Of These Frameworks For Analysis Of Genetic Issues

The individualistic notions of patient and disease are also inadequate for dealing with the asymptomatic patient, who has a genetic defect, but who does not now or may not ever have the full-blown disease manifestation. In this case social context and actions impact heavily and these persons surely are not protected and autonomous individuals. Thus, the asymptomatic patient's social status as sick leads to self-image problems, loss of employment and insurance benefits, and, as in case of sickle cell trait, exclusion from military service and other job opportunities (Rosenstein, 1983, p. 139). A further interesting aspect of this arises with the question of prophylactic treatment and insurance coverage. In the United States, insurance covers things considered medically necessary and this, in turn, means to treat an actual existing disease. Further insurance often excludes pre-existing conditions. In light of this, how should genetic disease be defined

The Effects Of The Law On Set And Setting

There is a developing literature on drug use and misuse from the standpoint of attribution theory. Some of the earliest classic studies in this area were carried out by Eiser and colleagues (e.g. Eiser, Sutton and Wober, 1977, 1978 Eiser and Sutton, 1977 Eiser, 1982) with samples of smokers. Several of these studies showed that belief that one was 'addicted' to smoking was associated with a reduced likelihood of making an attempt to quit and a lowered probability of success if the attempt was made. Although Eiser never explicitly stated such a conclusion, the implication is that the attribution of addiction to one's smoking is a self-handicapping attribution. More recently, the same type of dimension has emerged as a component of the DiClementi and Prochaska (1985) model in the form of self-efficacy, whereby low self-efficacy (belief that one is not in a position to change one's own behaviour) again predicts inability to quit. The whole point about the 'addiction' attribution, as...

Assessment And Intervention

Freud regards melancholia as very similar to mourning but with an important exception 'the disturbance of self-regard is absent in mourning'.He makes the distinction by stating 'In mourning it is the world which has become poor and empty in melancholia it is the ego itself.'

Current theory and future directions

All of the above factors are most succinctly summarized in terms of the biopsychosocial model of mental illness. Biological contributions, thoughts and perceptions, social pressures, and environmental stressors, the presence or absence of nurturing and consistency of love, core values, and self-worth are just a few of the things that contribute to making up the psychological uniqueness of every human being on the planet. In addition to the above, researchers are actively examining the role of spirituality in mental health and recovery. No one factor can be said to be the sole cause of mental illness rather, disorders result from a complex set of forces that act upon each person as an individual. Finding the various elements that contributed to the onset of an illness requires considerable patience from the patient, his or her family, and health workers. Identifying all factors, if possible, provides the best road map for the healing process.

Obesity a major public health threat

Obesity is broadly defined as a condition in which body fat stores have increased to the extent that health may be adversely affected. Obesity is associated with substantially increased mortality from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, diabetes and certain cancers (Kopelman, 2000) (Figure 22.1). It also results in morbidity from musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, psychiatric and reproductive diseases and is associated with lowered quality of life, self-esteem and socioeconomic performance (Kopelman, 2000). The precise measurement of body fat is quite

Institutional Obstacles

Many health care services for drug users are high-threshold services (Appel, et al., 2004). This means they are programs that are based on abstinence and require individuals to stop using the drugs they are addicted to. These programs are problematic, however, and they symbolize a common misconception about drug addiction therapy. Many abstinence programs do not recognize the long-term, comprehensive process by which an injection drug user successfully gains control over their addiction. A large part of a successful treatment plan involves preparing the individual to quit (i.e., through education, motivation, raising self-esteem, etc.) and may be conducted while the individual is still using drugs. Unfortunately, the majority of drug users who enter abstinence programs do not have this background. They are not properly prepared to quit, and so they often drop out.

Depression and depressive disorders

Ing, chronic depression that lasts two or more years (one or more years in children) and has an average duration of 16 years. The mild to moderate depression of dysthymic disorder may rise and fall in intensity, and those afflicted with the disorder may experience some periods of normal, non-depressed mood of up to two months in length. Its onset is gradual, and dysthymic patients may not be able to pinpoint exactly when they started feeling depressed. Individuals with dysthymic disorder may experience a change in sleeping and eating patterns, low self-esteem, fatigue, trouble concentrating, and feelings of hopelessness. The causes behind depression are complex and not yet fully understood. While an imbalance of certain neu-rotransmitters the chemicals in the brain that transmit messages between nerve cells are thought to be key to depression, external factors such as upbringing (more so in dysthymia than major depression) may be as important. For example, it is speculated that, if an...

Diagnosis of depressive illness

Most episodes of depression are brief and mild, and are dealt with by the patient's own resources, or by talking with a relative or friend. Of those patients who do present for help, the vast majority are dealt with in primary care. The diagnosis of depressive illness in clinical settings will have some regard to the official classifications set out above. However, clinical training and experience also comes into play. Mild reactions to difficulties experienced in life may not in practice be diagnosed as clinical depression. The clinician should look for features such as biological symptoms of depression, anhedonia, and guilt before entertaining the diagnosis. Depressed mood which seems unduly severe or prolonged in relation to its apparent precipitant, the presence of somatic symptoms, and prominent guilt, pessimism, anhedonia, suicidal thinking, and low self-esteem, all suggest depressive illness.

Environmental Strategiesmodifications

Occupational therapists in ways to simplify the home environment, such as eliminating clutter, breaking down tasks into component parts, and educating the caregiver about dementia and behavioral management. For example, clothing may be laid out according to the order in which it is placed on the body, resulting in reduced anxiety and agitation in patients. A modest effect was seen in patient dependency over time, and caregivers reported improved self-efficacy and reduced disturbance during caregiving activities.

Assessing The Cultural Being

Because people within any culture are likely to vary substantially, it is critical to assess the individual as a cultural being before diagnosis and treatment (Dana, 1998). Not all Latinos are the same or adhere to the culture of their ethnic subgroup to the same extent. Therefore, it is necessary to understand to what extent culture of origin plays a role in self-identity, behaviors, and values. These factors will influence how illness is manifested and what the most appropriate method of treatment will be. Ethnic identity, cultural values, and acculturation are constructs that can be used to assess the degree to which an individual integrates their cultural background into their self-identity and behaviors. These are important tools for understanding the individual as a cultural being and acknowledging individual differences in identification with culture. Additionally there is empirical evidence that positive ethnic identity and biculturalism are related to higher self-esteem, less...

Identity and Interpersonal Behavior

There are two basic subsections to be considered here. The first concerns problems of self-image, self-esteem, and sexual identity. Second, the nature of the individual's personal development needs to be ascertained because it will be used to explain interpersonal conflicts. The primary consideration of identity revolves around one's psychosexual identification. The extent of maturation in the personality determines the clarity of identifications. Ambivalence in psychosexual identification correlates to immature and diffuse psychosexual development. Some derivatives of a relatively immature psychosexual identity of a subject involve the extent of dependency sexual acting-out (whether heterosexual or homosexual) the nature and management of frustration tolerance overall ability to sublimate impulses for constructive purposes and the ways in which ambition, achievement, mastery, and gratifications are worked out. In addition, identity refers to the nature of parental identifications and...

Adolescence Limited Delinquency

Compared to relatively persistent and serious delinquency, the origins of the adolescence-limited form have less to do with the youngsters' social background and personality. Adolescence-limited delinquent behaviour is mainly an expression of developmental transitions and status passages. According to Moffitt (1993), adolescents go through a temporary phase of delinquent behaviour because of its benefits in terms of subjective cost and utility. Deviant behaviour has a positive function when, for example, it contributes to the process of separation from parents and other authorities, helps to confirm self-esteem, and supports the attainment of youth-typical goals. Moffitt considers that modern industrialized nations reveal a major discrepancy between the biological maturity of adolescents and their social status or responsibility. Associating with peer groups helps to close this maturity gap. During a limited phase, the behaviour of delinquent youngsters is imitated because it seems to...

Using Multiple Self Report Measures for Construct Validation

It can be stated with some certainty that almost all health psychology research, whether it addresses molecular or broad research questions, involves self-reports of some kind. Reasons for this dominance of self-report measures include that objective measures (e.g., physiological or observational measures) are often not easy to obtain and that for many constructs that health psychologists are interested in, no objective indictors exist. For example, no objective measure of self-efficacy is available or currently even conceivable, as the degree of perceived self-efficacy is a subjective phenomenon. Similarly, no reliable objective measures for constructs such as pain or stress exist and, therefore, these constructs are also measured using self-reports or at least self-reports are used as one measure among others. In many areas of health psychology a multitude of self-report measures has been developed for measuring one and the same construct or related constructs. Prominent examples of...

The international classifications

In typical mild, moderate, or severe depressive episodes, the patient suffers from lowering of mood, reduction of energy, and decrease in activity. Capacity for enjoyment, interest, and concentration is reduced, and marked tiredness after even minimum effort is common. Sleep is usually disturbed and appetite diminished. Self-esteem and self-confidence are almost always reduced and, even in the mild form, some ideas of guilt or worthlessness are often present. The lowered mood varies little from day to day, is unresponsive to circumstances and may be accompanied by 'somatic' symptoms, such as loss of interest and pleasurable feelings, waking in the morning several hours before

Features of selfhelp groups

Self-esteem and self-efficacy Self-help groups promote self-esteem or self-respect by encouraging reciprocal caring the concept of self-efficacy, or the belief that one is capable, is promoted by reinforcing appropriate behavior and beliefs and by sharing relevant information regarding the disease or condition. For example, there may be an exchange of information regarding how to cope with failed or disrupted relationships, about what is reasonable to expect from health care professionals, about how to manage pain or public embarrassment, about where to go and to whom for a variety of needs. In groups such as AA, self-efficacy also is promoted by sponsors who act as mentors and role models, and by encouraging rotating leadership roles.

For Screening And Diagnosis 121 Diagnosis 122

More importantly, for the individual patient, outcomes assessment provides a means of objectively measuring how much improvement he or she has made from the time of treatment initiation to the time of treatment termination, and in some cases extending to some time after termination. Feedback to this effect may serve to instill in the patient greater self-confidence and self-esteem, or a more realistic view of where he or she is (from a psychological standpoint) at that point in time. It also may serve as an objective indicator to the patient of the need for continued treatment. Finn and Tonsager (1992) offer other reasons for the recent interest in providing patients with assessment feedback. These include the recognition of patients' right to see their medical and psychiatric health care records, as well as clinically and research-based findings and impressions that suggest that therapeutic assessment (described below) facilitates patient care. Finn and Tonsager also refer to Finn...

The results of stigma

As already mentioned, persons with a history of treatment for mental disorders frequently encounter prejudice in the job market and the likelihood of long periods of unemployment this can result in lower socioeconomic status, as well as loss of self-esteem. These problems are not limited to North America. A recent study of mental health patients in Norway, which is generally considered a progressive nation, found that the patients had difficulty finding housing as well as jobs, and were frequently harassed on the street as well as being socially isolated. In 1990, the Congress of the U.S. included mental disorders (with a few exceptions for disorders related to substance abuse and compulsive sexual behaviors) in the anti-discriminatory provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). As of 2002, mental disorders constitute the third-largest category of discrimination claims against employers.

Pathophysiology A Individual and Familial Factors

A number of psychological factors have been described in patients with eating disorders, including difficulties in self-esteem and self-regulation, along with a sense of ineffectiveness and helplessness. Eating disorders, in this view, represent the attempt of the patient to gain control in the arena of eating and weight. Girls who are conflicted about maturation and sexuality are felt to be particularly prone to the development of anorexia nervosa. There are limitations in determining the pre-morbid psychological factors that may predispose to the development of eating disorders, primary among which is that this information has generally been obtained retrospectively, after the eating disorder has developed. A community-based study found that nonspecific risk factors such as adverse childhood experiences, negative comments about weight and shape, parental depression, and a predisposition towards obesity increased the likelihood of developing BED (31).

Ethnicity As An Etiologic Agent

From an epidemiologic perspective, depression and suicidal behaviors can be viewed as the product of the same general factors believed to be involved in the etiology of both psychiatric and somatic disorders (see Cohen, Kessler, & Gordon, 1995 Dohrenwend, 1998). In general, disease outcomes are believed to result from the interaction over time of three etiologic forces biological, psychological, and social-environmental. Employing this framework, both depression and suicidal behaviors can be hypothesized to most likely occur in populations where (a) there is a family history of such disorders (b) risk further depends upon social placement factors such as age, gender, and ethnic status (c) lifetime and current stressors (see Turner, Wheaton, & Lloyd, 1995), such as somatic and comorbid psychiatric disorders in the child or current somatic, psychiatric disorders in the parent and (d) upon personal and social resources available such as high self-esteem, social support from family and...

Nonreactivity as a Continuous Concept

And are aware of the fact that they are actually being asked about their environmental attitudes, the degree of their introversion, or actual self-esteem in such studies, as a rule they do not know the specific hypotheses such as the item assignment to different scale dimensions or assumptions about relationships between variables or the expected results. However, in a narrower sense, not only the participants should be blind to specific hypotheses To minimize possible experimenter effects beyond those associated with the mere research setting, assistants of the experimenter should not be informed about the hypotheses (Type 2) or even about the research question as a whole (Type 3). In a way, those research assistants who are involved in double-blind studies are de facto participants in the wider sense because they are (ideally) not the principal investigator. Being blind to particular hypotheses implies that it is not possible for participants to systematically counteract the primary...

Explaining Group Differences

A limitation to matching is that it results in regression toward the mean. Black respondents with high self-esteem, for example, may be selected from a population with low self-esteem. When examined later, these respondents will test with lower self-esteem, having regressed to the lower mean of their own population. Their extreme scores high in this case were due to chance.

Samples versus Evidence

The psychologist's goal is to utilize samples of behavior to understand, describe, and logically present hypotheses pertinent to diagnostic considerations. For example, a person with offensive body odor would not prompt condemnation, but rather an indication as to what this might imply regarding the patient's overall functioning, personality integration, reality testing, self-image, or the presence of depression.

The Disabled Older Adult

Aging does bring with it decline, to a greater or lesser degree depending upon the person. But even in this state the Scriptures tell us that we are not alone. ''Even to your old age and gray hairs I am he, I am he who will sustain you. I have made you and I will carry you. I will sustain you and I will rescue you'' (Isa. 46 4). This Scripture gives the gift of hope. The Scriptures also give a basis for value that is independent of productivity. Feeling valued by God can give a person enough self-esteem to be able to reach out to others, despite his or her own limitations. According to Fahey (1994), older adults can cope with and change their view of their own circumstances through spirituality. An example he gives is of an older adult who suffers from a disability. This person may experience a perceived or real loss of love, esteem, and value by others because he or she cannot fully contribute to situations or relationships. Spirituality, or establishing a loving relationship with...

Brief History Of Forensic Psychology

Supreme Court, in Brown v. the Board of Education, held that school segregation was illegal, in violation of the 14th Amendment. In this case, an appendix prepared by three psychologists, Kenneth B. Clark, Isider Chein, and Stuart Cook, was included with the plaintiff's brief. Social science research, including the psychological effects of segregation on the self-image of children, was cited in 35 footnotes (Brigham & Grisso, 2002). Points raised in this appendix and in a subsequent response to the Court were cited in the opinion, representing the application of psychological research to appeals court decisions.

Initial Knowledge And Attitudes Toward Carrier Testing Immediately After Being Informed

Concerning the barriers to knowledge about their own CF carrier status, a minority of 17 of the initial sample perceived no barriers at all at the time of the study. This proportion increased significantly to about one fourth (26 ) for having such a test in the future. Complementary to these proportions, three quarters (75 ) and more than half (58 ) of the initial sample mentioned some barrier at the time of the study and in the future, respectively. The expectation of being worried about increased risk of having a CF child (or about transmitting the carrier status to future children) (32 ) and the negative impact on self-image (12 ) are most mentioned. Concerning barriers to testing in the future, the expectation of worry remained important (22 ), together with increased anxiety about or during a pregnancy (19 ). The negative impact of a positive test result on self-image remained a salient barrier for a small proportion of the initial sample (6 ).

Psychological Functioning

Understandably, it is common for testicular cancer patients to exhibit symptoms of psychological distress at the time of diagnosis and during treatment. However, the evidence concerning the duration of this distress is inconsistent across studies. Rieker and colleagues19 were among the first to thoroughly assess the impact of testicular cancer treatment on the psychosocial functioning of survivors. Seventy-four men treated for either seminomatous or non-seminomatous germ cell tumors were assessed 2 to 10 years after completing therapy (median, 4 years after treatment). Overall, the findings suggested that survivors had a high level of psychological functioning. Testicular cancer survivors reported better psychological functioning than did psychiatric or male college student controls. Patients actually reported that many areas of their lives (ie, outlook on life, relationship with children, fear of death, and self-respect) had improved because of the cancer.

Dangerous Decision Makers

Available appropriately then only good fortune is going to prevent harm from resulting. Risk-taking is a skill. It requires the collection and application of knowledge in a proper manner with, preferably, provision for learning from feedback. Knowledge of risk factors is insufficient. They must be used properly. Having a particular status, for example consultant forensic psychiatrist or psychologist, is not enough. Status implies job but it does not ensure that knowledge, competence or experiences in risk decision-making are possessed. There may be plenty of instruction in risk factors, and the research that supports them, but there is very little on the practical skills of risk-taking. Any lawyer wishing to undermine the self-confidence and or reputation of an expert or professional witness, on risk-taking, should enquire about his or her training in, and learning from, risk-taking. Textbook knowledge, even to a high standard, is insufficient to qualify a surgeon. This is not to...

Attitudes and Selfcognitions

Through the interaction with group influences, delinquent adolescents develop attitudes, values and self-related cognitions that encourage deviant behaviour. According to Jessor and colleagues (1991), they tolerate, for example, more deviance than other adolescents, place greater value on autonomy, and have less interest in traditional achievement norms. They also have more negative attitudes towards conformist institutions (Hirschi, 1969). At moderate levels, such dispositions may contribute to the mastering of developmental tasks (see adolescence-typical delinquency). However, critical thresholds are passed when adolescents identify exclusively with deviant groups and subcultures. Personal problems are often blamed on the environment, making it harder for self-critical insights to evolve (Averbeck and Losel, 1994). To some extent, this pattern relates to a low self-esteem. However, there is also a subgroup of aggressive youngsters in which the self-concept is not negative but...

Dynamic Psychotherapy

Piper et al. (1993) evaluated a dynamically orientated, intensive, group-focussed, 18-week day-treatment programme for individuals with affective and personality disorders. Sixty per cent of the total sample (N 120) had personality disorders, with borderline and dependent types being most common. Patients were randomised to treatment or control (delayed treatment) conditions and assessed at baseline, end of treatment and eight months later. Outcome for the active treatment group was significantly better than for controls regarding social and family dysfunction, interpersonal behaviour, mood, life satisfaction, self-esteem and severity of disturbance relating to individual treatment goals. Benefits were maintained at follow-up in the 50 patients available for assessment.

Comparisons Of Longterm Effects Of Diagnosis And Treatment By Cancer Site Breast Cancer And Hodgkins Disease

Few changes in the measures of mental health were expected and, in fact, no change was found on depression as measured by the CES-D,71 Rosenberg's measure of self-esteem,72 or on the six subscales of the Profile of Mood States (POMS)73 in the Hodgkin's disease cohort. A statistically significant higher score (p 0.0025) was found on the total POMS scale, indicating greater emotional distress. The only significant predictor of greater mood distress was time since diagnosis (coefficientis 1.36, p 0.01) while higher self-esteem was marginally related to lower mood distress (coefficient is 5.21, p 0.06). No changes in depression, self-esteem, or mood lower self-esteem

Reactions to Selection Procedures

Ryan and Ployhart (2000) have provided a very useful and critical review of the literature on applicant reactions to employee-selection procedures. They call for improvements in the measurement of test-taking attitudes and reactions measures, greater attention to outcomes other than organization perceptions or intentions measures, more focus on individual-difference (including demographic measures) antecedents of test reactions, greater attention to the role of social information in the selection context, and more theoretical emphasis in areas other than justice theory. On a practical level, Schmitt and Chan (1999) provide a series of suggestions they believe are supported by this research literature. Both the actual and perceived job-relatedness of selection procedures should be maximized. The use, development, and validation of the procedures should be explained to the applicants. All staff that deal with applicants should be trained to treat applicants with respect and courtesy....

Classification of depressive illness in the ICD

F32.2 Severe depressive episode without psychotic symptoms. An episode of depression in which several of the above symptoms are marked and distressing, typically loss of self-esteem and ideas of worthlessness or guilt. Suicidal thoughts and acts are common and a number of 'somatic' symptoms are usually present.

Language in the Intelligence Test Report

In a similar vein, concepts having to do with impulsivity and acting-out can be indicated simply by use of these descriptive terms without the support of a discussion of the nature of anxiety. What can be stated is that the child who is impulsive cannot slow down enough to be more thoughtful, conceptual, and logical, and that such a problem is caused by a specific tension involving a parent, sibling, and so on. Ideas concerning judgment and self-confidence also can be conveyed in similarly descriptive terms by focusing on the test results through examples from the protocol or behavioral observations. Restricting the discussion to this level avoids the unnecessary addition of the particular underlying network of internal factors that, if explored, would confuse the client rather than illuminate the questions concerning the referral.

Which Therapy Should Be Offered

The above characteristics are critical to the approach required for BP. For example, many individuals with BP would resist and challenge a more didactic approach to treatment (Scott, 1995). Individuals with BP, and sometimes significant others in their lives, play an active role in developing the formulation of the problems, so the interventions used appear rational and logical, giving therapy for BP a sense of coherence. The structured approach to each session with agenda setting, prioritization of problems for discussion and joint development of 'homework' (in vivo) tasks, enables clients to retain their focus on the session even when hypomania leads to greater distractibility. The approaches also offer individuals respect, information and choice. These features help increase their sense of self-efficacy as they begin to learn to gain control over what they can realistically control and accept or acknowledge what they cannot. This may be particularly helpful to individuals who...

Sources of Anxiety in the Personality

Handling of anxiety provides valuable information for the test report because it reflects the person's characteristic response and is a sample of the patient's typical reaction to stress outside of the testing situation. At a deeper level, conflict between different aspects of personality, doubts about self-esteem, difficulties in dealing with sexual and aggressive impulses, and concern about the stability and integrity of the personality are underlying sources of anxiety that need further exploration.

The Bridge Between Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Functioning

Including presenting problem behavior, is a key contribution that the psychologist can offer. This framework also enables the psychologist to consider further the patient's functioning with respect to self-esteem and personal identity concerns. Stage-specific early conflicts are seen to contribute directly to the formation of self-esteem and personal identity concerns.

Psychological Treatments

Recent outcome studies include one in 2001 of 74 couples randomized to 12 weeks of CBT or an untreated control group (81). Of the women receiving CBT who met the criteria of hypoactive sexual desire pretreatment, 26 continued to do so at the end of treatment and 36 met the criteria 1 year later. The CBT group experienced significant improvements in sexual satisfaction, perception of sexual arousal, dyadic adjustment, improved self-repertoire, sexual pleasure, and perceived self-esteem, as well as general increase in motivation, mood, and lessening of anxiety. In a noncontrolled study of the same year (82), CBT was assessed in 54 women having a broad spectrum of sexual dysfunction. Fifty-four percent of the women still had the same sexual complaints after treatment, although the overall levels of sexual dysfunction were reduced and there were more positive attitudes towards sex and increased sexual enjoyment and less perception of being a sexual failure. A study of 39 women with low...

Defenses Used to Manage Individual Emotions

This defense mechanism is frequently utilized to counteract both depressive and inferiority feelings by means of fantasies of aggrandizement, behavioral quests for recognition, and an overall need for positive feedback. Disturbances involving narcissistic deficiencies also involve the use of this mechanism in which self-esteem is continuously bolstered by grandiose strivings, fantasies, and preoccupations.

Tailoring Treatment Programs

Client or population characteristics Age, race ethnicity, gender and socioeconomic variables Risk perception perceived threat of illness Readiness for change stage of change Self-efficacy perceptions Attitudes about the health practice or illness Information processing style Attribution of causality for illness Availability of family friend support social support systems Holding a positive self-image Social support to assist the change process Optimism long-range time perspective Sense of timing scheduling Tolerance of discomfort

Defenses and the Report

Several diagnostic implications involving the use of particular defense mechanisms were pointed out in the definitions of defense mechanisms. For example, the use of denial is typical of those with a histrionic syndrome. The constellation of defenses consisting of intellectualization, isolation, and undoing, often in conjunction with rationalization and sublimation, is characteristic of obsessives and compulsives. The use of displacement is typical of passive-aggressive persons. Compensation in patients with depression and narcissistic disturbances also is frequently found because bolstering or maintenance of self-esteem is a major need for them. Utilization of projection is typical of persons with paranoid inclinations in which hostility and aggressive motivations are overly ascribed to others. Splitting in the borderline diagnosis and regression among psychopathic, antisocial, or impulsive types are other examples of defense mechanisms that typically are seen in specific diagnoses....

How Cities Affect Lgbt Health

Social environment refers to the cultural milieu, social norms and networks, and stressors that affect individual behavior and health. Many LGBT people are drawn to cities because of their perceived culture of tolerance, diversity and social acceptance (Valentine and Skelton, 2003). As will be further discussed below, some cities have actively recruited LGB tourists and residents, clearly signaling a level of tolerance and acceptance - at least by some government agencies (Rushbrook, 2002 Swope, 2003). Many cities have instituted laws and policies that either prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation and or recognize same-sex relationships. According to the Human Rights Campaign, 258 municipalities have passed antidiscrimination ordinances, and 130 cities have passed domestic partnerships laws (Human Rights Campaign). Although these laws have severe limitations, they do suggest that those who work and live in these cities may in fact have greater protection and more rights...