Recommended literature

Handbooks and monographs

Kettenmann H, Ransom BR (1985) Neuroglia. Oxford University Press, 1st edition.

Kettenmann H, Ransom BR (2005) Neuroglia. Oxford University Press 2nd edition.

Initial discoveries (Chapter 1)

First definition of glia as an integrative part of brain parenchyma

Virchow R (1846) Über das granulierte Ansehen der Wandungen der Gehirnventrikel. Allg Z Psychiatrie 3, 242-250.

Virchow R (1858) Die Cellularpathologie in ihrer Begründung auf physiologische and pathologische Gewebelehre. Verlag von August Hirschfeld, Berlin.

Early works on morphology of glia

Andriezen L (1893) The neuroglia elements in the human brain. BMJ 29, 227-230.

Golgi C (1903) Opera Omnia (Vol. I-III). Hoepli Editore, Milano.

Ramón y Cajal S (1897-1904); trans. (1995) Histology of the Nervous System of Man and Vertebrates. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Retzius GM (1881-1921) Biologische Untersuchungen, Vol. 1-6. Samson and Wallin, Stockholm.

First indication about functional connection between neurones and blood vessels

Golgi C (1871) Contribuzione alla fine anatomia degli organi centrali del sistema nervoso. Rivista Clinica di Bologna (in French).

First theory of active neuronal-glial interactions

Schleich CL (1894) Schmerzlose Operationen. Oertliche Betäubung mit indiffrenten Flüssigkeiten. Julius Springer, Berlin.

First electrophysiological recordings from glial cells

Kuffler SW, Potter DD (1964) Glia in the leech central nervous system: Physiological properties and neuron-glia relationship. J Neurophysiol 27, 290-320.

Orkand RK, Nicholls JG, Kuffler SW (1966) Effect of nerve impulses on the membrane potential of glial cells in the central nervous system of amphibia. J Neurophysiol 29, 788-806.

Verkhratsky A (2006) Patching the glia reveals the functional organisation of the brain. Pflugers Arch 453, 411-420.

Patch-clamp and calcium indicator techniques

Hamill OP, Marty A, Neher E, Sakmann B, Sigworth FJ (1981) Improved patch-clamp techniques for high-resolution current recording from cells and cell-free membrane patches. Pflugers Arch 391, 85-100.

Tsien RY (1980) New calcium indicators and buffers with high selectivity against magnesium and protons: design, synthesis, and properties of prototype structures. Biochemistry 19, 23962404.

Verkhratsky A, Krishtal OA, Petersen OH (2006) From Galvani to patch clamp: the development of electrophysiology. Pflugers Arch 453, 233-247.

First discovery of functional neurotransmitter receptors in glia

Bowman CL, Kimelberg HK (1984) Excitatory amino acids directly depolarize rat brain astrocytes in primary culture. Nature 311, 656-659.

Kettenmann H, Backus KH, Schachner M (1984) Aspartate, glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid depolarize cultured astrocytes. Neurosci Lett 52, 25-29.

Kettenmann H, Gilbert P, Schachner M (1984) Depolarization of cultured oligodendrocytes by glutamate and GABA. Neurosci Lett 47, 271-276.

Signalling in the nervous system (Chapter 2)

Volume and wiring transmission

Agnati LF, Zoli M, Stromberg I, Fuxe K (1995) Intercellular communication in the brain: wiring versus volume transmission. Neuroscience 69, 711-726.

Bloom FE (2000) Integration of wiring transmission and volume transmission. Prog Brain Res 125, 21-26.

Magistretti PJ, Pellerin L (2000) The astrocyte-mediated coupling between synaptic activity and energy metabolism operates through volume transmission. Prog Brain Res 125, 229-240.

Sykova E (2005) Glia and volume transmission during physiological and pathological states. J Neural Transm 112, 137-147.

Zoli M, Torri C, Ferrari R, Jansson A, Zini I, Fuxe K, Agnati LF (1998) The emergence of the volume transmission concept. Brain Res Rev 26,136-147.

Intracellular signalling

Bigge CF (1999) Ionotropic glutamate receptors. Curr Opin Chem Biol 3, 441-447.

Burnstock G (1972) Purinergic nerves. Pharmacol Rev 24, 509-581.

Burnstock G (2006) Historical review: ATP as a neurotransmitter. Trends Pharmacol Sci 27, 166-176.

Egan TM, Samways DS, Li Z (2006) Biophysics of P2X receptors. Pflugers Arch 452, 501-512.

Hollmann M, Heinemann S (1994) Cloned glutamate receptors. Annu Rev Neurosci 17, 31-108.

Hussl S, Boehm S (2006) Functions of neuronal P2Y receptors. Pflugers Arch 452, 538-551.

Nakanishi S (1994) Metabotropic glutamate receptors: synaptic transmission, modulation, and plasticity. Neuron 13, 1031-1037.

Nakanishi S, Nakajima Y, Masu M, Ueda Y, Nakahara K, Watanabe D, Yamaguchi S, Kawabata S, Okada M (1998) Glutamate receptors: brain function and signal transduction. Brain Res Rev 26, 230-235.

North RA, Verkhratsky A (2006) Purinergic transmission in the central nervous system. Pflugers Arch 452, 479-485.

Pin JP, Acher F (2002) The metabotropic glutamate receptors: structure, activation mechanism and pharmacology. Curr Drug Targets CNS Neurol Disord 1, 297-317.

Schofield PR, Shivers BD, Seeburg PH (1990) The role of receptor subtype diversity in the CNS. Trends Neurosci 13, 8-11.

Wisden W, Seeburg PH (1992) GABAA receptor channels: from subunits to functional entities. Curr Opin Neurobiol 2, 263-269.

Wisden W, Seeburg PH (1993) Mammalian ionotropic glutamate receptors. Curr Opin Neurobiol 3, 291-298.

Morphology of glia (Chapter 3)

Bushong EA, Martone ME, Jones YZ, Ellisman MH (2002) Protoplasmic astrocytes in CA1 stratum radiatum occupy separate anatomical domains. J Neurosci 22, 183-192.

Nedergaard M, Ransom B, Goldman SA (2003) New roles for astrocytes: redefining the functional architecture of the brain. Trends Neurosci 26, 523-530.

Ogata K, Kosaka T (2002) Structural and quantitative analysis of astrocytes in the mouse hippocampus. Neuroscience 113, 221-233.

Glial development (Chapter 4)

Phytogeny of glia and evolutionary specificity of glial cells in human brain

Colombo JA, Reisin HD (2004) Interlaminar astroglia of the cerebral cortex: a marker of the primate brain. Brain Res 1006, 126-131.

Oberheim NA, Wang X, Goldman S, Nedergaard M (2006) Astrocytic complexity distinguishes the human brain. Trends Neurosci 29, 547-553.

Sherwood CC, Stimpson CD, Raghanti MA, Wildman DE, Uddin M, Grossman LI, Goodman M, Redmond JC, Bonar CJ, Erwin JM, Hof PR (2006) Evolution of increased glia-neuron ratios in the human frontal cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103, 13606-13611.

Astrocytes in the brain of Albert Einstein

Colombo JA, Reisin HD, Miguel-Hidalgo JJ, Rajkowska G (2006) Cerebral cortex astroglia and the brain of a genius: a propos of A. Einstein's. Brain Res Rev 52, 257-263.

Astrocytes as brain stem cells

Goldman S (2003) Glia as neural progenitor cells. Trends Neurosci 26, 590-596.

Götz M, Barde YA (2005) Radial glial cells defined and major intermediates between embryonic stem cells and CNS neurons Neuron 46, 369-372.

Horner PJ, Palmer TD (2003) New roles for astrocytes: the nightlife of an 'astrocyte'. La vida loca! Trends Neurosci 26, 597-603.

Mori T, Buffo A, Götz M (2005) The novel roles of glial cells revisited: The contribution of radial glia and astrocytes to neurogenesis. Current Topics Dev Biol 69, 67-99.

Glial physiology (Chapter 5)

Ion channels and neurotransmitter receptors

Barres BA, Chun LL, Corey DP (1988) Ion channel expression by white matter glia: I. Type 2 astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Glia 1, 10-30.

Barres BA, Koroshetz WJ, Swartz KJ, Chun LL, Corey DP (1990) Ion channel expression by white matter glia: the O-2A glial progenitor cell. Neuron 4, 507-524.

Berger T, Schnitzer J, Orkand PM, Kettenmann H (1992) Sodium and calcium currents in glial cells of the mouse corpus callosum slice. Eur J Neurosci 4, 1271-1284.

Fields RD, Burnstock G (2006) Purinergic signalling in neuron-glia interactions. Nat Rev Neurosci 7, 423-436.

Karadottir R, Cavelier P, Bergersen LH, Attwell D (2005) NMDA receptors are expressed in oligodendrocytes and activated in ischaemia. Nature 438, 1162-1166.

Lipton SA (2006) NMDA receptors, glial cells, and clinical medicine. Neuron 50, 9-11.

MacVicar BA. (1984) Voltage-dependent calcium channels in glial cells. Science 226, 13451347.

Seifert G, Steinhauser C (2001) Ionotropic glutamate receptors in astrocytes. Prog Brain Res 132, 287-299.

Steinhauser C, Gallo V (1996) News on glutamate receptors in glial cells. Trends Neurosci 19, 339-345.

Verkhratsky A, Kirchoff F (2007) NMDA receptors in glia. Neuroscientist 3, 1-10

Verkhratsky A, Steinhauser C (2000) Ion channels in glial cells. Brain Res Rev 32, 380-412.

Gap junctions, connexins and hemichannels

Bennett MV, Contreras JE, Bukauskas FF, Saez JC (2003) New roles for astrocytes: gap junction hemichannels have something to communicate. Trends Neurosci 26, 610-617.

Dermietzel R (1998) Gap junction wiring: a 'new' principle in cell-to-cell communication in the nervous system? Brain Res Rev 26, 176-83.

Evans WH, De Vuyst E, Leybaert L (2006) The gap junction cellular internet: connexin hemichannels enter the signalling limelight. Biochem J 397, 1-14.

Nagy JI, Rash JE (2000) Connexins and gap junctions of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in the CNS. Brain Res Rev 32, 29-44.

Saez JC, Retamal MA, Basilio D, Bukauskas FF, Bennett MV (2005) Connexin-based gap junction hemichannels: gating mechanisms. Biochim Biophys Acta 1711, 215-224.

Sosinsky GE, Nicholson BJ (2005) Structural organization of gap junction channels. Biochim Biophys Acta 1711, 99-125.

Calcium signals and calcium waves

Cornell-Bell AH, Finkbeiner SM, Cooper MS, Smith SJ (1990) Glutamate induces calcium waves in cultured astrocytes: long-range glial signaling. Science 247, 470-473.

Newman EA, Zahs KR (1997) Calcium waves in retinal glial cells. Science 275, 844-847.

Scemes E, Giaume C (2006) Astrocyte calcium waves: what they are and what they do. Glia 54, 716-725.

Verkhratsky A, Orkand RK, Kettenmann H (1998) Glial calcium: homeostasis and signaling function. Physiol Rev 78, 99-141.

Verkhratsky A (2006) Calcium ions and integration in neural circuits. Acta Physiol (Oxf) 187, 357-369.

Vesicular release of neurotransmitters

Bezzi P, Domercq M, Brambilla L, Galli R, Schols D, De Clercq E, Vescovi A, Bagetta G, Kollias G, Meldolesi J, Volterra A (2001) CXCR4-activated astrocyte glutamate release via TNFalpha: amplification by microglia triggers neurotoxicity. Nat Neurosci 4, 702-710.

Bezzi P, Gundersen V, Galbete JL, Seifert G, Steinhauser C, Pilati E, Volterra A (2004) Astrocytes contain a vesicular compartment that is competent for regulated exocytosis of glutamate. Nat Neurosci 7, 613-620.

Parpura V, Haydon PG (2000) Physiological astrocytic calcium levels stimulate glutamate release to modulate adjacent neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97, 8629-8634.

Zhang Q, Fukuda M, Van Bockstaele E, Pascual O, Haydon PG (2004) Synaptotagmin IV regulates glial glutamate release. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101, 9441-9446.

Nonvesicular release of neurotransmitters

Cotrina ML, Lin JH, Alves-Rodrigues A, Liu S, Li J, Azmi-Ghadimi H, Kang J, Naus CC, Nedergaard M (1998) Connexins regulate calcium signaling by controlling ATP release. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95, 15735-15740.

Takano T, Kang J, Jaiswal JK, Simon SM, Lin JH, Yu Y, Li Y, Yang J, Dienel G, Zielke HR, Nedergaard M (2005) Receptor-mediated glutamate release from volume sensitive channels in astrocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102, 16466-16471.

Control of brain microcirculation

Mulligan SJ, MacVicar BA (2004) Calcium transients in astrocyte endfeet cause cerebrovascular constrictions. Nature 431, 195-199.

Takano T, Tian GF, Peng W, Lou N, Libionka W, Han X, Nedergaard M (2006) Astrocyte-mediated control of cerebral blood flow. Nat Neurosci 9, 260-267.

Zonta M, Angulo MC, Gobbo S, Rosengarten B, Hossmann KA, Pozzan T, Carmignoto G (2003) Neuron-to-astrocyte signaling is central to the dynamic control of brain microcirculation. Nat Neurosci 6, 43-50.

Neuronal-glial interactions (Chapter 6)

Tripartite synapse

Araque A, Parpura V, Sanzgiri RP, Haydon PG (1999) Tripartite synapses: glia, the unacknowledged partner. Trends Neurosci 22, 208-215.

Haydon PG (2001) GLIA: listening and talking to the synapse. Nat Rev Neurosci 2, 185-193.

Volterra A, Haydon P, Magistretti P, Eds (2002) Glia in Synaptic Transmission. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Volterra A, Meldolesi J (2005) Astrocytes, from brain glue to communication elements: the revolution continues. Nat Rev Neurosci 6, 626-640.

Volterra A, Steinhauser C (2004) Glial modulation of synaptic transmission in the hippocampus. Glia, 47, 249-257.

Neuronal-glial synapses

Jabs R, Pivneva T, Huttmann K, Wyczynski A, Nolte C, Kettenmann H, Steinhauser C (2005) Synaptic transmission onto hippocampal glial cells with hGFAP promoter activity. J Cell Sci 118, 3791-3803.

Lin SC, Bergles DE (2004) Synaptic signaling between neurons and glia. Glia 47, 290-298.

Functions of astroglia (Chapter 7)

Development and neurogenesis

Alvarez-Buylla A, Garcia-Verdugo JM, Tramontin AD (2001) A unified hypothesis on the lineage of neural stem cells. Nat Rev Neurosci 2, 287-293.

Doetsch F (2003) The glial identity of neural stem cells. Nat Neurosci 6, 1127-1134.

Mori T, Buffo A, Gotz M (2005) The novel roles of glial cells revisited: the contribution of radial glia and astrocytes to neurogenesis. Curr Top Dev Biol 69, 67-99.

Potassium buffering

Kofuji P, Connors NC (2003) Molecular substrates of potassium spatial buffering in glial cells. Mol Neurobiol 28, 195-208.

Kofuji P, Newman EA (2004) Potassium buffering in the central nervous system. Neuroscience 129, 1045-56.

Water homeostasis

Simard M, Nedergaard M (2004) The neurobiology of glia in the context of water and ion homeostasis. Neuroscience 129, 877-96.

Glial regulation of synaptic transmission

Allen NJ, Barres BA (2005) Signaling between glia and neurons: focus on synaptic plasticity. Curr Opin Neurobiol 15, 542-548.

Auld DS, Robitaille R (2003) Glial cells and neurotransmission: an inclusive view of synaptic function. Neuron 40, 389-400.

Pascual O, Casper KB, Kubera C, Zhang J, Revilla-Sanchez R, Sul JY, Takano H, Moss SJ, McCarthy K, Haydon PG (2005) Astrocytic purinergic signaling coordinates synaptic networks. Science 310, 113-116.

Rochon D, Rousse I, Robitaille R (2001) Synapse-glia interactions at the mammalian neuromuscular junction. J Neurosci 21, 3819-3829.

Functions of oligodendroglia and Schwann cells (Chapter 8)

Baumann N, Pham-Dinh D (2001) Biology of oligodendrocyte and myelin in the mammalian central nervous system. Physiol Rev 81, 871-927.

Corfas G, Velardez MO, Ko C-P, Ratner N, Peles E (2004) Mechanisms and roles of axon-Schwann cell interactions. J Neurosci 24, 9250-9260.

Miller RH (2002) Regulation of oligodendrocyte development in the vertebrate CNS. Prog Neurobiol 67, 451-467.

Sherman DL, Brophy PJ (2005) Mechanisms of axon ensheathment and myelin growth. Nat Rev Neurosci 6, 683-690.

Glial pathology (Chapters 9, 10)

General glial pathology

Seifert G, Schilling K, Steinhauser C (2006) Astrocyte dysfunction in neurological disorders: a molecular perspective. Nat Rev Neurosci 7, 194-206.

Astrogliosis

Pekny M, Nilsson M (2005) Astrocyte activation and reactive gliosis. Glia 50, 427-434.

Wallerian degeneration

Ehlers MD (2004) Deconstructing the axon: Wallerian degeneration and the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Trends Neurosci 27, 3-6.

Koeppen AH (2004) Wallerian degeneration: history and clinical significance. J Neurol Sci 220, 115-117.

Microglia

Kreutzberg GW (1996) Microglia: a sensor for pathological events in the CNS. Trends Neurosci 19, 312-318.

Streit WJ, Ed (2002) Microglia in the degenerating and regenerating CNS, Springer-Verlag, New York.

Streit WJ (2002) Microglia as neuroprotective, immunocompetent cells of the CNS. Glia 40, 133-139.

van Rossum D, Hanisch UK (2004) Microglia. Metab Brain Dis 19, 393-411. Microglial motility

Davalos D, Grutzendler J, Yang G, Kim JV, Zuo Y, Jung S, Littman DR, Dustin ML, Gan WB (2005) ATP mediates rapid microglial response to local brain injury in vivo. Nat Neurosci 8, 752-758.

Nimmerjahn A, Kirchhoff F, Helmchen F (2005) Resting microglial cells are highly dynamic surveillants of brain parenchyma in vivo. Science 308, 1314-1318.

Ischaemia

Nedergaard M, Dirnagl U (2005) Role of glial cells in cerebral ischemia. Glia 50, 281-286. Lin JH, Weigel H, Cotrina ML, Liu S, Bueno E, Hansen AJ, Hansen TW, Goldman S, Nedergaard M (1998) Gap-junction-mediated propagation and amplification of cell injury. Nat Neurosci 1, 494-500.

Walz W, Klimaszewski A, Paterson IA (1993) Glial swelling in ischemia: a hypothesis. Dev Neurosci 15, 216-225.

Spreading depression

Martins-Ferreira H, Nedergaard M, Nicholson C (2000) Perspectives on spreading depression.

Brain Res Rev 32, 215-234. Walz W, (1997) Role of astrocytes in the spreading depression signal between ischemic core and penumbra. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 21, 135-142.

Alzheimer's disease

Nagele RG, Wegiel J, Venkataraman V, Imaki H, Wang KC (2004) Contribution of glial cells to the development of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging 25, 663-674. Streit WJ (2004) Microglia and Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. J Neurosci Res 77, 1-8. Wyss-Coray T, Loike JD, Brionne TC, Lu E, Anankov R, Yan F, Silverstein SC, Husemann J

(2003) Adult mouse astrocytes degrade amyloid-beta in vitro and in situ. Nat Med 9, 453-457.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Barbeito LH, Pehar M, Cassina P, Vargas MR, Peluffo H, Viera L, Estevez AG, Beckman JS

(2004) A role for astrocytes in motor neuron loss in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Brain Res Rev 47, 263-74.

Pain

Tsuda M, Inoue K, Salter MW (2005) Neuropathic pain and spinal microglia: a big problem from molecules in "small" glia. Trends Neurosci 28, 101-107.

Multiple sclerosis

Barnett MH, Sutton I (2006) The pathology of multiple sclerosis: a paradigm shift. Curr Opin Neurol 19, 242-247.

Ludwin SK (2006) The pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis: relating human pathology to experimental studies. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 65, 305-318.

Ruffini F, Chojnacki A, Weiss S, Antel JP (2006) Immunobiology of oligodendrocytes in multiple sclerosis. Adv Neurol 98, 47-63.

Vanishing white matter disease van der Knaap MS, Pronk JC, Scheper GC (2006) Vanishing white matter disease. Lancet Neurol 5, 413-423.

Li W, Galey D, Mattson MP, Nath A (2005) Molecular and cellular mechanisms of neuronal cell death in HIV dementia. Neurotox Res 8, 119-134.

Peruzzi F, Bergonzini V, Aprea S, Reiss K, Sawaya BE, Rappaport J, Amini S, Khalili K (2005) Cross talk between growth factors and viral and cellular factors alters neuronal signaling pathways: Implication for HIV-associated dementia. Brain Res Rev 50, 114-125.

Epilepsy

Fellin T, Haydon PG (2005) Do astrocytes contribute to excitation underlying seizures? Trends Mol Med 11, 530-533.

Kang N, Xu J, Xu Q, Nedergaard M, Kang J (2005) Astrocytic glutamate release-induced transient depolarization and epileptiform discharges in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. J Neurophysiol 94, 4121-4130.

Tian GF, Azmi H, Takano T, Xu Q, Peng W, Lin J, Oberheim N, Lou N, Wang X, Zielke HR, Kang J, Nedergaard M (2005) An astrocytic basis of epilepsy. Nat Med 11, 973-981.

Schizophrenia, bipolar disorders and other psychiatric disorders

Cotter DR, Pariante CM, Everall IP (2001) Glial cell abnormalities in major psychiatric disorders: the evidence and implications. Brain Res Bull 55, 585-595.

Mitterauer B (2004) Imbalance of glial-neuronal interaction in synapses: a possible mechanism of the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. Neuroscientist 10, 199-206.

Mitterauer B (2005) Nonfunctional glial proteins in tripartite synapses: a pathophysiological model of schizophrenia. Neuroscientist 11, 192-198.

Gliomas

Chung WJ, Lyons SA, Nelson GM, Hamza H, Gladson CL, Gillespie GY, Sontheimer H (2005) Inhibition of cystine uptake disrupts the growth of primary brain tumors. J Neurosci 25, 7101-7110.

McFerrin MB, Sontheimer H (2006) A role for ion channels in glioma cell invasion. Neuron Glia Biol 2, 39-49.

Ransom CB, O'Neal JT, Sontheimer H (2001) Volume-activated chloride currents contribute to the resting conductance and invasive migration of human glioma cells. J Neurosci 21, 7674-7683.

Sontheimer H (2003) Malignant gliomas: perverting glutamate and ion homeostasis for selective advantage. Trends Neurosci 26, 543-549.

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