Wallerian degeneration

Degeneration Peripheral Nerve

The severance of axon from the nerve body initiates a series of coordinated events, which produce the disintegration of distal axonal segments, removal of myelin and remodelling of myelinating cells, and finally nerve fibre regeneration, by axonal growth from the nerve slump proximal to the site of insult. This process of nerve degeneration was discovered by Augustus Waller in 1850 and is generally known as 'Wallerian degeneration'. The term Wallerian degeneration is currently used to describe...

Reactive astrogliosis

Astroglia Damage

All types of brain insults, regardless of aetiology, trigger a complex astroglial response, which is manifested by astrocyte hypertrophy and proliferation. This glial response is defined as reactive astrogliosis Figure 9.1 . Reactive astrogliosis is a defensive brain reaction which is aimed at a isolation of the damaged area from the rest of the CNS tissue, b reconstruction of the blood-brain barrier, and c facilitation of the remodelling of brain circuits in areas surrounding the lesioned...