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NLinked Glycosylation

A distinct series of steps occur during this process, which are mediated by specific enzyme activities (Fig. 1). This process starts by the transfer of a gly-can chain from a lipid carrier (dolichyphosphate) to the polypeptide chain, as the latter is synthesised in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). At this stage, the glycan chain exists as trimannosyl-chitobiose core ( -acetyl glucosamine mannose 3) (Fig. 2) to which chains of mannose residues are attached. At the initial stage in this process, glucose residues are attached to the mannose chains by oligosacchariyl transferase activity in the ER. The glucose residues are subsequently removed by glucosidase 1 and 2. At this stage in the process, the glycan chains exist in a form that have a relatively high mannose content, and they are referred to as being high mannose or simple glycans. The mannose chains are selectively removed (trimmed) in the Golgi complex by mannosidase 1 and 2 activities, which leaves the trimannosyl-chitobiose core...

And Microscopic Examination

Schematic diagram of the left (LV) and right (RV) ventricular regions. (A) Abbreviations for ventricular regions. (B) Three standard sections for microscopic evaluation. (A, anterior AL, anterolateral AS, anteroseptal I, inferior IL, inferolateral IS, inferoseptal L, lateral P, posterior PL, posterolateral PS, posteroseptal S, septal.) Fig. 3-10. Schematic diagram of the left (LV) and right (RV) ventricular regions. (A) Abbreviations for ventricular regions. (B) Three standard sections for microscopic evaluation. (A, anterior AL, anterolateral AS, anteroseptal I, inferior IL, inferolateral IS, inferoseptal L, lateral P, posterior PL, posterolateral PS, posteroseptal S, septal.)

Atomic Structure of the Nuclear Receptor Ligand Binding Domain

Figure 3.5 Nuclear receptor transposition of activation function 2 (AF-2) is induced by ligand occupancy. Comparison of the apo-human retinoid X receptor alpha (apo-hRXRa) (A) and holo-human retinoic acid receptor gamma (holo-hRARy) (B) crystal structures. Schematic diagrams of the RXRa lig-and-binding domain (LBD) in the apo configuration and RARy LBD bound to all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) as monomers are depicted with a helices as tubes, 0 sheets as arrows, and the ligand as a space-filled model.98-101 Select helices are numbered for reference, and the position of the m loop is indicated.

Imaging of the Pancreas 421 Imaging Modalities

Figure 4.3 Schematic diagram of the helical CT set-up and operation principle including cross-section (slice) plane (x,y), and 2 axis orientation. Figure 4.3 Schematic diagram of the helical CT set-up and operation principle including cross-section (slice) plane (x,y), and 2 axis orientation.

HolohPPAFfySRCI HolohERa BRL496534HT

Figure 3.6 Activation function 2 (AF-2) forms a favorable interaction with the nuclear receptor (NR) box only in the presence of receptor agonists. Comparison of the holo human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (hPPARy) human steroid receptor coactivator 1 (hSRCl) cocrystal and antagonist-bound human estrogen receptor alpha (hERa) crystal structures. Schematic diagrams of the hPPARy ligand-binding domain (LBD) complexed with the synthetic agonist BRL49653 (Rosiglitazone) and the LXXLL motif of hSRC-1 peptide115 and the hERa LBD bound to the antagonist 4-hydroxytamoxifen157 as monomers are depicted with a helices as tubes, fi sheets as arrows, and ligands as space-filled models. Select helices are numbered for reference, and side chains are illustrated for the leucine residues within the SRC1 NR box and the conserved AF-2 glutamic acid 471 of PPARy. In this rendering, the PPAR helix 11 corresponds to the ER helix 12, which encodes the AF-2 function.

Inhibition Of Skeletal Muscle Differentiation By Class Ii Hdacmef2 Interactions

Schematic diagram of a class II HDAC. The structure of class II HDACs is shown, with binding sites for other transcriptional activators and repressors and for the 14-3-3 protein. CtBP, carboxy-terminal binding protein HP1, heterochro-matin protein 1 MEF2, myocyte enhancer factor 2 NES, nuclear export sequence NLS, nuclear localization sequence SMRT NCoR, silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid receptors nuclear receptor corepressor. Fig. 2. Schematic diagram of a class II HDAC. The structure of class II HDACs is shown, with binding sites for other transcriptional activators and repressors and for the 14-3-3 protein. CtBP, carboxy-terminal binding protein HP1, heterochro-matin protein 1 MEF2, myocyte enhancer factor 2 NES, nuclear export sequence NLS, nuclear localization sequence SMRT NCoR, silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid receptors nuclear receptor corepressor.

RNA Sequence and Structural Requirements for Editing

Fig. 2 Comparison of amber W sites in genotypes I and III. Upper schematic diagram of HDV genome, indicating the unbranched rod and the location of the HDAg coding region. The filled bar above the genome indicates the S-HDAg coding region the open bar, including the W indicates the additional amino acids added to make L-HDAg. Dashed boxes indicate sequences from the coding and noncoding regions that make up the amber W editing site. Middle the amber stop codon (UAG) is edited by ADARlin the unbranched rod conformation of genotype I RNA for type III, however, editing occurs in the double hairpin structure, not the unbranched rod. Lower the predicted secondary structures around the genotype I and III amber W sites are shown. Vertical lines indicate A-U and G-C base-pairs dots indicate G-U pairs. Positions that have been shown to be critical for editing are shaded in the genotype I structure. Arrows indicate internal loops and bulges improved base-pairing at these locations increased...

Biological And Molecular Actions

Insulin is the chief hormone controlling intermediary metabolism. It affects virtually every tissue in the body, but principally liver, muscle, and adipose tissue. Its short-term effects are to reduce blood glucose and to conserve body fuel supplies. There are also a number of effects of insulin on the regulation of gene transcription and cell replication. Thus, an understanding of the mode of action of insulin is complex Figure 728 presents an introductory schematic diagram of the signal transduction events that link the formation of an insulin-receptor complex to the generation of its many biological responses.

The anatomy of avian vocal control networks

The vocal control system of songbirds and degrees of sexual dimorphisms. This schematic diagram of a composite view of parasagittal sections of a songbird brain gives approximate positions of vocal nuclei and brain regions and their content of androgen receptors (red, rose) and estrogen receptors (green). All structures are bilateral for reasons of clarity, only those in one-half of the brain are depicted. Further, some thalamic brain areas that appear important for coordination of the left and right vocal control network are omitted. The volumes of vocal control areas of adult zebra finches are highly sexually dimorphic, while those of canaries are to a lesser extent, indicated in the relative size of the areas. Despite these sex differences, all areas and connections as well as the sex hormone receptors are present in the female vocal control system and syrinx. The HVC of canaries contains higher amounts of estrogen receptors compared to the zebra finch. Area X and NC...

Inhibition of Cytokine Signaling

Figure 4 Structure of STATs (A) schematic diagram showing the domains of STAT1 (B) crystal structure of the core domain of STAT1 bound to DNA. Dimeric STATs form a C-shaped clamp around DNA that is stabilized by reciprocal interactions between the SH2 domain of one monomer and a phosphorylated tyrosine of the other. The phosphotyrosine-binding site of the SH2 domain in each monomer is coupled structurally to the DNA-binding domain, suggesting a potential role for the SH2-phosphotyrosine interaction in the stabilization of DNA interacting elements. (Part B from Chen, X. et al., Cell, 93, 827-839, 1998. With permission.) Figure 4 Structure of STATs (A) schematic diagram showing the domains of STAT1 (B) crystal structure of the core domain of STAT1 bound to DNA. Dimeric STATs form a C-shaped clamp around DNA that is stabilized by reciprocal interactions between the SH2 domain of one monomer and a phosphorylated tyrosine of the other. The phosphotyrosine-binding site of the SH2 domain in...

Molecular Basis of Ligand Recognition

Figure 9.3a is a schematic diagram of the substrate-binding cleft. It consists of a hydrophobic pocket with two hydrophilic ends to the right is the catalytic machinery consisting of the catalytic triad Tyr155-Ser142-Lys159, and to the left is the 3-OH group recognizing His221 and Glu284. The 17-keto oxygen accepts protons from catalytic residues Tyr155 and Ser142 (2.7 and 2.8 A, respectively) at the catalytic end of the steroid-binding cleft. The 3-OH group of the ligand makes a bifurcated hydrogen bond with His221 and Glu282 (2.9 and 2.9 A, respectively) at the recognition end of the cleft. Interestingly, a similar mechanism of recognition of estrogenic lig-ands by hydrogen bonding with their characteristic 3-OH groups is utilized by the estrogen receptor (ER) as well. In the crystal structure of the complex of E2 with the human ERa ligand-binding domain, shown schematically in Figure 9.3b,134 the 3-OH group is hydrogen-bonded to a glutamic acid side chain and a water molecule while...

Ligand Entry Loop Interactions

Figure 9.3 (a) Schematic diagram of the active site of the 17 -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (17HSD1)-equilin-oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+) ternary complex. Residues belonging to the hydrophilic catalytic and recognition ends, as well as residues lining the hy- Figure 9.3 (a) Schematic diagram of the active site of the 17 -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (17HSD1)-equilin-oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+) ternary complex. Residues belonging to the hydrophilic catalytic and recognition ends, as well as residues lining the hy-

Overview of protocols

Figure 1 Schematic diagram of three protocols for human ES cell differentiation of endothelial cells. Outline of the key steps in each protocol presented in this chapter. Protocol I (Levenberg) and II (Wang) make use of spontaneous differentiation of embryoid bodies followed by FACS sorting of endothelial precursors. These are then cultured in endothelial differentiation conditions in the presence of VEGF. Protocol III (Gerecht-Nir) makes use of monolayer differentiation of ES cells on collagen IV, followed by size separation of cells and differentiation in the presence of VEGF. Figure 1 Schematic diagram of three protocols for human ES cell differentiation of endothelial cells. Outline of the key steps in each protocol presented in this chapter. Protocol I (Levenberg) and II (Wang) make use of spontaneous differentiation of embryoid bodies followed by FACS sorting of endothelial precursors. These are then cultured in endothelial differentiation conditions in the presence of VEGF....

Effect of Glycosylation on Viral Envelope Glycoproteins

Schematic diagram of the G protein primary structure. A straight line of 298 amino acids denotes the Gm polypeptide of the Long strain of human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), in which the hydrophobic transmembrane region is indicated by a thick solid line (residues 38 to 66). The potential N-glycosylation sites (black triangle), the O-glycosylation sites (vertical line) predicted with the NetOGlyc software (9,12), and the cluster of four cysteines (black circle) are also indicated. Formation of soluble G protein (Gs) occurs by translation initiation at Met48, and subsequent cleavage after residue 65 (27). The locations of Gs fragments partially resistant to Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease and the C-terminal 85 amino acids fused to glutathione-S-transferase, both mentioned in this Chapter, are indicated below the protein diagrams. Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of the G protein primary structure. A straight line of 298 amino acids denotes the Gm polypeptide of the Long strain...

Anatomical And Morphological Relationships

FIGURE 14-6 Schematic diagram of a mammary gland alveolus and its duct (A) mammary gland (B) alveolus and its duct (C) cellular organization of alveolar duct. (Drawn by Dr. L. Paavola, Department of Anatomy, Temple University Medical School.) FIGURE 14-6 Schematic diagram of a mammary gland alveolus and its duct (A) mammary gland (B) alveolus and its duct (C) cellular organization of alveolar duct. (Drawn by Dr. L. Paavola, Department of Anatomy, Temple University Medical School.)

Absorptive Cell In Cystic Fibrosis Figure 1813

Schematic diagram of pathology in cystic fibrosis. In cystic fibrosis, secretion of CI anions into the lumen of the bronchial tree is markedly decreased because of a defective or nonexistent chloride channel protein. Na* resorption from the lumen of the bronchial tree is then increased, causing movement of water into

Male Sex Differentiation

FIGURE 14-15 Schematic diagram of male and female sex determination and differentiation. The key contribution of the SRY gene or testis-determining factor is emphasized on the right for the male see also Figures 14-17 and 14-18 for additional details. Modified from Grumbach, M. M. (1967). Biologic Basis of Pediatric Practice (R. E. Cooke, ed.), p. 1060. McGraw-Hill, New York. figure 14-16 Schematic diagram of male (Wolffian duct) and female (M llerian duct) differentiation. Testosterone stimulates Wolffian duct development, but has no effect on M llerian duct inhibitory factor (MIF). Modified from Grumbach, M. M. Styne, D. M., Wilson, I. D., and Foster, D. W. (1992). Williams Textbook of Endocrinology Philadelphia, PA.

Iiiliii 1111111 Jll Siil

A schematic diagram of a box containing a computer packaged for shipment. If the box is dropped from a height h, the mechanical behavior of the computer will be similar to that of a mass m falling on a spring with downward velocity v. Figure 8.7. Schematic diagram of a rectangular block of mass m2 that is supported on two cables. A bullet of mass m1 and velocity v1 strikes the mass m2 at an arm length L. Figure 8.7. Schematic diagram of a rectangular block of mass m2 that is supported on two cables. A bullet of mass m1 and velocity v1 strikes the mass m2 at an arm length L.

Structural Features

In 1984, in order to clarify the primary structure of the Na+ channel, Numa and colleagues used partial sequences from purified eel electroplax Na+ channels to clone the cDNA for the eel Na+ channel a subunit (1). Using this probe, they cloned three Na+ channel a subunits from rat brain (1). The rat heart isoform (rHt) was cloned by Rogart et al. (2) and its human counterpart (hHt) by Gellens et al. (3). The a subunit of the cardiac Na+ channel has been reported to be 240 kDa. A schematic diagram of the proposed membrane topology for the a subunit of the cardiac Na+ channel is shown in Fig. 1. The a subunit consists of four large homologous membrane domains (I-IV) (4). Each domain comprises six putative a helices (S1-S6). The pore of the channel is assumed to extend between segments S5 and S6 (5). Studies with molecular-biological techniques, particularly site-directed mutagenesis of Na+ channel proteins and functional expression mutant channels, have pinpointed regions that are...

Vocational Development and Choice

Scream Yes, Sir and No, Sir , sing the Marines hymn with someone banging on a pail placed over my head, stand nose-to-nose with another recruit while both of us laughed for an hour or two, climb over and under six dozen double-decker bunks, stand at attention for two hours, strip and reassemble arifle in the dark, shave with a pair of tweezers, and let mosquitos bite me without slapping them. The marines also trained me as an aviation electronics technician, an occupation close to the furthest thing from my interests. However, the monotony was occasionally relieved by an electric shock when I accidentally touched the wrong wire while crawling around in an airplane belly. Even planes seemed to be conspiring against me in those days.

F PGs and the Pain Mechanism

Figure 16-12 Schematic diagram of the three-dimensional structure of soybean lipoxygenase-1. The a-helices are represented by cylinders, the strands in the 3-sheets by arrows, the coils by narrow rods, and the iron by a ball. Only three of the four iron ligands are shown. Domain I consisting of a single 6-barrel is on the left. Domain II contains the iron, all of the helices in the structure, and two small 3-sheet structures that lie on the surface of the enzyme. Reproduced as in black and white from a colored figure from Boyington, J. C., Gaffney, B. J., and Amzel, L. M. (1993). The three-dimensional structure of an arachidonic acid 15-lipoxygenase. Science 260, 1482-1486. figure 16-12 Schematic diagram of the three-dimensional structure of soybean lipoxygenase-1. The a-helices are represented by cylinders, the strands in the 3-sheets by arrows, the coils by narrow rods, and the iron by a ball. Only three of the four iron ligands are shown. Domain I consisting of a single 6-barrel is...

Chronic Ethanol Tolerance

A schematic diagram of glutamate-induced signal transduction associated with brain damage. It is known that excessive glutamate stimulation of NMDA receptors can lead to neuronal death in a form known as excitotoxicity. Rapid death can occur through osmotic damage. Delayed neuronal death is associated with excessive NMDA activation, neuronal depolarization, and other glutamate receptor activation, leading to excessively high levels of calcium that can activate a series of cascades, including oxidative stress and other mechanisms yet to be revealed, that lead to neuronal death. In addition, less dramatic activation of NMDA receptors and or other factors activate a trophic pathway involving tyrosine kinases including the extracellular-signal regulated kinase-mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK-MAPKinase) pathway that leads to activation of neuronal survival genes. Thus, alcohol by changing NMDA receptor sensitivity can alter the ratios between cell-death pathways activated...

Division H Of Meiosis

Ovulation of a single ovum each month requires only about a total of 400 oogonia over the 30-40 year period of reproductive fertility. At the time of menopause the number of viable oogonia in the ovary is virtually zero. These events are summarized in Figure 13-3. It is interesting that the ovum that is ultimately fertilized is the product of an intense selection procedure there is a ratio of atresia to selection of 1000 1. Figure 13-4 presents a schematic diagram of a single figure 13-4 Schematic diagram of a mature primary oocyte. Abbreviations G, multiple Golgi complexes CA, compound aggregates AL, annulate lamellae V, vesicles FI, wavy filaments NI, nucleolus. Reproduced with permission from Lentz, T. L. (1971). Cell Fine Structure, p. 269. Saunders, Philadelphia, PA. figure 13-4 Schematic diagram of a mature primary oocyte. Abbreviations G, multiple Golgi complexes CA, compound aggregates AL, annulate lamellae V, vesicles FI, wavy filaments NI, nucleolus. Reproduced with...

Neutron Sources For Bnct Nuclear Reactors

Schematic diagram of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor (MITR). The fission converter based epithermal neutron irradiation (FCB) facility is housed in the experimental hall of the MITR and operates in parallel with other user applications. The FCB contains an array of 10 spent MITR-II fuel elements cooled by forced convection of heavy water coolant. A shielded horizontal beam line contains an aluminum and Teflon filter-moderator to tailor the neutron energy spectrum into the desired epithermal energy range. A patient collimator defines the beam aperture and extends into the shielded medical room to provide circular apertures ranging from 16 to 8 cm in diameter. The in-air epithermal flux for the available field sizes ranges from 3.2 to 4.6 x 109 n cm2 s at the patient position. The measured specific absorbed doses are constant for all field sizes and are well below the inherent background of 2.8 x10-12 RBE Gy cm2 produced by epithermal neutrons in tissue. The...

Results and Discussion

Zearalanol exhibited an insertion of 750 bp, a deletion of 590 bp, and a loss of intensity of700 bp DNA fragments amplified with primer OPA17 (Left panel of Figure 1, lane 6). A loss of intensity of a 410 bp product was observed in the RAPD fingerprint of bisphenol A treated cells as compared to control cell DNA (Left panel of Figure 1, lane 5). Thus, cells exposed to E exhibited mutations in different regions of the genome, and were both qualitative (insertion deletion as a result of point or length mutations) and quantitative (as a result of hypo or polyploidy) in nature (a schematic diagram is shown in Figure 2).

Construction of the Recombinant P pastoris Expression Vectors

Figure 1 is a schematic diagram depicting the construction of expression vectors. DEN E proteins of different length were constructed under the AOX1 promoter in the two expression vectors. Different lengths of the E gene, fused at its 5' end with a GST tag for affinity purification later, were expressed in P. pastoris using pHIL-S1 (Fig. 1A). Full-length E proteins (GST E495, representing 1-495 amino acids) and truncated forms (GST E213, and GST E 401 representing 1-213 and 1-401 amino acids respectively from the N-ter-minal) were successfully expressed. Using a second vector, pHIL-D2, which is designed for intracellular protein expression but containing the same AOX1 promoter, the E protein was co-expressed as part of the CprME construct (Fig. 1B). In the latter case, the DEN virus glycoproteins are targeted into the yeast secretory pathway by the endogenous virus signal sequences which are present in the virus glycoproteins.

Selectins Play Key Roles in Inflammation in Lymphocyte Homing

Schematic diagram of the structure of human L-selectin. The extracellular portion contains an amino terminal domain homologous to C-type lectins and an adjacent epidermal growth factor-like domain. These are followed by a variable number of complement regulatory-like modules (numbered circles) and a transmembrane sequence (black diamond). A short cytoplasmic sequence (open rectangle) is at the carboxyl terminal. The structures of P- and E-selectin are similar to that shown except that they contain more complement-regulatory modules. The numbers of amino acids in L-, P-, and E- selectins, as deduced from the cDNA sequences, are 385, 789, and 589, respectively. (Reproduced, with permission, from Bevilacqua MP, Nelson RM Selectins. J Clin Invest 1993 91 370.) Figure 47-11. Schematic diagram of neutrophil-endothelial cell interactions. A Baseline conditions Neutrophils do not adhere to the vessel wall. B The first event is the slowing or rolling of the neutrophils within the...

PP1 Regulatory or Targeting Subunits

L3 families of PPl regulatory targeting proteins and have suggested the existence of nine additional isoforms not previously recognized. Table l presents a classification of over 40 PPlc-binding proteins, and Fig. l shows a schematic diagram of the structure of representative members of the different groups. Some of the binding subunits function as inhibitors modulators of activity and do not contain domains for targeting to specific locations. Others function as targeting subunits to direct the phosphatase to specific subcellular structures or substrates and have no known regulatory role. Yet other PPlc-binding proteins may perform both a targeting and a regulatory function.

Physical Properties of Skeletal Muscle

A simplified schematic diagram of thick and thin filaments during two stages of contraction. According to the sliding filament model of muscle contraction, muscle force is generated by the interaction of myosin heads on the thick filament with the actin sites on the thin filament. This interaction becomes biochemically favorable immediately after the stimulation of the muscle by the central nervous system. Figure 1.9. A simplified schematic diagram of thick and thin filaments during two stages of contraction. According to the sliding filament model of muscle contraction, muscle force is generated by the interaction of myosin heads on the thick filament with the actin sites on the thin filament. This interaction becomes biochemically favorable immediately after the stimulation of the muscle by the central nervous system.

Methods of Correction

An elastic mapping method generally consists of two major criteria, regardless of what algorithm is used to achieve them. One is to specify the key features that need to be aligned (or to define the cost function to be minimized) the other is to constrain the changes in relative positions of adjacent pixels that are allowed in the mapping. In our laboratory, we have used the correlation coefficient or sum of square of differences between image values at the same locations in subregions of the two image sets. Figure 6 shows a schematic diagram of the procedure. The entire image volume of one image set is first subdivided into smaller subvolumes. Each subvolume of this image set is moved around to search for a minimum of the cost function (e.g., sum of squares of differences) in matching with the reference image set. The location with the least squares is then considered to be the new location of the center of the subvolume, thus establishing a mapping vector for the center of the...

Auditory Scene Analysis

Auditory scene analysis is particularly useful for thinking about complex acoustic environments because it acknowledges both that the physical world acts upon us as our perception is influenced by the structure of sound (i.e., bottom-up contributions), just as we are able to modulate how we process the incoming signals by focusing attention on certain aspects of an auditory scene according to our goals (i.e., top-down contributions). As for the inherent properties of the acoustic world that influence our perception, sounds emanating from the same physical object are likely to begin and end at the same time, share the same location, have similar intensity and fundamental frequency, and have smooth transitions and predictable auditory trajectories. Consequently, it has been proposed that acoustic, like visual, information can be perceptually grouped according to Gestalt principles of perceptual organization, such as grouping by similarity and good continuation (Bregman, 1990). Figure...

Muscle Groups and Movement

Estambres Insertos

Schematic diagrams of various muscles involved in motion latis-simus (a), pectoralis (b), triceps (c), biceps (d), semitendinosus of the hamstrings (e), rectus femoris of the quads (f), and gastrocnemius of calf muscle (g). Figure 1.12a-g. Schematic diagrams of various muscles involved in motion latis-simus (a), pectoralis (b), triceps (c), biceps (d), semitendinosus of the hamstrings (e), rectus femoris of the quads (f), and gastrocnemius of calf muscle (g).

Budding Yeast Cdc14 is Essential for Exit from Mitosis

Figure 1 Schematic diagram illustrating the structural organization of budding yeast and human Cdc14 phosphatases. The yeast and human Cdc14A and B phosphatase sequences are depicted (accession numbers NP_116684, NP_003663, and NP_003662, respectively) with the total number of amino acid residues shown on the right. The solid black boxes delineate the position of the catalytic domain ( 330 residues) conserved among all Cdc14 orthologs, whereas the open boxes show divergent non-catalytic regions. The gray boxes depict additional sequences conserved only among the human enzymes and several other vertebrate orthologs. The vertical line denotes the position of the catalytic site the active site sequence that is identical among all Cdc14 phosphatases is shown underneath (x indicates a variable position). The position of the nuclear export signal (NES) identified in human Cdc14A 4 is indicated by the triangle. Figure 1 Schematic diagram illustrating the structural organization of budding...

The Major Components Of Cartilage Are Type Ii Collagen Certain Proteoglycans

Schematic diagram of the aggrecan from bovine nasal cartilage. A strand of hyaluronic acid is shown on the left. The core protein (about 210 kDa) has three major domains. Domain A, at its amino terminal end, interacts with approximately five repeating disaccharides in hyaluronate. The link protein interacts with both hyaluronate and domain A, stabilizing their interactions. Approximately 30 ker-atan sulfate chains are attached, via GalNAc-Ser linkages, to domain B. Domain C contains about 100 chondroitin sulfate chains attached via Gal-Gal-Xyl-Ser linkages and about 40 O-linked oligosaccharide chains. One or more N-linked glycan chains are also found near the carboxyl terminal of the core protein. (Reproduced, with permission, from Moran LA et al Biochemistry, 2nd ed. Neil Patterson Publishers, 1994.) Figure 48-14. Schematic diagram of the aggrecan from bovine nasal cartilage. A strand of hyaluronic acid is shown on the left. The core protein (about 210 kDa) has three...

Integrins Nucleate the Formation of Multi Protein Complexes

Schematic diagram of protein interactions initiated by integrin receptors, as described in the text. The following abbreviations are used ARF (ADP-ribosylation factor), Arp2 3 (actin-related protein 2 3 complex), ASAP (ARF-GAP containing SH3, ankyrin repeats, and PH domain), C3G (Crk SH3-binding GNRP), Cas (Crk-associated substrate), Crk (CT10 regulator of kinase), FAK (focal adhesion kinase), GRAF (GTPase regulator associated with FAK), ILK (integrin-linked kinase), MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase), myosin PTPases (myosin phosphatase), p190RhoGAP (p190 Rho GTPase-activating protein), PAK (p21-activated kinase), PI3K (phos-phatidylinositol 3-kinase), PIX COOL (Pak-interacting exchange factor cloned out of library), PKL GIT1 (paxillin-kinase linker G-protein-coupled receptor kinase-interacting protein 1), PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten), ROCK (Rho kinase), RTKs (receptor tyrosine kinases), SOS (Son of Sevenless),...

General Principles of Control

Figure 2 A schematic diagram showing prototypic kinase active structure (PKA) and inactive structures (IRK and twitchin), highlighting the regulatory regions. The two lobes of the catalytic domain, activation loop (thick line), helix C (cylinder), the ATP binding site (ATP), and the autoreg-ulatory sequence (thick gray line) are shown. Figure 2 A schematic diagram showing prototypic kinase active structure (PKA) and inactive structures (IRK and twitchin), highlighting the regulatory regions. The two lobes of the catalytic domain, activation loop (thick line), helix C (cylinder), the ATP binding site (ATP), and the autoreg-ulatory sequence (thick gray line) are shown.

Figure 216

Schematic diagram of endosomal compartments of the cell. This diagram shows the fate of protein (red circles) endocytosed from the cell surface and destined for lysosomal destruction. Proteins are first found in endocytotic (coated) vesicles that deliver them to early endosomes, which are located in the peripheral part of cytoplasm. Because of the sorting capability of the early endosomes, receptors are usually recycled to the plasma membrane, and endocytosed proteins are transported via multivesicular bodies (MVB) to late endosomes positioned near the Golgi apparatus and the nucleus. The proteins transported to late endosomes eventually will be degraded in lysosomes. Note the acidification scale (left) that illustrates changes of pH from early endosomes to lysosomes. The acidification is accomplished by the active transport of protons into endosomal compartments.

Figure 218

This diagram shows a few selected lysosomal enzymes residing inside the lysosome and their respective substrates. The major lysosomal membrane-specific proteins, as well as a few other proteins associated with membrane transport, are also shown.

Figure 236

Schematic diagram illustrating how mitochondria generate energy. The diagram indicates the ATP synthase complex and the electron transport chain of proteins located in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The electron transport chain generates a proton gradient between the matrix and intermembrane space that is used to produce ATP. Numbers represent sequential proteins involved in the electron transport chain and ATP production 7, NADH dehydrogenase complex 2, ubiquinone 3, cytochrome b-c, complex 4, cytochrome c 5, cytochrome oxidase complex and 6, ATP synthase complex.

Figure 268

Schematic diagram showing the relationship between cell death and cell division. Under normal physiologic conditions (homeostasis), the rate of cell division and the rate of cell death are similar. If the rate of cell death is higher than that of cell divisions, a net loss of cell num

Figure

Molecular structure of microvilli, a. High magnification of microvilli from Figure 4.2c. Note the presence of the actin filaments in the microvilli (arrows), which extend into the apical cytoplasm, x 80,000. b. Schematic diagram showing molecular structure of microvilli and the

Figure 413

Because of extraction of the plasma membrane to show components of this structure, x40,000. (Courtesy of Dr. Ernst Kallenbach.) b. Schematic diagram showing the structure of a macula adherens. Note the intracellular attachment plaque with anchored intermediate filaments. The extracellular portions of desmocollins and desmogleins from opposing cells interact with each other in the localized area of the desmosome, forming the Cadherin zipper.

Figure 420

Schematic diagram of the basal portions of two epithelial cells. This diagram shows the cellular and extracellular components that provide attachment between epithelial cells and the underlying connective tissue. On the connective tissue side of the basal lamina, anchoring fibrils extend from the basal lamina to the collagen (reticular) fibrils of the connective tissue, providing structural attachment at this site. On the epithelial side, laminin (green), collagen XVII (red), and in-tegrins (yellow) are present in the lamina rara and lamina densa and provide adhesion between the basal lamina and the intracellular attachment plaques of hemidesmosomes.

Figure 51

Are presumed to be those of fibroblasts. Nuclei of other cell types, i.e., lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages, are also present but are not identifiable. Mast cells are identified by the bright reddish granules within their cytoplasm. Note the presence of the small blood vessel filled with red blood cells. X150. b. Schematic diagram illustrating the components of loose connective tissue. Note the association of different cell types with the surrounding extracellular matrix, which contains blood vessels and different types of fibers.

Figure 814

Schematic diagram of developing long bone. Illustrations t to 10 depict longitudinal sections la to 4a depict cross sections through the shaft of the long bone. The process begins with the formation of a cartilage model (1 and la) next, a periosteal (perichondria ) collar of bone forms around the shaft (diaphysis) of the cartilage model (2 and 2a) then, the cartilaginous matrix in the shaft begins to calcify (3 and 3a). Blood vessels and connective tissue cells then erode and invade the calcified cartilage (4 and 4a), creating a primitive marrow cavity in which remnant spicules of calcified cartilage remain at the two ends of the cavity. Endochondral bone forms on these spicules of calcified cartilage. The bone at the ends of the developing marrow cavity constitutes the metaphysis. Periosteal bone continues to form the periosteal bone is formed as the result of intramembranous ossification. It can be recognized histologically because it is not accompanied by local cartilage erosion,...

Figure 1011

Schematic diagram of a muscle spindle. The diameter of the spindle is expanded to illustrate structural details. Each spindle contains approximately two to four nuclear bag fibers and six to eight nuclear chain fibers. In the nuclear bag fibers, the muscle fiber nuclei are clumped in the expanded central portion of the fiber, hence the name bag. In contrast, the nuclei concentrated in the central portion of the nuclear chain fibers are arranged in a chain. Both afferent (sensory) and efferent (motor) nerve fibers supply muscle spindle cells. The afferent nerve fibers respond to excessive stretching of the muscle, which in turn inhibits the somatic motor stimulation of the muscle. The efferent nerve fibers regulate the sensitivity of the afferent endings in the muscle spindle, b. Photomicrograph of a cross section of a muscle spindle, showing two bundles of spindle cells in

Colloid

FIGURE 6-5 Schematic diagram of the primary amino acid organization of thyroglobulin (Tg). The mature human Tg is composed of 2748 amino acid residues. Domain A is composed of 10 type 1 repeats of 28 highly conserved residues, including 6 cysteines from aa 29 to 1196. Domain B lies between amino acids 1436 and 1483 and contains 3 type 2 repeats of 12-17 residues. Domain C extends from aa 1583 to 2100 and consists of a type 3 motif that is repeated 5 times. Domain D comprises aa 2109-2748 and has no internal homology. The hormonogenic sites at aa positions 5, 2553, 2567, and 2746 are indicated by the bold lines. Modified with permission from Bacolla, A., Brocas, H., Christophe, D., de Martynoff, G., Leriche, A., Mercken, L., Parmaj, J., Pohl, V., Targovnik, H., and van Heuverswyn, V. (1985). Structure, expression and regulation of the thyroglobulin gene. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 40, 89-97. FIGURE 6-5 Schematic diagram of the primary amino acid organization of thyroglobulin (Tg). The...

Figure 113

Schematic diagram showing arrangement of motor and sensory neurons. The cell body of a motor neuron is located in the ventral (anterior) horn of the gray matter of the spinal cord. Its axon, surrounded by myelin, leaves the spinal cord via a ventral (anterior) root and becomes part of a spinal nerve that carries it to its destination on striated (skeletal) muscle fibers. The sensory neuron originates in the skin within a receptor (here, a Pacinian corpuscle) and continues as a component of a spinal nerve, entering the spinal cord via the dorsal

LCR17p Repeats

Schematic diagram of breakpoints for DNA rearrangements in proximal chromosome 17p. (Top) Interstitial deletions and duplications are shown as horizontal arrows. Recurrent, common (approx 4 Mb) and unusual sized (approx 5 Mb) deletions are responsible for 70-80 and 4 of SMS cases, respectively. They both utilize low-copy repeats (LCRs) as substrates for nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR). In approx 16 of SMS cases, uncommon nonrecurrent deletions have been found. Approximately half of them arise owing to NAHR mechanism between repetitive sequences and half through nonhomologous end-joining. (Bottom) LCR-associated chromosome translocations, isochromosome 17q, and marker chromosomes are depicted. The LCR17p structures are depicted in colors to better represent their positional orientation with respect to each other the shaded rectangles and horizontal arrowheads represent the orientation of the LCRs (3,5 7,9,19,25,28 31,41 43). Fig. 2. Schematic diagram of breakpoints...

Glucose Consumption

Figure 7-1 Schematic diagram describing the utilization and production of glucose by a normal man in a postabsorptive state (i.e., not actively ingesting a meal). The values for glucose uptake represent the amounts in grams consumed per day in the case of muscle this refers to the resting state. Glucose output from the liver derives from glycogenolysis thus, approximately 25 of the liver glycogen is released as glucose and 75 is retained by the liver. As starvation extends beyond 12 hr, glycogen stores are depleted and the contribution from gluconeogenesis increases. Abbreviations RBC, red blood cell WBC, white blood cell AA, amino acid. Reproduced with permission from the author and publisher of Felig, P. (1979). Starvation. In Endocrinology (L. J. DeGroot et al, eds.), Vol. 3, pp. 1927-1940. Grune & Stratton, New York. figure 7-1 Schematic diagram describing the utilization and production of glucose by a normal man in a postabsorptive state (i.e., not actively ingesting a meal)....

Figure 1127

Schematic diagram comparing somatic efferent and visceral efferent neurons, a. In the somatic efferent (motor) system, one neuron conducts the impulses from the CNS to the effector (skeletal muscle), b. In the visceral efferent system (represented in this diagram by the sympathetic division of the ANS), a chain of two neurons conducts the impulses a presynaptic neuron located within the CNS and a postsynaptic neuron located in the paravertebral or prevertebral ganglia. Moreover, each presynaptic neuron makes synaptic contact with more than one postsynaptic neuron. Postsynaptic sympathetic fibers supply smooth muscles (as in blood vessels) or glandular epithelium (as in sweat glands), c. Neurons of the ANS that supply organs of the abdomen reach these organs by way of the splanchnic nerves. In this example, the splanchnic nerve joins with the celiac ganglion, where most of the synapses of the two-neuron chain occur. Note that one presynaptic neuron makes contact with several...

Figure 1128

Schematic diagram showing the general arrangement of sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons of the ANS. The sympathetic outflow is shown on the right the parasympathetic, on the left. The sympathetic (thoracolumbar) outflow leaves the CNS from the thoracic and upper lumbar segments (T1-L2 or L3) of the spinal cord. These presynaptic fibers communicate with postsynaptic neurons in two locations, the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia. Paravertebral ganglia are linked together and form two sympathetic trunks (yellow columns on each side of the spinal cord). Prevertebral ganglia are associated with the main branches of the abdominal aorta (yellow circles). Note the distribution of postsynaptic sympathetic nerve fibers to the viscera. The parasympathetic (craniosacral) outflow leaves the CNS from the gray matter of the brainstem within cranial nerves III,

Figure 1131

Schematic diagram of the cerebral meninges. The outer layer, the dura mater, is joined to adjacent bone of the cranial cavity (not shown). The inner layer, the pia mater, adheres to the brain surface and follows all its contours. Note that the pia mater follows the branches of the cerebral arteries as they enter cerebral cortex. The intervening layer, the arachnoid, is adjacent but not attached to the dura mater. The arachnoid sends numerous, web-like arachnoid trabeculae to the pia mater. Located between the arachnoid and the pia mater is the subarachnoid space it contains cerebrospinal fluid. The space also contains the larger blood vessels (cerebral arteries) that send branches into the substance of the brain.

Figure 126

Schematic diagram of cellular interactions in the formation of an atherosclerotic plaque. Endothelial cells express cell adhesion molecules that initiate monocyte migration through the endothelium. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and other growth factors (blue arrow) released from endothelial cells stimulate migration of the smooth muscle cells from the tunica media to the tunica intima. In the

Figure 1213

This schematic diagram shows a metarteriole (initial segment of a thoroughfare channel) giving rise to capillaries. The precapillary sphincters of the arteriole and metarteriole control the entry of blood into the capillaries. The distal segment of the thoroughfare channel receives capillaries from the niicrocirculatory bed, but no sphincters are present where the afferent capillaries enter the thoroughfare channels. Blind-ending lymphatic vessels are shown in association with the capillary bed. Note the presence of anchoring filaments and the valve system within the lymphatic capillaries.

Figure 1214

Schematic diagram of a medium-sized vein. The cellular and extracellular components are labeled. Note that the tunica media contains several layers of circularly arranged smooth muscle cells with interspersed collagen and elastic fibers. Also, a longitudinally arranged smooth muscle layer is present at the junction with the tunica adventitia. t, tunica. (Based on Rhodin JAG. Handbook of Physiology. New York Oxford University Press, 1980.)

Abstract

Found both upstream and downstream of the transcription start site of a gene. They serve as recognition sites for proteins that facilitate or hinder the recruitment, binding and or assembly of the transcription apparatus. There are distinct types of transcription control modules for RNA polymerase II transcribed genes, including enhancers, silencers, proximal promoter elements, the core promoter, and boundary insulator elements. A schematic diagram of the transcription control modules of a typical eukaryotic protein encoding gene is provided in Fig.7.1.

Figure 132

Schematic diagram of an antibody molecule. Antibodies are Y-shaped molecules produced by plasma cells. They consist of two heavy (H) and two light (L) polypeptide chains connected by disulfide bonds (S-S). Both H and L chains are composed of domains of amino acids that are constant (at the carboxy terminus) or variable (at the amino terminus) in their sequence. The five different immunoglobulin (Ig) isotypes (see Table 13.2) are determined by the type of heavy chain present. An antibody molecule binds an antigen (Ag) at the two sites of the amino terminus, where the heavy and light chains are associated with each other. Digestion of an antibody molecule by the proteolytic enzyme papain cleaves the antibody into two Fab fragments and one crystallizable Fc fragment. The Fc fragment is composed of two carboxy-teminus heavy-chain segments (C 2 and CH3)

Figure 133

Schematic diagram of the molecular structure of the CD3-TCR complex. The CD3 molecule consists of five different polypeptide chains with molecular weights ranging from 16 to 28 kDa. This molecule is closely associated with the T cell receptor (TCR), which has two polypeptide chains (a and (3). The T cell may be activated following the interaction of the TCR with antigen displayed on the surface of a MHC molecule. This interaction transmits the signals to the interior of the cell through the CD3 molecule. This signal stimulates the T cell to secrete interleukins, which in turn stimulate T cells to divide and differentiate.

Figure 134

Schematic diagram of the molecular structure of MHC I and MHC II molecules.The MHC I molecule is a glycoprotein that is expressed on the surface of all nucleated cells of the body and on platelets. MHC I molecules present endogenously synthesized peptides for recognition by cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes. Therefore, the MHC I molecule acts as the target for the elimination of abnormal host cells producing abnormal proteins (e.g., cells infected by an intracellular agent, such as a virus, or cells that have been transformed, such as cancer cells). MHC I consists of an a heavy chain (45 kDa) and a smaller, nonco- Schematic diagram of the molecular interactions that occur during antigen presentation. To become activated, both cytotoxic and helper T lymphocytes need to identify presented antigen as nonself as well as recognize the appropriate class of MHC molecules, a. In all nucleated cells of the body, viral antigen or cancer (tumor-specific)

Figure 136

Schematic diagram of B lymphocyte activation leading to plasma cell and B memory cell formation. B cells are activated by the binding of antigen to antibodies expressed on their surface. As an antigen-presenting cell, a B cell internalizes the antibody-antigen complex, partially digests the antigen, and then displays parts of it on the surface of its own MHC II molecules. The T cell receptor (TCRj on a

Figure 137

Schematic diagram of activation of NK cells leading to destruction of a transformed tumor cell by antibody-dependent, cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). The ADCC reaction involves activation of NK cells by the binding of interferon y (IFN-y), the powerful NK cell activator, to its cell surface receptor (IFN-y receptor) and the bind

Figure 138

Schematic diagram of T cell activation leading to elimination of a virus-infected host cell. The TCR-CD3 complex on a helper CD4+ T lymphocyte recognizes foreign antigen displayed on a MHC II molecule on the surface of a macrophage. This recognition triggers a rapid response from B lymphocytes and release of interleukin-2 (IL-2). The same macrophage also expresses MHC I molecules (like every other cell in the body) that interact with the appropriate TCR on the surface of a cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocyte. The cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocyte

Figure 139

Schematic diagram of the interaction between HIV and the helper CD4+ T cell. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the RNA virus that causes AIDS. It contains reverse transcriptase. HIV gains entry into the helper CD4+ T lymphocyte by binding to the CD4 molecule and injecting its genetic information into the cell cytoplasm. Accessory cell surface molecules such as gp 120 assist in

Figure 1310

Schematic diagram of processing pathways for MHC I and MHC II synthesis and antigen presentation. During the processing and presentation of cytoplasmic antigen (Ag) for MHC I molecules (red pathway), cytoplasmic protein antigens are degraded by protease into 8 to 10 amino acid fragments, which then enter the rER. In the rER, newly synthesized a chains of MHC I molecules interact with both the processed antigen and f32 microglobulin (fi2M) and form a stable complex. This complex leaves the rER via the typical secretory pathway through the Golgi apparatus. The antigen-MHC I complex is displayed on the cell surface, where it is available for recognition by cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes. MHC II molecules are assembled in the rER and then bind to an invariant chain, which blocks the antigen-

Figure 1327

Schematic diagram of the blood-thymus barrier. The blood-thymus barrier consists of three major elements (1) capillary endothelium and its basal lamina, (2) perivascular connective tissue space occupied by macrophages, and (3) type I epithelioreticular cells with their basal lamina. The perivascular connective tissue is enclosed between the basal lamina of the epithelioreticular cells and the endothelial cell basal lamina. These layers provide the necessary protection to the developing immature T cells and separate them from mature immunocompetent lymphocytes circulating in the bloodstream.

Figure 1330

Splenic sinus and splenic cord structure, a. This scanning electron micrograph shows a cross section of a splenic sinus (SS), revealing the lattice structure of its wall. Through the multiple openings in the wall, processes of macrophages (arrows) are inserted into the sinus lumen. The remainder of the micrograph shows characteristically smooth-surfaced processes of reticular cells (RC). The spaces of the reticular cell framework contain neutrophils (N), macrophages (M), and blood platelets (P). x4,400. b. Schematic diagram of the reconstructed structure of splenic sinus. Note the direction of blood flow in open and closed circulation, c. Scanning electron micrograph of the splenic sinus, showing the architecture of the sinus wall as seen from its luminal side. Rod-like endothelial cells run in parallel and are intermittently connected to each other by side processes. A nuclear swelling is shown at lower right. The tapered ends of a few of the rod cells are seen. The macrophage (M),...

Figure 1331

Schematic diagram of open and closed splenic circulation. In the open circulation, which occurs in humans, penicillar arterioles empty directly Into the reticular meshwork of the cords rather than connecting to the endothelium-lined splenic sinuses. Blood entering the red pulp then percolates through the cords and is exposed to the macrophages residing there. In the closed circulation, which occurs in other species, the penicillar arterioles empty directly into the sheathed capillaries splenic sinuses of the red pulp.

Figure 144

Schematic diagram of keratinocytes in the epidermis. The keratinocytes in this figure reflect different stages in the life cycle of the cell as it passes from the basal layer through the spinous and granular layers to the surface keratinized layer. The basal cell begins to synthesize tonofilaments (intermediate keratinj filaments) these are grouped into bundles and seen in the light microscope as tonofibrils. The cell enters the spinous layer, where the synthesis of tonofilaments continues. In the upper part of the spinous layer, the cells begin to produce keratohyalin granules containing intermediate filament-associated proteins and glycolipid-containing lamellar bodies. Within the granular layer, the cell discharges lamellar bodies the remainder of the cell cytoplasm contains numerous keratohyalin granules in close association with tonofilaments. The surface cells are keratinized they contain a thickened plasma membrane and bundles of tonofilaments in a specialized matrix. (From...

Figure 145

Schematic diagram of the epidermal water barrier. The heterogeneous mixture of glycosphingolipids, phospholipids, and ceramides makes up the lamellae of the lamellar bodies. The lamellar bodies, produced within the Golgi apparatus, are secreted by exocytosis into the intercellular spaces between the stratum granulosum and stratum corneum, where they form the lipid envelope. The lamellar arrangement of lipid molecules is depicted in the intercellular space just below the thickened plasma membrane and forms the cell envelope of the keratinized keratinocyte. The innermost part of the cell envelope consists primarily of loricrin molecules (pink spheres) that are cross-linked by small proline-rich (SPR) proteins and elafin. The layer adjacent to the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane consists of the two tightly packed proteins involucrin and cystatin a. Keratin filaments (tonofilaments) bound by filaggrin are anchored into the cell envelope.

Figure 1512

Schematic diagrams of a partially formed tooth showing details of amelogenesis. a. The enamel is drawn to show the enamel rods extending from the dentinoenamel junction to the surface of the tooth. Although the full thickness of the enamel is formed, the full thickness of the dentin has not yet been established. The contour lines within the dentin show the extent to which the dentin has developed at a particular time, as labeled in the illustration. Note that the pulp cavity in the center of the tooth becomes smaller as the dentin develops. (Based on Schour I, Massler M. J Am Dent Assoc 1936 23 1948.) b. Dur

Figure 1520

This schematic diagram of gingiva corresponds to the rectangular area of the orientation diagram. The gingival epithelium is attached to the enamel of the tooth. Here, the junction between epithelium and connective tissue is smooth. Elsewhere, the gingival epithelium is deeply indented by connective tissue papillae, and the junction between the two is irregular. The black lines represent collagen fibers from the cementum of the tooth and from the crest of the alveolar bone that extend toward the gingival epithelium. Note the shallow papillae in the lining mucosa (alveolar mucosa) that contrast sharply with those of the gingiva.

Gastric Gland

Cells is different from that produced by the surface mucous cells as evidenced by the lighter magenta staining in this region of the gland. X320. b. Schematic diagram of a gastric gland, illustrating the relationship of the gland to the gastric pit. Note that the isthmus region contains dividing cells and undifferentiated cells the neck region contains mucous neck cells, parietal cells, and enteroen-docrine cells, including amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation (APUD) cells. Parietal cells are large, pear-shaped acidophilic cells found throughout the gland. The fundus of the gland contains mainly chief cells, some parietal cells, and several types of en-teroendocrine cells.

Figure 44

Molecular structure of stereocilia. a. Electron micrograph of stereo-cilia from the epididymis. The cytoplasmic projections are similar to microvilli, but they are extremely long, x 20,000. b. Schematic diagram showing the molecular structure of stereocilia. They arise from the apical cell protrusions, having thick stem portions that are inter

Il13pe38qqr

Schematic diagram of IL13-Pseudomonas Exotoxin fusion proteins. In IL13-PE38, domain la (amino acid 1-252 and 365-380) of PE are deleted and replaced by IL-13. In IL13-PE38QQR, domain la is again replaced by IL-13. Lysine (K) residues at position 590 and 606 of PE38 are replaced by glutamine (Q) while lysine at position 613 is replaced by arginine (R) to yield PE38QQR.

Figure 1712

Schematic diagram of a plate of hepatocytes interposed between hepatic sinusoids. This diagram shows a one-cell-thick plate of hepatocytes interposed between two sinusoids. If it is assumed that the cell is cuboidal, two sides of each cell (shown) would face hepatic sinusoids, two sides of each cell (shown) would face bile canaliculi, and the additional two sides (not shown) would face bile canaliculi. Note the location and features of a hepatic stellate cell (ito cell) filled with cyto

Overview of protocol

Figure 1 Schematic diagram of the two-step differentiation protocol for generating natural killer cells from human embryonic stem cells. Briefly, undifferentiated human ES cells are induced to differentiate into the hematopoietic lineage by co-culture with inactivated monolayer of S17 stromal cells. This generates hematopoietic progenitor cells that can be isolated based on expression of specific cell surface markers. To generate NK cells, human ES cell-derived progenitors are co-cultured with AFT024 stromal cells in medium supplemented with cytokines supporting NK cell differentiation. After 4 weeks in NK culture mature and functional NK cells can be harvested.

Figure 197

This schematic diagram shows the organization of the renal corpuscle and the structures associated with it at the vascular and urinary poles. Mesangial cells are associated with the capillary endothelium of the glomerulus and the glomerular basement membrane. The macula densa cells of the distal tubule are shown intimately associated with the juxtaglomerular cells of the

Anpr B

FIGURE 15-11 Schematic diagram of the ANP hormonal system. An elevated vascular volume results in cleavage and release of atriopeptin, which acts on the kidney (glomeruli and papilla) to increase the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) so as to increase renal blood flow (RBF), increase urine volume (UV) and Na+ excretion (UNa), and decrease plasma renin activity. Natriuresis and diuresis are also enhanced by the suppression of aldosterone production and its actions and by the release from the posterior pituitary of arginine vasopressin (AVP). Diminution of vascular volume provides a negative feedback signal that suppresses circulating levels of atriopeptin. Modified from Needleman, P., and Greenwald, J. E. (1986). Atriopeptin A cardiac hormone intimately involved in fluid, electrolyte, and blood pressure homeostasis. New Engl. J. Med. 314, 828-834.

Figure 1917

Schematic diagram of loop-of-Henle thin-limb epithelial cells. Roman numerals (l-IV) identify the various segments of the epithelium and the region where they are found in the thin limb of the short and long loops of Henle. The diagrams of the epithelium do not include nuclear regions of the epithelial cells. (Modified from Madsen KM, Tisher CC. Kidney Hormones 1986 3 45-100.)

Software User Manual

Schematic diagram depicting the main features of the software and the simplified user interface that facilitates navigation between chronological hand radiographs to select a matching image corresponding to the patient image being assessed. The software also provides a simple way to obtain the estimated standard deviation from normal Fig. 17. Schematic diagram depicting the main features of the software and the simplified user interface that facilitates navigation between chronological hand radiographs to select a matching image corresponding to the patient image being assessed. The software also provides a simple way to obtain the estimated standard deviation from normal

Figure 1921

Schematic diagram of the renal blood supply. The renal artery gives rise to interlobar arteries that branch into arcuate arteries at the border between the medulla and cortex. Interlobular arteries (IL) branch from the arcuate arteries and travel toward the renal capsule, giving off afferent arterioles to the glomeruli (G). Glomeruli in the outer part of the cortex (Gl, G2) send efferent arterioles to the peritubular capillaries (PC) that surround the tubules in the cortex glomeruli near the medulla (G3), the juxtamedullary glomeruli, send efferent arterioles almost entirely into the medullary plexus (MP) of capillaries via the arteriole rectae spuriae (ARS). Blood returns from the capillaries via veins that enter the arcuate veins. Stellate veins (SV) near the capsule drain both the capsular (CC) and the peritubular capillaries.

Lymphoid

FIGURE 15-20 Schematic diagram of the general scheme of blood cell differentiation, including an indication of the role of hematopoietic hormones and cytokines. All of the cells of the hematopoietic cell system are derived from a pluripotent stem cell this cell can differentiate to generate the daughter stem cells that support the production of the lymphoid and myeloid lineages. The lymphoid stem cell supports the production of the B and T lymphocytes. The myeloid stem cell supports the production of the reticulocyte-erythrocyte, the megakarocyte, and the monocyte and granulocyte lineages (see Table 15-10). The different progenitor cells that are identified in the in vitro culture systems are FU-GEMM (colony-forming unit, CFU-Meg (CFU, megakaryocyte), CFU-GM (CFU, granulocyte-monocyte), CFU-E (CFU, erythroid), and BFU-E (burst-forming unit, erythroid). The abbreviations of the regulatory cytokine factors are defined in Table 15-11. Note The proposed sites of action of the cytokines,...

Figure 212

Schematic diagram of the stages of testicular development, a. This diagram shows the 5-week embryo in the stage of indifferent gonads. The gonadal ridges visible on the posterior abdominal wall are being infiltrated by primordial germ cells (green) that migrate from the yolk sac. Most of the developing gonad is formed by mesenchyme derived from the coelomic epithelium. The primordial germ cells become incorporated in the primary sex cords, b. At a later stage, under hormonal influence of testis-determining factor (TDF), the developing gonad initiates production of testosterone. This is followed by differ

Figure 213

Schematic diagram of male sex development and hormonal influence on developing reproductive organs. This diagram illustrates three levels on which the sex of the developing embryo is determined. The genetic sex is determined at the time of fertilization gonadal sex is determined by activation of the SRY gene located on the short arm of chromosome Y and hormonal sex is determined by a hormone secreted by the developing gonad. The diagram shows the influence of Mullerian-inhibiting factor (MIF), testosterone, and dihy-drotestosterone (DHT) on the developing structures.

Figure 214

Sagittal section of the human testis, a. This schematic diagram shows a midsagittal section of the human testis. The genital duct system, which includes the tubuli recti, rete testis, efferent ducts, duct of the epididymis, and ductus deferens, is also shown. Note the thick connective tissue covering, the tunica albuginea, and the surrounding tunica vaginalis. (Modified from Dym M. In Weiss L, ed. Cell and Tissue

Figure 219

Schematic diagram illustrating the generations of spermatogenic cells. This diagram shows the clonal nature of the successive generations of spermatogenic cells. Cytoplasmic division is complete only in the primitive type A dark spermatogonia that serve as stem cells. All other spermatogenic cells remain connected by intercellular bridges as they undergo mitotic and meiotic division and differentiation of the spermatids. The cells separate into individual spermatozoa as they are released from the seminiferous epithelium. The residual bodies remain connected and are phagocytosed by the Sertoli cells. (From Dym M, Fawcett DW. Biol Reprocl 1971 4 195-215.)

Figure 2111

Schematic diagram of spermiogenesis in the human. The basic changes in the structure of the key organelles of the spermatid are illustrated (see text for detailed explanation). (Modified from Dym M. In Weiss L, ed. Cell and Tissue Biology A Textbook of Histology. 6th ed. Baltimore Urban & Schwarzenberg, 1988.)

Figure 2120

Schematic diagram of development of intratesticular and excurrent duct systems, a. This diagram shows the testis in the seventh week of development before it descends into the scrotal sac. Note that the mesonephric duct and its tubules give rise to the excurrent duct system for the developing testis, b. Sagittal section of a fully developed testis positioned within the scrotum. Note that the seminal vesicles,

Figure 2217

Schematic diagram illustrating arterial blood supply to the endometrium of the uterus. The two layers of the endometrium, the stratum basale and stratum functionale, are supplied by branches of the uterine artery. The spiral arteries located at the interface between these two layers degenerate and regenerate during the menstrual cycle under the influence of estrogens and progesterone. (Based on Weiss L, ed. Cell and Tissue Biology A Textbook of Histology. 6th ed. Baltimore Urban & Schwarzenberg, 1988.)

Figure 2219

Schematic diagrams of sectioned blastocysts, a. A human blastocyst at about 4.5 days of development showing formation of the Inner cell mass. b. A monkey blastocyst at about 9 days of development. The trophoblastic cells of the monkey blastocyst have begun to invade the epithelial cells of the endometrium. In humans, the blastocyst begins to invade the endometrium at about the fifth or sixth day of de-

Figure 2224

Schematic diagrams of sections through a developing human embryo. a. This drawing shows the chorionic sac and placenta at 16 days of development, b. The same embryo at 21 days of development. The diagrams illustrate the separation of the fetal and maternal blood vessels by the placental membrane, which is composed of the endothelium of the capillaries, mesenchyme, cytotrophoblast, and syncytiotrophoblast. (Based on Moore KL, Persaud TVN. The Developing Human, Clinically Oriented Embryology. Philadelphia WB Saunders, 1993.)

Figure 2226

Schematic diagram of mature human placenta. The sagittal section of the uterus (left) with the developing embryo shows the most common location of the placenta. The mature placenta (right) is divided into cotyledons by placental septa that are formed by outgrowths of the decidua basalis. Maternal blood enters the placenta through numerous endometrial spiral arteries that penetrate the basal plate. As the blood enters the cotyledon, it is directed deep into the intervillous spaces (red arrows). It then passes over the surface of the villi, where

Figure 232

Schematic diagram illustrating the internal structures of the human eye. The retina consists of photosensitive and nonphotosensitive regions that differ in their function. Note that the photosensitive region of the retina occupies the posterior part of the eye and terminates anteriorly along the ora serrata. The nonphotosensitive region of the retina is located anterior to the ora serrata and lines the inner aspect of the ciliary body and the posterior surface of the iris. The other layers of the eyeball as well as the attachment of two of the extraocular muscles to the sclera are also shown.

Figure 2421

Schematic diagram illustrating the dynamics of the three divisions of the ear. The cochlear duct is shown here as if straightened. Sound waves are collected and transmitted from the external ear to the middle ear, where they are converted into mechanical vibrations. The mechanical vibrations are then converted at the oval window into fluid vibrations within the internal ear. Fluid vibrations cause dis

Radiology

Barium Meal

Cross-section and CT scan at approximately vertebral level T12, where the portal triad is located. (A) Schematic diagram showing where the cross-section was taken. (B) Cross-section through a cadaver. (C) CT scan. Note the various structures indicated by the key. In addition, note the psoas major and quadratus lumborum muscles along the sides of the vertebral body. The right and left lobes of the liver are shown in relation to the portal vein, common hepatic artery, and inferior vena cava. The right adrenal gland lies posterolateral to the inferior vena cava. The left adrenal gland lies between the body of the stomach and the abdominal aorta. (Reprinted with permission from Barrett CP, Anderson LD, Holder LE, et al Primer of Sectional Anatomy With MR and CT Correlation, 2nd ed. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1994, pp 75, 76.) Figure 9-5. Cross-section and CT scan at the level of the gallbladder. (A) Schematic diagram showing where the cross-section was taken. (B)...

Skeletal System

Spina Bifida Occulta Skeletal

Schematic diagram of the newborn skull indicating the neurocranium (lighter shaded area) and the visce-rocranium (darker shaded area). The bones of the neurocranium and viscerocranium are derived almost entirely from neural crest cells, except for the basilar part of the occipital bone (*), which forms from mesoderm of the occipital sclerotomes, and the laryngeal cartilages (A), which form from mesoderm within pharyngeal arches 4 and 6. (Modified from Dudek RW, Fix JD BRS Embryology, 2nd ed. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1998, p 201.) Figure 17-2. Schematic diagram depicting the development of a typical thoracic vertebra. (A) At approximately weeks 5 7, mesodermal cells from the sclerotome demonstrate three distinct condensations a centrum, a vertebral arch, and a costal process. From 3-5 years of age, the vertebral arches fuse with each other and also fuse with the centrum. Ossification ends when the person is spinal W Figure 17-3. Schematic diagrams nerve depicting...

Antibodies

Figure 1 A schematic diagram of the f-cell differentiation protocol and the markers which are expressed at different stages. On the left are the factors and the duration at which they should be applied to direct differentiation from one stage to the next. On the right are markers that should be expressed at each stage ( + ) and markers that should be absent or minimized ( ).

Agerelated cataract

Fovea Blood Pressure

(strictly, the centre of the fovea (foveola) shows maximum acuity). (redrawn from remort.wz.cz retina II images DRAWEYE.png). (b) Drainage of aqueous humor, which is formed by the ciliary body, into the trabecular meshwork. Drainage abnormalities are implicated in glaucoma (redrawn from www.ahaf.org glaucoma about aqueousflowBorder.jpg). (c) Normal human retinal fundus photograph showing the macula lutea, the small pigmented spot at the centre of the posterior retina, which is damaged in age-related macular degeneration. The term macula commonly refers to the area of central retina (area centralis) lying between the superior and inferior temporal retinal arteries (vascular arcades). The underlying retinal pigment epithelium and Bruch's membrane are not seen. (d) Human retinal fundus photograph from a patient with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) showing abnormal extracellular deposits or drusen, one of the clinical hallmarks of AMD, in the macular region. (e) Schematic diagram...

Figure 231

Schematic diagram of the layers of the eye. The wall of the eyeball is coat or uvea (pink) and (c) an inner photosensitive layer, the retina organized in three separate concentric layers (a) an outer supporting (yellow). layer, the corneoscleral coat (clear and blue) (b) a middle vascular

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