Rotavirus epidemiology and surveillance

Ulrich Desselberger, Miren Iturriza-Gomara and Jim J. Gray Clinical Microbiology and Public Health Laboratory, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, CB22QW, UK Abstract. There is extensive antigenic and genomic diversity among co-circulating human rotaviruses. They are differentiated into groups, subgroups and types. There are at least 7 groups (A G) and 4 subgroups within group A. To distinguish types within group A, a dual classification system has been established with the glycoprotein VP7...

Gastrointestinal CMV infection

The pathogenic role of CMV infection is well established. Although retinitis is the most common manifestation of infection, GI infection of the oesophagus, stomach, small bowel and colon occurs in 5 15 of patients during the course of HIV infection (Jacobson & Mills 1988). Although CMV may infect any part of the GI tract the most common site of infection is the colon (Mentec et al 1994). The spectrum of symptomatology associated with CMV colitis is wide. Chronic or intermittent diarrhoea in...

Summary

New techniques for isolation in cell cultures of human enterotropic coronaviruses and toroviruses from diarrhoeal stools will elucidate the importance of these agents in human enteric diseases. Sensitive and specific diagnostic tests are becoming available to analyse the roles of these two types of viruses in human enteric diseases and to compare the viruses associated with different outbreaks of disease. Experiments that focus on the interactions between viral envelope glycoproteins and their...

Magnification of relative risk by comparing unequal groups

A greatly magnified rate ofintussusception for the vaccinated group was created by the 'window analysis' because CDC compared vastly unequal person-year values which artificially inflate the time denominator for the non-vaccinated group. In this way, the initial clustering of cases during the first week after vaccination is assumed to persist at the same elevated rate even though such data are not available, and were, in fact clearly ruled out. For example, in data presented by CDC at the...

Enteric nervous system

The effects of rotavirus infection on polarized epithelial cells. Data from Jourdan et al (1998), Brunet et al (2000), Lundgren et al (2000) and Obert et al (2000). in a neuraminidase-independent fashion infect polarized epithelial cells efficiently through both the apical and basolateral surfaces. Rotavirus strains whose infectivity is reduced by treatment of cells with neuraminidase (e.g. RRV, SA11, bovine NCDV, porcine OSU) only infect polarized epithelial cells efficiently through...

Molecular biology of astroviruses selected highlights

Matsui, David Kiang, Nancy Ginzton, Teri Chew and Ute Geigenmuller-Gnirke Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305-5487, and Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, 3801 Miranda Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA Abstract. Human astrovirus, the prototype of the Astroviridae family, is a non-enveloped positive-strand RNA virus with distinctive morphology. Initially named for a characteristic 5 6 point star...

Development of a reporter cell line for astrovirus detection

The CDC has identified as a priority the need for 'simple detection methods that are more sensitive and more specific than the current EIA' (Glass et al 1996). Such methods would permit larger scale epidemiological studies and improve understanding of astrovirus infection and immunity. To enhance detection of astrovirus, we propose development of a reporter cell line. Such cell lines have been described for several other viruses (Rocancourt et al 1990, Kimpton & Emerman 1992, Stabell &...

Wildtype rotavirus and intussusception

Because of the association of the vaccine with intussusception and its withdrawal from use, earlier studies that had examined the relationship between naturally occurring rotavirus infection and intussusception have taken on special importance. In 1978, in Japan, rotavirus was detected in stools of 11 (37 ) of 30 children (6 49 months old) with intussusception a serologic response was observed in five of seven rotavirus-positive children (Konno et al, 1978). It was concluded that human...

Enteric infections with coronaviruses and toroviruses

Department of Microbiology, B-175, University of Colorado health Sciences Center, 4200 East 9 th Avenue, Denver, CO 20862, USA Abstract. Many enteric viruses are difficult or impossible to propagate in tissue culture. Coronaviruses and toroviruses are large, enveloped, plus-strand RNA viruses in the order Nidovirales that cause enteric disease in young pigs, cows, dogs, mice, cats and horses. Two different serogroups of mammalian coronaviruses cause frequent respiratory infections in humans,...

Results and Discussion

Coronaviruses and toroviruses that cause enteric diseases and their natural host species are listed in Table 1 Cavanagh et al 1993, Koopmans amp Horzinek 1994 . In general, most of these viruses cause disease only in one host species, and disease is more severe in infant animals than in adults. Inapparent infection is common in adults. Shedding of virus in the faeces may persist for weeks after inoculation. Animals can be infected by oral inoculation. Several of these viruses can replicate in...

Early events of rotavirus infection the search for the receptors

Guerrero1, Ernesto M ndez, Selene Zarate, Pavel Isa, Rafaela Espinosa, Pedro Romero and Susana L pez Departamento de Gen tica y Fisiolog a Molecular, Instituto de Biotecnolog a, Universidad NacionalAut noma de Mexico, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62250, Mexico Abstract. The entry of rotaviruses into epithelial cells seems to be a multistep process. Infection competition experiments have suggested that at least three different interactions between the virus and cell surface...

Epidemiologic considerations

Calicivirus Under Microscope

The disease burden of acute gastroenteritis Acute gastroenteritis is often considered to be exclusively a problem of children in developing countries. These children have 5 10 episodes of gastroenteritis each - NLV Enterovirus 22 FIG. 1. Viral agents of gastroenteritis as seen by direct electron microscopy. Bar 100 nm. year during their first 5 years of life and, though many of these are mild, some episodes can lead to malnutrition, dehydration and death Bern et al 1992 . In the developing...

Structural studies on Norwalk virus capsids

Norwalk virus, a member of the Caliciviridae, is a prototype human calicivirus that causes epidemic acute gastroenteritis Kapikian et al 1996 . Human caliciviruses have been very difficult to adapt to cell culture systems. The lack of a cell culture system or a practical animal model has to some extent limited the progress in understanding the molecular characteristics of the virus and its replication strategies. However, the successful cloning of the Norwalk virus genome and its expression...

RNA replication

Rotavirus Panhandle

Characterization of subviral particles purified from infected cells has indicated that the synthesis of dsRNA occurs simultaneously with the packaging of mRNA FIG. 1. Model for assembly of core pentamers with replicase activity. The RNA polymerase, VP1, and capping enzyme, VP3, interact with viral mRNA to form a pre-core complex that lacks replicase activity. In the viroplasm, the complex then interacts with VP2 dimers, NSP2 octamers, and NSP5 multimers producing a structure that represents one...

The interaction of rotavirus with its host cell is a multistep process

Several lines of evidence suggest that rotaviruses need to interact with more than one cell surface molecule to enter the cell, using during this process different FIG. 1. Distinctive structural features of the outer shell protein VP4. The trypsin cleavage region is indicated by an arrow, which defines the boundary between VP8 and VP5. In VP8, the haemagglutination domain HA aa 93 to 208 is shadowed the asterisks below this domain indicate aa 155 and 188 190, which are important in the SA...

Structural studies on rotavirus

Rotavirus Dlp

The biochemistry and molecular biology of rotaviruses are well characterized Estes 1996 . Rotaviruses belong to the family of viruses called Reoviridae. The rotavirus particle contains multiple protein layers enclosing the genome that consists of 11 segments of double-stranded ds RNA. Each segment codes for one protein with the exception of segment 11 that codes for two proteins. Out of the 12 proteins, six are structural and six are non-structural. The outer capsid layer is made of VP7 and...

Gastroenteritis viruses an overview

Glass, Joseph Bresee, Baoming Jiang, Jon Gentsch, Tamie Ando, Rebecca Fankhauser, Jacqueline Noel, Umesh Parashar, Blair Rosen and Stephan S. Monroe Viral Gastroenteritis Section, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA Abstract. Acute gastroenteritis is among the most common illnesses of humankind, and its associated morbidity and mortality are greatest among those at the extremes of age, children and the elderly. In developing countries,...

Rotavirus RNA replication and gene expression

Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 7 Center Drive, MSC 0720, Room 117, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA Abstract. Rotavirus mRNAs are capped but non-polyadenylated and serve as templates for both the synthesis of viral proteins and the segmented dsRNA genome. Viral proteins involved in RNA replication include the RNA polymerase VP1 , the core scaffold protein VP2 and the non-structural RNA-binding proteins NSP2 and...

References

Arias CF, Guerrero CA, Mendez E et al 2001 Early events of rotavirus infection the search for the receptor s . In Gastroenteritis viruses. Wiley, Chichester Novartis Found Symp 238 p 47 63 Arias CF, Romero P, Alvarez V, Lopez S 1996 Trypsin activation pathway of rotavirus infectivity. J Virol 70 5832-5839 Burns JW, Siadat-Pajouh M, Krishnaney A, Greenberg HB 1996 Protective effect of rotavirus VP6-specific IgA monoclonal antibodies that lack neutralizing activity. Science 272 104-107 Clarke IN,...

Diagnostic advances

In the field of viral gastroenteritis, advances in our understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of each virus have required the Nucleic acid Genome organisation Characterisation Wheel-shaped rota , dsRNA 11 segments triplet capsid Small round structured ss RNA 3 ORFs viruses SRSV with calices Small round virus Small round virus Small round virus Groups A,B,C Group A has 2 subgroups I, II multiple serotypes, classified on the basis of two outer capsid proteins P and G...