How I Healed my Rosacea

Rosacea Free Forever Cure

Rosacea Free Forever was written by a former rosacea sufferer who suffered this condition for over 12 years. The book will show you how Laura Taylor cured her rosacea forever in just three days in the natural way and helped thousands of rosacea sufferers do the same. With Rosacea Free Forever you will be able to eliminate all symptoms of rosacea within hours such as flushing, bumps & pimples, persistent redness, visible blood vessels, plaques, dry appearance, burning or stinging, eye irritation, signs beyond the face, swelling, and skin thickening. With the Rosacea Free Forever guide, you will get safe, effective, and permanent relief from rosacea. The methods that you will learn from this guide are easy to do and can bring you instant results. This complete rosacea cure has worked for thousands of people. If you apply the info from this guide, your skin will look and feel great too. Read more here...

Rosacea Free Forever Overview


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FIGURE 1 Linear gingival erythema Source Courtesy of the International AIDS SocietyUSA From Refs 3 4

Also known as HIV gingivitis, a fiery red linear discoloration of the gingival margin can be seen in HIV disease, even without significant plaque formation (Fig. 1). Patients complain of spontaneous bleeding or are asymptomatic. Referral to an HIV dental specialist is recommended and usually involves debridement, local care, and systemic antibiotics.

Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated

Individuals homozygous for germline mutations in ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) have ataxia telangiectasia (AT), an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cerebellar ataxia, oculocutaneous telangiectasias, radiation hypersensitivity, and an increased incidence of malignancy (29). AT homozygotes have cancer risks 60 to 180 times greater than the general population including non-Hodgkins lymphoma (nearly 100 lifetime risk) and breast and ovarian cancer (30). Heterozygosity for germline mutations in ATM was initially hypothesized by Swift et al. to confer an increased breast cancer risk and that screening mammography, a source of ionizing radiation, could theoretically increase the penetrance of such mutations (31). An initial study supporting the hypothesis was criticized due to the exceptionally low rate of breast cancer among the controls. In addition, subsequent studies did not consistently support a link between ATM mutation heterozygosity and breast cancer...

Erythema Multiforme

EM is an acute, widely distributed hypersensitivity reaction associated with circulating immune complexes that are deposited in the basement membranes of the superficial vessels of the skin and mucosa. Subsequent complement activation produces vasculitis and thrombosis, leading to tissue ischemia and necrosis of the adjacent epithelium. The intensity of the skin and mucosal reaction varies from a localized minimal erythematous FIGURE 40 Erythema multiforme. Young adult male with rapid onset of generalized oral ulceration accompanied by typical target lesions of the skin. Note the hemor-rhagic, encrusted lips, a feature frequently seen in erythema multiforme. FIGURE 40 Erythema multiforme. Young adult male with rapid onset of generalized oral ulceration accompanied by typical target lesions of the skin. Note the hemor-rhagic, encrusted lips, a feature frequently seen in erythema multiforme. response to frank epithelial necrosis. Commonly identified precipitating factors include...

Cosmetic Percutaneous Absorption And Toxicity

Table 2 shows the relationship between percutaneous absorption and erythema for several oils used in cosmetics. The investigators attempted to correlate absorbability with erythema. The most-absorbed oil, isopropyl myristate, produced the most erythema. The lowest-absorbing oil, 2-hexyldecanoxyoctane, produced the least erythema. Absorbability and erythema for the other oils did not correlate 13 . The lesson to remember with percutaneous toxicity is that a toxic response requires both an inherent toxicity in the chemical and percutaneous absorption of the chemical. The degree of toxicity will depend on the contributions of both criteria. Table 2 Relationship of Percutaneous Absorption and Erythema for Several Oils Used in Cosmetics Erythema

Classic Coumarinlnduced Skin Necrosis

Classic coumarin-induced skin necrosis (CISN) is a very rare complication of oral anticoagulant therapy (Cole et al., 1988). In its classic form, it is characterized by dermal necrosis, usually in a central (nonacral) location, such as breast, abdomen, thigh, or leg, that begins 3-6 days after starting therapy with warfarin or other coumarin anticoagulants (Fig. 9). Initially, there is localized pain, induration, and erythema that progresses over hours to central purplish-black skin discoloration and blistering, ultimately evolving to well-demarcated, full-thickness necrosis involving skin and subdermal tissues. Some patients require surgical debridement. Case reports suggest that congenital deficiency of natural anticoagulant proteins, especially protein C, is sometimes a pathogenic factor (Broekmans et al., 1983 Comp, 1993).

Diagnosis of deepvein thrombosis Introduction

A proper clinical evaluation involves a careful assessment of the patient's symptoms, signs, and risk factors for venous thrombosis. Patients with symptomatic DVT can present with painful swelling, tenderness along the distribution of the deep leg veins, and localised erythema consequent to venous obstruction or perivascular inflammation. These signs can also be found in patients with cellulitis, ruptured Baker's cyst, superficial thrombophlebitis, and other muscu-loskeletal conditions. Therefore, the most important objective of the clinical evaluation is to determine whether the presenting features are more or less likely to be caused by one of these alternative diagnoses. If the patient has no known risk factors for venous thrombosis an alternative diagnosis is considered more likely and, therefore, the likelihood of DVT is significantly reduced. In contrast, if the patient has one or more known risk factors for thrombosis, the likelihood of DVT is increased. Well-established risk...

Effect Does Not Equal Effect

The severity of the disease and dose. These nonstochastic effects occur mainly in radiation therapy. In interventional radiology and neuroradiology such as cardiovascular stenting or percutaneous treatment of complex arteriovenous malformations in the CNS, nonstochastic effects such as radiation-induced erythema, ulcerations, or hair loss have been reported anecdotally in patients undergoing complex procedures exposed to prolonged fluoro-scopy, for example. Obviously this also poses a serious threat to the physicians involved. Radiation-induced lens injury has been reported in interventional radiology.

Low Risk Breast Cancer Genes

A growing list of genes is associated with more moderate risks of breast cancer. The first such gene to be identified was ATM. Mutations in this gene cause the recessive condition Ataxia-Telangiectasia (A-T) (62). Studies dating back over 30 years have suggested that relatives of A-T patients were at increased risk of breast (and perhaps other) cancer (63). This was long regarded as controversial because the studies were small. However, more recent national cohort studies, and direct studies of ATM mutations in breast cancer families and controls, have confirmed that ATM mutations confer an approximately twofold risk of breast cancer (with perhaps a higher relative risk at young ages) (64-67).

Clinical Presentation

Angiodysplasia usually presents with persistent occult bleeding or repeated small bleeds. In colonic ischaemia infarction there may be a history of arrhythmia or cardiac failure, and it may present acutely with abdominal pain and bloody diarrhoea or less acutely with stricturing and symptoms of obstruction. Infective conditions usually lead to diarrhoea, crampy abdominal pain and fever. A careful drug history should be obtained if pseudomembranous colitis is suspected. Inflammatory bowel disease may have an indolent presentation with lethargy, anorexia and weight loss. However, more characteristic symptoms of ulcerative colitis include bloody diarrhoea (> 10 stools day), urgency and abdominal pain. Peritonitis and systemic sepsis may occur with toxic megacolon and perforation. Colorectal Crohn's disease characteristically presents with diarrhoea. Obstruction due to stricturing may occur and fistulae leading to specific symptoms (e.g., colovesical - pneumaturia and recurrent urinary...

Complications And Prognosis

While sarcoidosis frequently pursues an unpredictable clinical course, its prognosis may correlate with specific types of disease onset and patterns of clinical manifestations. For example, acute onset of erythema nodosum with symptomatic bilateral hilar adenopathy usually has a self-limited course, while insidious onset of disease and extrapulmonary lesions are often followed by inexorable progression of pulmonary fibrosis (30). In the head and neck, complications of sarcoidosis include hearing loss, vestibular dysfunction, chronic sinusitis, infection, decreased visual acuity and blindness, hoarseness, upper respiratory obstruction, stridor, cranial nerve palsies, and pituitary dysfunction. The complications of the persistent ocular inflammation are described above, but it should be emphasized that sarcoidosis is a significant cause of blindness in the United States.

Clinical Visual and Tactile Assessments

Several skin modifications induced by irritants can be easily evaluated visually and tac-tilely, e.g., by skin redness (erythema), skin dryness with increased desquamation, scali-ness, and flakiness, and skin roughness or edema. Moderate to very intense signs of skin redness erythema are the visual manifestations of a skin inflammatory process with vasodilatation of the capillary system and increase of the blood flow. After contact with an irritant (particularly with soaps and detergents), symptoms of skin dryness appear after a certain time with a whitish appearance, flakiness, scaliness, and roughness. In the most severe cases of irritation, fissuring, and cracking can also appear. Edema is the result of an accumulation of fluid from the blood vessels in the upper dermis. It appears only in very severe cases of irritancy, which happens very rarely unless in experimental conditions. The visual and tactile assessments of irritancy are made by dermatologists or trained evaluators....

Cosmetic And Occupational Skin Irritants Occupational Skin Irritants

The clinical features are described as follows. Many cases of occupational irritant contact dermatitis start as erythema and scaling on the back of joints and adjacent parts of the back of the fingers, as well as in the web spaces between the fingers. A generalized, rather shiny, superficially fissured, scaly fingertip dermatitis is also characteristic of certain forms of irritancy. Exclusive or more severe involvement of the thumb, index finger, and or middle finger of the dominant hand (or of the nails) is generally an indication of possible occupational causation 33 . The principal occupational irritants are listed in Table 1.

Specific side effects Enfuvirtide T20

The typical side effect of enfuvirtide is an injection site reaction (ISR) with erythema, induration, nodules, pruritus, ecchymosis, pain and discomfort. Almost every patient is affected, most of them, however, only mildly. ISR, therefore, rarely limits treatment, and only 3 to 7 of patients discontinue therapy (Arasteh 2004, Lazzarin 2003). The practitioner and the patient have to get used to the injection technique and the management of ISR. Good injection technique (including aseptic conditions) in conjunction with rotating injection sites (see Table 1), may be most effective in minimizing the incidence and severity, as well as the incidence of associated events, including infections. The appropriate management of ISR can lessen the reaction (see Table 1, Clotet 2004, Buhk 2004). Avoid indurated or erythematous areas

Allergic Contact Dermatitis From Fragrances Epidemiology

Contact allergy to fragrances usually causes dermatitis of the hands, face, and or armpits 16-18 , the latter site being explained by contact allergy to deodorants and fragranced antiperspirants. In the face, the skin behind the ears and neck is exposed to high concentrations of fragrances in perfumes and aftershaves. Microtraumata from shaving facilitates (photo)contact allergy to aftershave fragrances. The sensitive skin of the eyelids is particularly susceptible to developing allergic contact dermatitis to fragrances in skincare products, decorative cosmetics, and cleansing preparations, as well as from fragrances spread through the air (airborne contact dermatitis) 19 . Most reactions are mild and are characterized by erythema (redness) only with some swelling of the eyelids. More acute lesions with papules, vesicles, and oozing may sometimes be observed. Dermatitis attributable to perfumes or toilet water tends to be ''streaky.'' In some cases, the eruption resembles other skin...

Photoirritant Contact Dermatitis Photoirritationphototoxicity

Photoirritant contact dermatitis (PICD) is a chemically induced nonimmunological skin irritation requiring light. This reaction will occur in all individuals exposed to the chemical-light combination. The clinical picture is that of erythema, edema, or vesiculation in sun-exposed areas, resembling an exaggerated sunburn. This may be followed by hyper-pigmentation, or if the exposure is repeated, scaling and lichenification may occur. Bergap-ten, a component of bergamot oil, which used to be a popular ingredient in perfume, is a potent photoirritant that causes berloque dermatitis.

Venous Thromboembolism

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) has long been known as a complication ofcancer. Venous thromboembolisms are usually divided into deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). When DVTs affect the proximal veins of the lower extremities they are usually treated as a PE. We discuss VTE with all brain tumor patients at the initial consultation. Mechanism of action for VTE includes, venous stasis (immobility), intimal injury, and alterations in coagulation. In brain tumor patients, Sawaya et al. (46) has shown alterations in the fibrinolytic system and an underlying coagulopathy as causes of VTE. Other associations include age, prior DVT, smoking, oral contraceptives, and obesity. During surgery, brain tumor patients often have induced dehydration and hyperosmolality that increase the VTE risk. Malignant brain tumor patients have also been shown to display an increased risk of VTE with reports of upward of 28 of patients having symptomatic events (47). At our institution we have...

Specific characteristics

Erythema, scaling with a discrete red advancing edge on the cheeks and bridge of the nose. The sharp border, lack of pustules and adherent scale make it differ from rosacea. Papules, pustules and telangiectasia on an erythematous background on cheeks, forehead and chin. Painful, erythematous, indurated skin infection with a well-defined raised edge. Red and scaly rash involving eyebrows, eyelids, nasolabial folds. Erythematous on areas that are exposed to sun

Clinical Manifestations

Initially, there is cellulitis which leads to invasion of the deeper tissues. Clinically, at this stage, skin changes of erythema and edema are seen. Redness, pain, and edema progress to central patches or dusky blue discoloration within 24 to 48 hours, and these areas become gangrenous by the fourth or fifth day. Anesthesia of the involved skin is very characteristic. Progressive tissue necrosis causes an invasion by the normal flora. Continuous

Head and Neck Manifestations

Tuberculous Lymphadenitis (Scrofula). This represents the most common form of extrapulmonary TB (13), and in 80 to 90 of cases, it is the only site of infection. In HIVnegative patients, it is usually bilateral and posterior cervical in location, presenting as an erythematous, painless mass along the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid, typically without systemic symptoms (11). The tuberculin skin test (TST) is positive in more than 75 of patients. In HIV-positive patients, multiple sites may be involved, often with mediastinal and intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy, pulmonary or other organ involvement, and systemic symptoms. The TST is often negative in these patients. Of the patients, 10 Ocular TB. TB produces various ocular syndromes, including choroidal tubercles, uveitis (Chapter 6), iritis, and episcleritis. In suspected cases, a prompt referral to an ophthalmologist should be made. TB laryngitis is highly contagious, due to the effective aerosolization of bacilli-laden...

Side Effects Of Radiotherapy Acute Reactions

Desquamation and some degree of erythema, which are managed with local ointments. Temporary alopecia within the radiation field is a common sequela. Fatigue may be observed with radiation therapy, but is often a function of several other variables such as age, performance status, underlying medical status, and extent of brain being irradiated.

Systemic Manifestations

Facial lesions due to conditions associated with TB have been described these include erythema induratum of Bazin, papulonecrotic tuberculids, and others. M. tuberculosis DNA has been detected in erythema induratum skin lesions by PCR, and erythema nodosum has been attributed to primary TB. Skin involvement may result from exogenous inoculation, spread from an adjacent focus to the overlying skin, or hematogenous spread, often seen in patients with AIDS and tuberculous bacteremia. Any unexplained skin lesion, particularly one with nodular or ulcerative components, may be due to TB, especially in AIDS patients and biopsy and cultures are warranted.

Cytokinemodified tumor vaccines

Tumor cells modified to secrete GM-CSF have been tested clinically as autologous, allogeneic, and bystander formulations in a variety of cancers (Table 4). These include melanoma (118), renal cell carcinoma (116), pancreatic carcinoma (117), and several other poorly immunogeneic solid tumors (124-126), as well as multiple myeloma and acute myelogenous leukemia. These trials have demonstrated GM-CSF-secreting vaccines to be safe, with side effects limited primarily to erythema and induration at the vaccination site (Table 5). These trials in the aggregate have also provided preliminary evidence of vaccine bioactivity. Several parameters important for the clinical application of GM-CSF-secreting vaccines were confirmed by the trial testing two allogeneic pancreatic carcinoma cell lines secreting GM-CSF at levels of 220 ng 106 24 h in patients with stage II and III pancreatic cancer after pancreaticoduodenectomy (117). Patients were vaccinated immediately after surgery and before...

Infections in Females

Symptoms in females include mild abdominal pain, intermittent bleeding, vaginal discharge, or dysuria-pyuria syndrome. The cervix can appear normal or exhibit edema, erythema, friability, or mucopurulent discharge. In prepubertal girls, vaginitis can occur secondary to infection of transitional cell epithelium by C. trachomatis. In contrast, the squamous epithelium of the adult vagina is not susceptible to chlamydiae, and vaginal discharge generally reflects endocervical infection.

Dose DVT prophylaxisadult

Clearance hepatic metabolism with renal excretion. Adverse effects may cause fever, confusion, thrombocytopenia, hypochromic anemia, pain erythema at injection site. Comments more predictable dose-response characteristics than unfractionated heparin the risk of epidural hematoma formation is increased in patients who have indwelling epidural catheters or are also receiving other drugs that may adversely affect hemostasis safety and efficacy in pediatric patients not established.

Adverse Reactionstoxicity

Subjective irritation associated with burning or stinging without objective erythema from some organic UV filters 27 is the most frequent sensitivity complaint associated with sunscreen use. This is most frequently experienced in the eye area. Longer lasting objective irritant contact dermatitis may be difficult to distinguish from true allergic contact dermatitis. In a postmarket evaluation of sunscreen sensitivity complaints in 57 patients, 20 of the patients had short-lasting symptoms, 26 long-lasting, and 11 mixed or borderline symptoms 28 . Half of the patients were patch and photopatch tested, and only three showed positive reactions to sunscreen ingredients.

Physical Examination

Skin Delayed capillary refill, pallor, petechiae. Stigmata of liver disease (jaundice, umbilical venous collaterals caput medusae , spider angiomas, parotid gland hypertrophy). Hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome), abnormal pigmentation (Peutz-Jeghers syndrome) purple-brown nodules (Kaposi's sarcoma). HEENT Scleral pallor, oral telangiectasia, flat neck veins.

Signs and symptoms

There are often prodromal signs with headache, malaise and photophobia, accompanied only rarely by fever. The affected areas are initially hypersensitive, and then become pruritic and or painful within hours or days. Pain can precede lesions by several days. Lesions often show segmental (always unilateral ) erythema with her-petiform blisters within one or more dermatomes. Lesions ulcerate, are often hemorrhagic, and gradually dry up. They should be kept dry and clean to avoid bacterial superinfection.

Evaluation Of Therapy Of Head And Neck Cancer

The potential role of PET in evaluating tumor response to nonoperative therapies is promising. Many times, artifact produced by chemotherapy or radiotherapy (fibrosis, erythema, edema) may confound the practitioner's ability to evaluate tumor response to therapy either by physical examination or by anatomic imaging. Standard anatomic imaging using CT or MRI has a limited ability to evaluate the effect of radiation or chemotherapy on malignancy. This is most commonly true due to contrast enhancement and or soft tissue distortion that is apparent in posttherapy regions seen on conventional imaging. Changes in tumor size may also

Members of the TLR Family Expressed by Keratinocytes

TLR5 recognizes the bacterial motor protein flagellin (Table 13.1) required for the motility of microorganisms such as B. burgdorferi, which causes migratory erythema during the course of Lyme disease, and Salmonella typhi, which causes cutaneous ulceration 46 . Keratinocytes

Posttranslational regulation signaling of DNA damage

The main regulator of p53 protein activity is Mdm-2, a protein that binds p53 in the N-terminus (residues 17-29), conceals its transcription activation domain, redirects p53 from nucleus to cytoplasm and acts as an ubiquitin ligase to target p53 for degradation by the proteasome. The MDM2 gene is a transcriptional target of p53, thus defining a feedback loop in which p53 controls its own stability (Moll and Petrenko, 2003). The p53 Mdm-2 complex is regulated by p14Arf (Alternative Reading Frame), a 14 kD protein encoded by an alternative reading frame of CDKN2A, the gene that encodes the tumor suppressor p16 (Moore et al., 2003). The kinetics, extent and consequences of p53 activation vary according to the nature and intensity of the inducing signals. In response to ionizing radiation, activation of p53 proceeds through phosphorylation of p53 in the N-terminus by kinases involved in DNA-damage sensing, such as Atm (the product of the Ataxia Telangiectasia mutated gene) and Chk2 (a...

Kawasaki Syndrome and Acquired Heart Disease

It Children with KS are typically quite irritable and reluctant to be examined, conjunctival injection spares the zone immediately around the iris and is more prominent on the surface of the eyeball than on the mucosa of the eyelids, pharyngeal infection is typically nonfocal, lymphadenopathy is generally unilateral and confined to the anterior cervical region, the rash often has a perineal confluence and is very rarely vesicular, palmar and plantar erythema may come and go with the fever, and desquamation typically occurs 10 or more days after the fever begins. Although tests such as complete blood cell count and differential, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, microscopic urinalysis, and liver function are individually nonspecific, they can often be helpful in making the diagnosis. Aspirin has been the most widely used therapeutic agent, but intravenous immunoglobulin has been demonstrated to be more effective, especially for treating children with high or recurrent fever. 4 figures, 1...

Classification of Tumor Suppressor Genes

The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gatekeeper gene are key molecular events in the development of FAP mutations of p53 or K-ras alone are not sufficient to lead to tumorigenesis if the APC gene product is functionally normal. Other gatekeeper genes besides APC are PTEN, p53, p73, Fhit, Rb, von Hippel-Lindau, and neurofibromatosis type 1. In contrast, caretakers suppress cell growth by ensuring the fidelity of DNA through the repair of DNA damage or the prevention of genomic instability. The caretaker genes include ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated), ATR (ATM and Rad3-related), BRCA1, BRCA2, and mismatch-repair genes. The inactivation of caretaker genes leads to genetic instabilities that promote the mutation of all genes, including gatekeepers. Landscaper genes are genes that lead to the abnormal proliferation of normal cells. For example, mutation of a landscaper gene in patients with juvenile polyposis syndromes leads to the abnormal proliferation of stromal cells instead of...

The Evidence For Lowpenetrance Genes

Some of the familial clustering of breast cancer occur as part of specific inherited breast cancer syndromes, where disease results from single genes conferring a high risk. Several genes associated with these syndromes have been identified including BRCA1, BRCA2, PTEN, and TP53. However, the susceptibility alleles in these genes are rare in the population and they account for a small minority of the inherited component of cancer. Highly penetrant variants in the breast cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 account for less than 20 of the genetic risk of breast cancer with other rarer high-penetrance genes such as TP53, ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM), and PTEN counting for less than 5 (10). Other BRCA1 2-like genes are unlikely to exist as the majority of multiple case families can be accounted for by BRCA1 or BRCA2 (11) and, despite extensive research efforts, attempts to identify similar highly penetrant cancer susceptibility genes, using family based linkage studies,...

Hydroquinone 14dihydroxybenzene

Arndt and Fitzpatrick 4 , in a non-placebo-controlled study, compared the efficacy of 2 and 5 hydroquinone cream for treatment of various pigmentary disorders in 56 patients. Results showed that hydroquinone was a moderately effective depigmenting agent in 80 of cases and that there was no difference between the two concentrations in therapeutic efficacy. Two percent hydroquinone was less irritating than 5 . Fitzpatrick et al. 5 , in a non-placebo-controlled study, evaluated the efficacy of a 2 cream of stabilized hydroquinone in 93 patients. Sixty-four percent of them showed decreasing hypermelanosis without untoward effects. Sanchez and Vazquez 6 treated 46 patients with melasma using two versions of a 3 hydroalcoholic solution of hydroquinone. In this non-placebo-controlled study, overall improvement was noted in 88 of the patients and moderate-to-marked improvement in 36 . Side effects were minimal. The usage of a sunscreen agent was necessary for therapeutic efficacy. The...

Some Repair Enzymes Are Multifunctional

In patients with ataxia-telangiectasia, an autosomal recessive disease in humans resulting in the development of cerebellar ataxia and lymphoreticular neoplasms, there appears to exist an increased sensitivity to damage by x-ray. Patients with Fanconi's anemia, an autosomal recessive anemia characterized also by an increased frequency of cancer and by chromosomal instability, probably have defective repair of cross-linking damage.

Allergic rhinosinusitis

The diagnosis of allergic rhinosinusitis is based first upon clinical presentation. Thus, the presence of itchy watery eyes, sneezing, palatal itching, clear watery rhinorrhea, and sinus facial pressure suggest this disorder. In addition, the presence of other allergic manifestations such as asthma, eczema, or urticaria angioedema, and a family history of atopic disorders, provide further support. Exacerbation of symptoms during specific seasons of the year (spring trees, late spring to early summer grasses, and fall weeds and molds), or with certain exposures (e.g., cat), is additional evidence of an allergic etiology. Physical examination may be relatively unremarkable or may reveal pale and swollen nasal mucosa, sometimes described as a bluish discoloration, enlarged turbinates, and copious nasal secretions. Profound erythema of the mucosa and or the presence of purulent nasal discharge should suggest other diagnoses or the presence of complications of underlying allergic disease....

Stevensjohnson syndrome

SJS is one clinical presentation of a severe cutaneous drug reaction. Experts in the field utilize a classification in which erythema multiforme (EM), SJS, and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) represent severity variants of the same process (28,29). EM-minor is usually self-limited and caused by infections. Drug-induced EM, termed EM-major, can progress into SJS or, when very severe, TEN. SJS is a bullous disorder, with ulceration, purpura, fever, and involvement of mucous membranes in more than two locations, as well as the skin. TEN is used to describe more severe SJS-like disease, with sloughing of the skin resembling a third-degree burn.

Diagnosis And Treatment The Infectious Etiologies

Infections in Immunocompromised Individuals. A special type of external otitis is termed malignant otitis externa. This is a bacterial otitis externa present in diabetic or immunocompromised patients in whom there is osteomyelitis of the skull base. The disorder is caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection and may be recognized by granulation tissue in the external ear. The ear also may present with significant inflammation and erythema (12). A culture of the ear positive for Pseudomonas does not make the diagnosis, since Pseudomonas is part of the flora of a normal ear and can also be positive in simple otitis externa. The best diagnostic test is a bone scan looking for evidence of the osteomyelitis. It is important for clinicians to keep a high index of suspicion for this disorder, since, if not treated appropriately, the disorder can progress to lateral sinus thrombosis, involvement of the temporal mandibular joint (TMJ), multiple cranial nerve involvement, and meningitis (13,14).

Germ Cell Tumors with Embryonal Neoplasia or Somatic Differentiated Malignancy

Are increasingly recognized.38 They may be bilateral39 and may be associated with androgen secretion and ataxia-telangiectasia. Microscopically, they are characterized by discrete aggregates of germ cells and immature cells reminiscent of Sertoli's cells and granulosa cells as cords or Call-Exner formations, defined by connective-tissue stroma. There are frequent calcifications (Figure 22-15). The most common malignancy arising in gonadoblastomas is germinoma, but teratoma, EST, and all other germ cell malignancies have been described.39,40

Bcl2 in p53induced apoptosis

The bcl2 and related genes are subject to regulation by the cell proliferation-related p53, which is one of the interacting pathways in the control of apoptosis. The wild-type p53 protein has a wide-ranging function, including regulation of cell cycle arrest, in a transient or sustained way, and regulation of apoptosis and cell senescence. DNA damage induces p53. Two kinases phosphorylate the suppressor protein. One of these is ATM, a 370 kDa protein, which is a member of the PI-3 kinase family. The importance of the ATM pathway is underlined by the fact that ATM is itself a suppressor protein of considerable significance in the pathogenesis of cancer being involved closely in DNA damage response and in the activation of the apoptotic process. ATM is mutated in ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) patients. AT characteristically involves progressive neuronal degeneration, enhanced radiation sensitivity and immunodeficiency. Furthermore, AT patients are predisposed to develop lymphoid tumours....

Vascular Disorders Leading To Platelet Dysfunction

Skin, collagen, and blood vessels are essential elements in the hemostatic system. Any abnormality, inherited or acquired, in any one of these components of the vascular system will lead to mucosal bleeding such as purpura, petechia, ecchymoses, or telangiectasia (Fig. 16.3). Tests of platelet function and numbers in these individuals will be normal. Senile purpura is a condition of aging in which skin loses its elasticity. Oftentimes, older individuals will bruise more easily and more prominently. Allergic purpura is seen in rare childhood disorders such as Henoch-Schonlein purpura, an immune complex disease that involves the skin, gastrointestinal tract, heart, and central nervous system. The purpura is often seen in the lower extremities. Purpura may occur due to infectious agents such as meningococcemia, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, staphylococci, or streptococcal infections.23 Conditions such as amyloidosis, vitamin C deficiency (scurvy), or Cushing syndrome may result in...

Overview of PIKK Family Members

Members of the PIKK family are involved in a diverse set of biological functions. The DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) plays a crucial role in site-specific V(D)J recombination in the developing immune system and in the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway of DNA repair 4 . The protein product of the gene mutated in ataxia-telangiectasia (ATM) and the ATM Rad3-related (ATR) protein have key roles in the signaling of DNA damage 5-7 . SMG-1, originally identified in a Caenorhabditis elegans screen as a suppressor of mor-phogen gradient, is involved in the process of nonsensemediated RNA decay (NMD) 8 , while the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR also termed FRAP or RAFT) is involved in controlling cellular growth in response to nutrients and amino acids by playing a pivotal role in controlling the translational machinery 9,10 . Another member of the PIKK family, TRRAP (transformation transcription associated protein), is an essential cofactor for

ATM and ATR Signalers of Genome Damage

A homozygous deficiency of ATM in humans leads to ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), a debilitating disorder in which progressive loss of motor coordination (ataxia) is brought about by the gradual loss of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum 33 . In addition, A-T patients have an increased cancer incidence, and cells derived from these individuals are hypersensitive to ionizing radiation and to chemical agents that induce DNA double-strand breaks 33 . Notably, whereas normal cells delay progression through the cell cycle after treatment with such agents, A-T cells are defective in these checkpoint responses 5,6 . Indeed, A-T cells are deficient in the Gj S, G2 M, and S phase checkpoints. Over the past few years, a large number of research papers have addressed these checkpoint defects and it is now clearly established that ATM phosphorylates, and therefore appears to modulate the activities of, the key cell-cycle control proteins p53, BRCA1, NBS1, MDM2, RAD17, and CHK2. Recent review articles...

Vulvar Vestibulitis Syndrome

Friedrich (6) proposed the following diagnostic criteria for vulvar vestibulitis (1) severe pain upon vestibular touch or attempted vaginal entry, (2) tenderness to pressure localized within the vulvar vestibule, and (3) physical findings limited to vestibular erythema of various degrees. Although the third criterion has not received much support in terms of its validity and reliability, the first two have (14). Typically, vestibulitis patients present with provoked pain at the entrance of the vagina, their main complaint usually being painful intercourse. The cotton-swab test, a standard gynecological tool for diagnosing vestibulitis, consists of the application of a swab to various areas of the genital region. If the woman reports pain when pressure is applied to the vestibule during this test, then the diagnosis of vestibulitis is made. The cotton-swab test is usually performed in a clockwise manner around the vestibule however, research has shown that pain ratings increase with...

Differential Diagnosis

In addition to the clinical symptoms of anemia, iron deficiency produces a microcytic, hypochromic anemia. Serum iron is low. Total iron-binding capacity is elevated. A similar clinical appearance of the tongue mucosa may be seen in Vitamin B complex deficiencies and pernicious anemia (Fig. 43). Atrophic candidiasis (Fig. 45) may also produce a sensitive, erythematous, depapillated lingual mucosal surface. In severe xerostomia, the tongue may exhibit atrophy of the lingual papillae and erythema that is frequently secondary to atrophic candidiasis. Central papillary atrophy is a localized form of depapillation secondary to candidiasis (Fig. 46).

Delayed Type Hypersensitivity

In the delayed-type hypersensitivity test (DTH), an intradermal injection of antigen in the form of soluble protein alone or as antigen loaded onto antigen-presenting cells is administered and the diameter of any resulting erythema or induration after 48-72 h is measured. CD4+ Th cells that recognize the antigen presented on local antigen-presenting cells mediate the DTH response by releasing inflammatory, Th1 cytokines that increase vascular permeability and recruit monocytes and other inflammatory cells to the injection site. Occasionally, a similar response may be mediated by CD8 + T cells (4). The definition of what represents a positive DTH response has not been standardized nor has the dose for DTH testing, although protein antigens are generally administered as 10-50 g in 0.1 mL. This low dose is considered small enough that it does not induce an immune response or cause excessive skin toxicity, but is of a sufficient magnitude to induce a detectable local response. DTH remains...

Graeme J Poston and Louise E Jones

The clinical course of patients with nonresectable metastatic carcinoid is highly variable and largely unpredictable (1-4). Patients with high tumor burden can remain relatively asymptomatic for years, totally oblivious to their disease. Others with minimal residual (but nonresect-able) disease in the small-bowel mesentery can suffer all the symptoms of the carcinoid syndrome without having disease in the liver (vide supra). However, the majority of patients with carcinoid metastatic to the liver will exhibit at least some, if not all of the symptoms of the carcinoid syndrome (1-4). These symptoms include facial and sometimes torso flushing which may progress to rosacea and scleroderma (5), and may include the cutaneous manifestations of pellagra (5). Other symptoms include diarrhea, breathlessness, and wheezing and may be precipitated by certain foods including alcohol and chocolate. The exact hormonal mechanism of these symptoms remains unknown.

Vector DNA Metabolism

Evidence that DNA repair and recombination are directly involved in circularization or concatamerization of AAV vector genomes is supported by recent insights into possible biochemical mechanisms of their formation (178,180). In fibro-blasts from a patient with ataxia telangiectasia (ATM), there is greatly enhanced formation of AAV vector circular forms and enhanced integration of the head-to-tail concatemers as proviral genomes (181). The ATM gene is a PI-3 kinase that regulates the p53-dependent cell-cycle checkpoint and apop-totic pathways, and in these ATM cells the DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair systems that normally can be activated by UV irradiation appear to be already activated maximally.

Human Heterogeneity

Individuals differ in susceptibility to cancer because of genetic, environmental, occupational, and lifestyle factors. A variety of genetic disorders have been identified as conferring substantially greater risk for certain types of cancer (1, 103). Examples include inherited cancer syndromes (such as familial retinoblastoma 103 ), genetically determined immunodeficiency diseases (such as ataxia telangiectasia 104 ), and recessive syndromes of DNA-deficient repair (such as xero-derma pigmentosum 105 ). Taken together, though, these syndromes explain only a small fraction of human cancer.

Dermatological Conditions

Sunburn protection Topical application of 1 alpha-tocopherol provided significant protection against erythema and sunburn in an experimental model. When combined with 1 5 ascorbic acid, the protective effect was enhanced (Lin et al 2003). Further improvements were seen when ferulic acid was added to the alpha-tocopherol (1 ) and ascorbic acid (15 ) solution, as this substance improves chemical stability of the antioxidants and doubles the photoprotective effect (Lin et al 2005). Although most research has focused on topical use, oral administration of a combination of high-dose vitamin E and C increases the threshold to erythema. The first study to show that the systemic administration of vitamins C and E reduces the sunburn reaction in humans was a small double-blind placebo-controlled trial that used ascorbic acid (2 g day) combined with D-alpha-tocopherol (1000 lU day) (Eberlein-Konig et al 1998). The effect was seen after 8 days. The next was a 50-day study of 40 volunteers (20-47...

Diagnosis And Treatment

FIGURE 6 Matted telangiectasias on the lip of a patient with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Courtesy of Dr. Terence O'Grady, University of California San Diego. FIGURE 6 Matted telangiectasias on the lip of a patient with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Courtesy of Dr. Terence O'Grady, University of California San Diego.

Endoscopically normal mucosa

A recent elegant study correlated histologic and endoscopic findings in patients with NERD with the help of magnification endoscopy before and after PPI treatment 61 . Patients with NERD, more often than controls, showed endoscopic changes of minimal change esophagitis with punctate erythema as the most important finding, which resolved after PPI therapy. A sensitivity of 64 , specificity of 85 and a positive predictive value of 80 were determined for these findings on magnifying endoscopy. In the same study, an increased length of papillae (14 39 with NERD vs. 2 39 in controls p < 0.005) and basal cell hyperplasia (17 39 vs. 4 39 p < 0.009) were seen in the NERD group which resolved in the majority of patients after PPI therapy. These new techniques appear very promising for the future but are not yet ready for routine clinical practice.

The Gmcsf Antagonist E21R

E21R was well tolerated with, the most severe toxicities being World Health Organization grade 3 injection site erythema (n 1), grade 2 lethargy (n 3), grade 2 muscle aches and soreness (n 1), grade 2 joint pains (n 1), and grade 2 thirst (n 1). Dose-dependent transient mild eosinophilia was noted from d 3. Serum from patients treated at 600 g kg d or higher antagonized GM-CSF-mediated TF-1 cell proliferation in vitro. No evidence of pulmonary toxicity was seen based on symptoms, examination findings, or changes in circulating surfactant concentrations. In 10 of these patients with solid tumors, stable disease was the best response. A further hint of activity was observed in two of the four patients with prostate cancer, one at the initial and one at the final dose level who had decreases in their prostate-specific antigen concentration and received a second cycle of E21R. This study confirmed that E21R could be administered safely for 10 d. It further confirmed that levels of up to 1...

Hidradenitis Suppurativa Introduction

Some redeeming remarks are in order regarding the Philadelphia triad, Pillsbury, Shelly and Kligman, who perhaps deserve honorable mention for elaborating on Kierland's perceptive observations that hidradenitis suppurativa was more than a disease of apocrine glands but belonged to a family of related conditions 3 . They presented a unifying concept which led them to coin the term the follicular occlusion triad, relating acne conglobata, hidradenitis suppurativa and dissecting cellulitis of the scalp into one nosologic grouping. This notion has now achieved universal acceptance. Plewig and Kligman added another component, the piloni-dal sinus, comprising what is now called the fol-licular occlusion tetrad 15 . Finally, it was left to Plewig and Steger to coin the term acne inversa to acknowledge that hidradenitis suppurativa, while part of the occlusion tetrad, was a clinical entity, emphasizing its localization to the axilla, anogenital area, and the buttocks 16 . By contrast, acne...

Animal Models Draize Rabbit Models

Draize used this scoring system to calculate the primary irritation index (PII). This is calculated by averaging the erythema scores and the edema scores of all sites (abraded and nonabraded). These two averages are then added together to give the PII value. A value of less than 2 was considered nonirritating, 2 to 5 mildly irritating, and greater than 5 severely irritating. A value of 5 defines an irritant by Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) standards. Subsequent laboratory and clinical experience has shown the value judgments (i.e., non-, mild, and severely irritating) proposed in 1944 requires clinical judgment and perspective, and should not be viewed in an absolute sense. Many materials irritating to the rabbit may be well tolerated by human skin. Erythema and eschar formation 0 No erythema Very slight erythema (barely perceptible) 1 Well-defined erythema 2 Moderate to severe erythema 3 Severe erythema (beet redness) to slight eschar for- 4 mation (injuries in depth)...

Effects of Oxidative Stress and Genotoxic Stress on Zebrafish Aging and Senescence

Oxidation, lipid peroxidation, and the extent of oxidized DNA. The effects of ROS on telomeres seem to be mediated through the susceptibility of the telomeric GGG sites to DNA damage. ROS actively attack these telomeric regions, predisposing to DNA strand breaks and damage leading to increased telomere shortening. Importantly, fibroblasts from donors of several premature aging syndromes, such as ataxia-telengiectasia (A-T) with mutations in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene and Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) with mutations in the lamin AC gene (lmna), have short telomeres (Allsopp et al., 1992 Metcalfe et al., 1996 Smilenov et al., 1997), consistent with reduced cell division potential in vitro. Recently, it has been suggested that ATM functions in the cellular response to oxidative damage (Ito et al., 2004 Reliene et al., 2004 Rotman and Shiloh, 1997 Watters, 2003). Support for this hypothesis comes from observations that ATM-deficient cells are very sensitive...

Assessing Moisturizer Efficacy Overview of Lotion Function

Moisturizer Assay

Measuring lotions' effects on dryness and primary irritation is key to assessing moisturizer efficacy. Clinical methods have been developed that assess dry skin or its absence via visual scoring by a trained observer and by using biophysical measurements of the skin. Similarly, erythema and stratum corneum barrier damage associated with primary irritation can be measured clinically. Clinical efficacy alone is not sufficient to make a product commercially successful. To appeal to consumers, the lotion must be both efficacious and aesthetically pleasing, i.e., pleasantly scented (or unscented) and have acceptable tactile characteristics during and immediately after application. Figure 4 Ability of a commercially available lotion to prevent dryness induced by repeated hand washes with an aqueous detergent solution. (a) Lotion U prevents the induction of skin dryness, as assessed by a trained observer (b) Lotion U prevents the induction of erythema, as assessed by a trained observer and...

Immunological Contact Urticaria

This term is a neologism for consumers' feelings about their intolerance to a variety of topical agents, be it topical medicaments or cosmetics and toiletries. Individuals present with very similar complaints, such as burning, stinging or itching sensations, on contact with certain cosmetic products that most people do not seem to react to, sometimes accompanied by slight erythema or edema. They frequently complain of a ''tight feeling'' in their skin, secondary to associated dry skin. Sensitive skin describes the phenotype noted by the consumer mechanisms include sensory irritation, suberythematous irritation, acute and cumulative irritation, contact urticaria, allergic contact dermatitis, as well as photoal-lergic and phototoxic contact dermatitis. Sensory irritation and suberythematous irritation are believed to be far more common than the remaining mechanisms. The term cosmetic intolerance syndrome (CIS) is applied to the multifactorial syndrome in which certain susceptible...

Primary Early Lesions

Hidradenitis Suppurativa

Insidious onset with pruritus, erythema and hyperhidrosis has been reported, but such prodromes are most likely rare or not noticeable to the patients. Most frequently, the first lesion is a solitary painful, deep-seated nodule (0.5-2 cm in diameter), in an area of inverse or apocrine-gland-bearing skin such as e.g. the axilla (see Fig. 3.1a, b). This lesion is round and deep without any pointing or central necrosis such as occurs in a furunculosis (it forms a blind boil). It may resolve spontaneously within several days - a mean of 7 days is described 12 - or persist as a non-tender, silent nodule with subsequent recurrences of inflammatory episodes over weeks or even months without any evidence of suppuration.

Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid

Pemphigoid Bullous Mucosa

FIGURE 30 Lichenoid stomatitis in chronic hepatitis C. This red and white lesion at a high-risk site like the lateral border of the tongue was sensitive to spicy food and was highly suspicious for a premalignancy. A biopsy showed a liche-noid mucositis without dysplasia. Note the central erythematous area surrounded by white, radiating striae, the typical lichenoid clinical appearance. Source Courtesy of Stacy Mullins, DDS. FIGURE 30 Lichenoid stomatitis in chronic hepatitis C. This red and white lesion at a high-risk site like the lateral border of the tongue was sensitive to spicy food and was highly suspicious for a premalignancy. A biopsy showed a liche-noid mucositis without dysplasia. Note the central erythematous area surrounded by white, radiating striae, the typical lichenoid clinical appearance. Source Courtesy of Stacy Mullins, DDS. FIGURE 32 Desquamative gingivitis in mucous membrane pemphigoid. Note the gingival erythema and erosion. Desquamative gingivitis is a clinical...

Trigonocephaly And Angels Kisses

Capillary hemangioma Pink macular mark, localized over the forehead, face, or nape of the neck in the newborn (angel's kiss, salmon patch, stork bite, nevus simplex, erythema nuchae). Represents the fetal circulatory pattern in the skin and will resolve spontaneously. carpal angle Angle made by the carpal bones at the wrist. carrying angle Angle subtended by the forearm on the humerus the deviation of the forearm relative to the humerus the angle at the elbow joint. cavernous haemangioma Elevated vascular nevus or strawberry nevus of solid red color.

Enhance Wound Healing

Topical use Bepanthen is a well-known dermatological preparation containing dexpanthenol, an alcoholic analogue of pantothenic acid. It has been investigated in numerous studies and found to act like a moisturiser, activate fibroblast proliferation, accelerate re-epithelialisation in wound healing, have anti-inflammatory activity against UV-induced erythema and reduce itch (Ebner et al 2002). Under double-blind study conditions, epidermal wounds treated with dexpanthenol emulsion showed a reduction in erythema, and more elastic and solid tissue regeneration. Another randomised, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled study published in 2003 investigated the efficacy of topical dexpanthenol as a skin protectant against irritation. The study involved 25 healthy volunteers who were treated with a topical preparation containing 5 dexpanthenol or placebo and then exposed to sodium lauryl sulphate 2 twice daily over 26 days. Treatment with topical dexpanthenol provided protection...

Pharmacological Toxicological Effects

John's wort, and more specifically hyperforin, has an inhibitory effect on epidermal langerhan cells, there was speculation that it may treat atopic dermatitis. A 4-week trial was conducted in which 21 patients with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis were treated twice daily with a cream standardized to 1.5 hyperforin on one side of their body and placebo on the other side. The primary end point of the study was severity scoring of atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) index, based on extent and intensity of erythema, papulation, crust, excoriation, lichenification, and scaling. Among the 18 participants that completed the study, the SCORAD index fell from a baseline score of 44.9 to 23.9 in the hyperforin group. The SCORAD index also fell from 43.9 to 33.6 in the placebo group. These results show statistically significant superiority of hyperforin cream over placebo, with no difference in skin tolerance to the two treatments. Of note, a secondary end point of the...

Infectious Diseases Mycobacterial Infection

In contrast, patients with atypical cervical mycobacterial infection present with isolated lymphadenitis involving submandibular and submental groups (Fig. 1). These patients almost never present with constitutional symptoms. Affected nodes may become densely adherent to the subcutaneous and cutaneous tissues, resulting in skin necrosis manifested by erythema and fluctuance (Fig. 2).

Inflammatory Autoimmune

Pemphigus is a rare disease that affects mucosal membranes. Although the term pemphigus may be erroneously used interchangeably with the condition bullous pemphigoid, it is a separate entity warranting a separate discussion. Pemphigus is characterized by vesicular lesions and bulla. There are multiple subtypes, with pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus being the most common (7). Other subtypes include pemphigus vegetans, pemphigus erythematosus, pemphigus herpetiformis, paraneoplastic pemphigus, drug-induced pemphigus, and IgA pemphigus. Although it is a disease of all ages, it typically occurs between the ages of 30 and 60. Pemphigus affects males and females equally. There is no known ethnic predilection. Its pathogenesis stems from an autoimmune mechanism in which circulating antibodies target keratinocyte cell surfaces. Cell-to-cell adhesion is disrupted and antibody complexes activate the complement cascade, creating local tissue damage. The cause of this...

Nonneoplastic Conditions

Ulcers common on the lining mucosa and tongue and are often due to trauma from teeth, dentures or foodstuffs. Recurrent aphthous ulceration is characterised by crops of ulcers on the lining mucosa of young patients that heal spontaneously over a two-week period but recur. Three clinical subtypes are recognised minor (ulcers 2-4 mm in diameter), major (single ulcer at least 10 mm in diameter, located posteriorly in the mouth that heals slowly) and herpetiform (a very rare type, usually close to the front of the mouth, composed of minute coalescing ulcers). Around 20 of patients with recurrent aphthous ulcers may suffer from a haematological deficiency due to a systemic disorder but most patients are otherwise healthy. Drugs can produce ulcers through either topical or systemic effects. Vesiculobullous disorders, such as erythema multiforme, pemphigus vulgaris and mucous membrane pemphigoid, are more likely to present with ulcers than with intact blisters because of the relative...

Signs symptoms and diagnosis

In contrast to the classical KS found in older men, in whom the tumors usually occur on the lower legs and feet, HIV-associated KS does not have a preferential pattern of localization. It can begin on any area of the skin, but may also appear on oral, genital, or ocular mucous membranes. Typical findings are initially solitary, or a few asymptomatic purple macules or nodules, which have a predilection for distribution along relaxed skin tension lines. Disease progression is variable the macules or tumors can remain unchanged for months to years, or grow rapidly within a few weeks and disseminate. Rapid growth can lead to localized pain and a yellow-green discoloration of the area around the tumor as a result of hemorrhage. Further progression of the tumor can lead to central necrosis and ulceration. The tumors may bleed easily. Plaque-like and nodular KS lesions, often become confluent and can be accompanied by massive edema. In the oral cavity, the hard palate is frequently affected....

Histopathologic Characteristics

In HIV+ patients, neutrophils appear to be a rare finding in oral candidiasis lesions and are only encountered in a limited number of erythematous forms. The inflammatory cell infiltrate is primarily mononuclear in both pseudomembranous and erythema-tous cases of HIV-associated infection (Romagnoli et al., 1997). Few Candida hyphae are associated with the atrophic epithelium in erythematous candidiasis, whereas numerous organisms are found invading into the prickle cell layer of oral epithelium in pseudomembranous candidia-sis. In HIV+ patients the inflammatory infiltrate is heavier in erythematous candidiasis and consists of CD8+ lymphocytes and CD1a+ Langerhans cells (Romagnoli et al., 1997). In fact, in this study CD1a+ dendritic cells were the only cell type to be significantly increased in HIV+ oral candidiasis as compared to HIV+ or HIV- controls. These cells were almost exclusively restricted to the basal layer of the oral epithelium. Overall a change in localization of...

TCell Responses at the Tumor Site

A rather surprising observation was made early into the first clinical trials of DNP-modified autologous vaccine the development of inflammatory responses in metastatic sites (50). These responses were initially observed in superficial (nodal or subcutaneous) metastases, and consisted of marked erythema, warmth, and tenderness of the tumors and the overlying skin. Responding metastatic lesions varied in size from 5-mm diameter skin metastases to 10-cm lymph node masses. The number of inflamed tumors on a single patient ranged from 1 to > 100. In some patients who had multiple superficial metastases, the inflammatory response involved all of the observable lesions, whereas others had inflammation in 25-75 of their visible tumors. The time from the beginning of vaccine treatment to an observable inflammatory response was fairly long 2-4 mo.

Rhinocerebral Mucormycosis

Schwartz noted that these nerve abnormalities are often consistent with orbital apex syndrome (unilateral ptosis, proptosis, visual loss, complete ophthalmoplegia, and ophthalmic and maxillary nerve anesthesia and anhidrosis) (11). Most cases of orbital apex syndrome are due to mucormycosis or Aspergillus, and visual loss is usually irreversible. In contrast with typical bacterial orbital cellulitis, patients with RCM may have minimal preseptal lid erythema, more pain in the forehead or temple than in the eye, and early onset of decreased sensation in the first and second divisions of cranial nerve V. The facial edema associated with RCM may be confused with periorbital cellulitis. The periorbital edema described for RCM is soft, cool, and nontender, differentiating it from the warm, tender, taut edema of cellulitis (9). Mucormycosis can be further distinguished from cellulitis by examining the character of the ptosis, if present RCM produces a paralytic ptosis in which the eyelid can...


Physical Exam General appearance Alert, ambulating. Heart Regular rate and rhythm, no murmurs. Chest Clear to auscultation. Abdomen Bowel sounds present, soft, nontender. Wound Condition Comment on the wound condition (eg, clean and dry, good granulation, serosanguinous drainage). Condition of dressings, purulent drainage, granulation tissue, erythema condition of sutures, dehiscence. Amount and color of drainage Lab results White count, hematocrit, and electrolytes, chest x-ray


Psoriasis A double-blind placebo-controlled study found topical aloe vera extract 0.5 in a hydrophilic cream to be beneficial in the treatment of psoriasis. Sixty patients aged 18-50 years with slight to moderate chronic psoriasis and PASI (psoriasis area and severity index) scores between 4.8 and 16.7 (mean 9.3) participated in the study, which was scheduled for 16 weeks with 12 months of follow-up. Patients were examined on a weekly basis and those showing a progressive reduction of lesions, desquamation followed by decreased erythema, infiltration and lowered PASI score were considered healed. By the end of the study, the aloe vera extract cream had cured 83.3 of patients compared with the placebo cure rate of 6.6 (P < 0.001). Psoriatic plaques decreased in 82.8 of patients versus only 7.7


Excessive exposure to solar radiation, especially UVA (320-400 nm) and UVB (290-320 nm), may induce UV-carcinogenesis and erythema in the skin (Lee et al 2000). There have been a number of controlled clinical trials that have demonstrated that supplementation with beta-carotene alone, or in combination with other antioxidants, can reduce UV-induced erythema (Gollnick et al 1996, Heinrich et al 1998, 2003, Lee et al 2000, Mathews-Roth et al 1972, Sies & Stahl 2004, Stahl et al 2000). These studies suggest that at least 8-10 weeks of supplementation are required before protection against erythema becomes evident and that doses of at least 24 mg day of beta-carotene are required (Sies & Stahl 2004). In uncontrolled studies, a protective effect against UV-induced erythema was observed after supplementation with 180 mg of beta-carotene for 10 weeks (Mathews-Roth et al 1972) and 50 mg for 6 weeks (Heinrich et al 1998). These results are supported by more rigorous studies that have...


Lymphocyte infiltration of the upper and middermis that can extend into the epidermis characterizes the erythematous plaque (Bircher et al., 1990). Dermal and epidermal edema (spongiosis) is observed in lesions that appear eczematous. The T lymphocytes of helper-suppressor (CD4+) phenotype predominate, together with FIGURE 14 (See color insert) Heparin-induced skin lesions. (A) Heparin-induced erythematous plaques UFH injections into the lower abdomen resulted in painful erythematous plaques beginning on day 7 of sc UFH treatment at this time, the platelet count fell only by 9 from 340 to 311 x 109 L. HIT antibody seroconversion from a negative baseline was shown using the serotonin release assay (from 0 to 84 serotonin release). (B) Heparin-induced skin necrosis UFH injections into the right anterior thigh led to skin necrosis a large black eschar with irregular borders is surrounded by a narrow band of erythema. The platelet count fell to 32 x 109 L despite stopping heparin, the...

Infectious Disorders

Many other viruses have been associated with aplas-tic bone marrow changes including parvovirus B19 and hepatitis (Brown et al. 1997 Kurtzman and Young 1989). Parvovirus B19 is a common viral infection causing erythema infections in children and an influenza-like illness in adults. In immunosuppressed patients or patients with high red blood cell turnover (e.g., hemolytic anemia), parvovirus infection may result in a pure red cell aplasia and rarely aplastic anemia. Bone marrow biopsy and aspirate may show classic giant pronormo-blasts. The diagnosis is made by serology and polymer-ase chain reaction. Non-A, non-B, and non-C hepatitis have been reported in association with bone marrow failure and may be considered in the differential diagnosis. Virtually any other severe infection may cause significant bone marrow abnormalities, but the clinical scenario is usually helpful in establishing the underlying diagnosis.


IN ADULTS Various aneuploidies of the sex chromosomes are the most common chromosome abnormalities encountered in autopsies of adults. The Turner (usually 45,X but mosaicism is common) and Klinefelter (47,XXY) syndromes are two examples (1). Deletions or unbalanced translocations and inversions are rarely seen at autopsies in adults because patients with these abnormalities seldom survive into adulthood. Approximately 1 500 adults carries a genetically balanced abnormality of chromosome structure. These balanced chromosome anomalies may affect the reproductive history of an individual, but rarely affect the phenotype (2). Some adults have sporadic chromosome changes as part of a chromosome breakage syndrome such as Fanconi anemia (3), ataxia-telangiectasia (4), Bloom syndromes (5), and others.

Vitamin E

Application of pure vitamin E acetate to the skin of hairless mice immediately after UVB irradiation reduced sunbum symptoms such as erythema, skin sensitivity, and skin swelling in a study carried out by Trevithick et al. 6 . Reduced erythema formation after UV irradiation was also reported by Roshchupkin 7 and Pathak 8 .

Smoke Inhalation

The most common clinical problems associated with smoke inhalation are (1) upper and or lower-airway inflammation and (2) carbon monoxide toxicity, although hydrogen cyanide toxicity has gained recent attention. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy is very useful in evaluation of burn patients for airway injury by demonstrating carbonaceous material, airway edema, erythema, ulcerations, hemorrhage, blisters, or ischemia. During bronchoscopy, intubation should be considered, preferably over the

Topical Reactions

Pected aseptic meningitis, applied crushed garlic cloves by adhesive band to the wrists for 6 hours (99). After 1 week, a round ulceration 1 cm in diameter surrounded by a slightly raised, erythematous border was noted on the left wrist. A similar, more superficial lesion was also seen on the right wrist. When questioned, the parents explained that these ulcerations were the residual blisters that had formed after garlic application. The author of this case report described this reaction as a second-degree chemical burn. An allergic mechanism was ruled out because the infant had not previously been exposed to garlic or onions. A patch test was not done for ethical reasons. Although Garty hypothesized that the infants' delicate skin predisposed them to garlic burns, such reactions have also been reported in older children and adults. For example, a 6-year-old child developed a necrotic ulcer on her foot after her grandmother applied crushed garlic under a bandage as a remedy for a...


During primary infection the bacilli multiply within the lung and form a Ghon focus. The primary complex is the Ghon focus along with the hilar lymphadenopathy that occurs. In the normal immunocompetent individual, the body mounts a significant hypersensitivity cellular reaction against the primary complex to kill the bacilli and contain the infection. This usually occurs within 4 to 6 weeks of infection. However, a few dormant bacilli may persist, with the only evidence being a positive tuberculin skin test. In some individuals the primary complex is not contained and they may develop tuberculous pneumonia that may be complicated by pleural effusions and collapse of the lung tissue. Cervical lymphadenopathy, meningitis, pericarditis, hypersensitivity reactions (e.g., erythema nodosum) and miliary spread may also occur in uncontained primary infection.

Short Term Toxicity

Mucositis is often severe, requiring narcotic analgesics and intravenous alimentation. This is especially the case after thioTEPA-containing regimens and in patients with prior spinal irradiation. Patients receiving thioTEPA may also develop generalized skin erythema and desquamation, secondary to the excretion of thioTEPA in sweat. Acute neurological dysfunction, including hallucinations, coma, seizures, headaches, ataxia-tremor-dysarthria syndrome, anorexia, and nausea syndrome are reported in


In comparative studies, liposomal daunorubicin showed the same and doxorubicin a higher efficiency than the previous gold standard of KS treatment, which consisted of combination therapy with adriamycin, bleomycin and vincristine (ABV regimen). In a comparative study on patients with moderate to advanced KS, the combination of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin with HAART was substantially more effective than HAART alone (response rate 76 versus 20 ) (Martin-Carbonero 2004). The most important side effects of anthracyclines are neutropenia and anemia. This usually occurs after 8-10 cycles. The cardiotoxicity associated with an-thracyclines should also be considered. However, usually it only occurs with long-term administration (cumulative doses of 450 mg doxorubicin and higher). Macular and painful erythema of the palms and soles (palmoplantar erythrodysesthesia) is another notable side effect which can limit treatment.

Topical Clindamycin

Clindamycin is a lincosamide antibiotic that is bacteriostatic and works by inhibiting protein synthesis in sensitive bacteria. Its antibacterial spectrum includes Gram-positive bacteria, in particular the genera Staphylococcus and Streptococcus, and several of the anaerobic bacteria. Clindamycin also suppresses the complement-derived chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (in vitro), thereby reducing the inflammation potential 4 . Topical clindamycin 1 , which is widely used in the treatment of acne, is applied to affected areas once or twice daily. Absorption of topically administered 1 clindamycin is estimated to be 1-5 5 . Adverse effects are mostly local irritation, erythema, peeling, itching, dryness, and burning. As rare events, episodes of diarrhea and even two cases of pseudomembranous colitis have been reported after topical clindamycin treatment 6, 7 .

Burn Assessment

First-degree burns involve the epidermis layer of the skin, but not the dermal layer. These injuries are characterized by pain, erythema, and lack of blisters. These burns heal without scar formation. First-degree burns are not considered in calculation of the TBSA burned.


The diagnosis of vulvodynia is a diagnosis of exclusion, meaning that other causes for the pain (e.g., infections, inflammation, postherpetic neuralgia) must be ruled out, as in the case of vulvar vestibulitis syndrome. It is based on the description, quality, and location of the pain. Vulvodynia sufferers report chronic vulvar discomfort characterized by a burning sensation that is not contact-dependent. The pain is diffuse, often covering the vulvar area and including the perineum and may or may not lead to dyspareunia. Some vulvodynia sufferers also meet the diagnostic criteria for vulvar vestibulitis syndrome. It is crucial to rule out pruritus vulvae, which affects the same region as vulvodynia but is characterized by an itching sensation, and is often associated with skin changes, including excoriation and erythema (13,22). In addition, pudendal neuralgia must also be ruled out. In this condition, pain radiates from the vulva to the rest of the perineum, groin, and or thighs and...


The adverse event profile associated with r-metHuSCF was first defined in two small phase 1 clinical trials investigating its utility in patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy (29,30). When administered to 17 patients with nonsmall-cell lung cancer in incremental doses of 10, 25, and 50 g kg d before the administration of chemotherapy, a specific pattern of adverse events emerged. At the lowest dose level, adverse events were limited to the injection site. At dose levels > 10 g kg d, adverse events occurred as multisystem systemic reactions. Dose-related mild-to-moderate reactions occurred in all patients at all dose levels and included edema, urticaria, erythema, and pruritus. These reactions, mild to severe, as well as angioedema and der-matographia, occurred at distant cutaneous sites. Cough, throat tightness, sore throat, dyspepsia, and hypotension were transient and did not result in patient withdrawal from the study (29). In another phase 1 trial of identical design,...

Dermatological Uses

Similar results have been obtained for topical vitamin C preparations in several animal models (Darr et al 1992, 1996, Lin et al 2003) and a small human study (Keller & Fenske 1998). The latter study found that application of an aqueous 10 l-ascorbic acid solution produced a significant reduction in the minimal erythema dose and a less intense erythematous response than controls after UVB radiation.

Duplication 11p

Individuals with duplication of the short arm of chromosome 11 have growth retardation and facial features including frontal bossing, a broad and flat nasal bridge, cleft lip palate, and macroglossia additional manifestations include hernia formation, cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and renal and cardiac malformations. Ophthalmic features include hypertelorism, epicanthus, downward slanting of the palpebral fissures, strabismus, blepharoptosis, conjunctival telangiectasia, Brushfield spots of the iris, nystagmus, and a retinal degeneration with

Stinging Test

It is performed by applying to the skin hydrosoluble substances such as lactic acid or capsaicin. The test is usually carried out on the nasolabial fold, a site richly innervated with sensory fibers. Subjects first undergo a facial sauna for 5 to 10 minutes, then an aqueous lactic acid solution (5-10 according to different methods is rubbed with a cotton swab on the test site. In order to have a more reliable response, it is recommended to apply an inert control substance, such as saline solution, to the contralateral test site. After application, within a few minutes a moderate to severe stinging sensation occurs for the ''stingers group.'' These subjects are then asked to describe the intensity of the sensation using a point scale. Hyperreactors, particularly those with a positive dermatolog-ical history, have higher scores. An alternative test involves the application of 2 mL of 90 aqueous dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) in a small glass cup on the cheek for 5 minutes. This procedure...


Endoscopy is relatively insensitive for making the diagnosis of gastro esophageal reflux disease. However, the presence of erosive esophagitis and or BE is highly suggestive of GERD. The presence of normal mucosa at endoscopy does not rule out the diagnosis of GERD. At present, the role of biopsies in these situations is unsettled and more data are needed. Newer endoscopic techniques such as chromoendoscopy, magnification and high resolution may demonstrate minimal changes in the distal squamous mucosa such as punctate erythema, pinpoint vessels etc. not seen by standard endoscopy. Some of these changes may respond to therapy with proton pump inhibitor. Endoscopy remains the best test to rule out complications of GERD and allows histological confirmation of esophageal pathology such as intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. Identifying the patient group with severe erosive esophagitis, BE and peptic strictures may help focus aggressive management that may potentially...

In Vivo Irritation

Skin irritation is a localized nonimmunologically mediated inflammatory process. It may manifest objectively with skin changes such as erythema, edema, and vesiculation, or subjectively with the complaints of burning, stinging, or itching, with no detectable visible or microscopic changes. Several forms of objective irritation exist (see Table 1). Acute irritant dermatitis may follow a single, usually accidental, exposure to a potent irritant and generally heals soon after exposure. An irritant reaction may be seen in individuals such as hairdressers and wet-work performing employees, who are more extensively and regularly exposed to irritants. Repeated irritant reactions may develop into a contact dermatitis, which generally has a good prognosis. Other forms of irritant dermatitis include delayed acute irritant contact dermatitis, which occurs when there is a delay between exposure and inflammation, and cumulative irritant dermatitis, which is the most common form of irritant contact...

Irritant Gases

The site of pulmonary injury is most dependent on the water solubility of the gas. High-solubility gases (e.g., ammonia, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, or methyl iso-cyanate) can affect all exposed mucous membranes, including ocular (irritation, erythema, and conjunctivitis, and with heavy exposure delayed-onset of cataracts), nasal (irritation, congestion, rhinorrhea, and erythema), facial burns (skin and lip), pharyn-geal (throat and tongue irritation, burns and edema), and laryngeal (burns, edema, and obstruction) injuries. Intermediate-solubility gases such as chlorine may produce upper-airway irritation, but the mucous membrane irritation is not as intense as for highly soluble gases. Because of its intermediate solubility, chlorine's effect extends more distal, producing both upper- and lower-airway injury, and pulmonary edema. Low-solubility gases, like phosgene or oxides of nitrogen, produce little in the way of upper-airway irritation, but produce intense damage to the lower...


Angioedema (Fig. 1) is the abrupt and transient swelling of the skin, mucous membranes, or both, including the upper respiratory and intestinal epithelial linings (11). In some cases, angioedema and urticaria should be viewed as varying manifestations of the same pathologic process, and they are common components of anaphylactic reactions. Angioedema involves the reticular dermis and subcutaneous or submucosal tissue, particularly of acral areas, while urticaria involves the papillary dermis and mid-dermis throughout the body. The depth of involvement will result in different clinical presentations. Urticarial lesions are erythema-tous, short lived (< 24 hours) and intensely pruritic, while the swelling of angioedema is nonpitting, pink or skin colored, more persistent and described as burning, stretching, or painful, rather than pruritic.

In Vivo Methods

In 1940, Schwartz et al. 18 introduced an in vivo method to evaluate the efficacy of a vanishing cream against poison ivy extract using visual erythema on human skin. The test cream was an effective prophylaxis against poison ivy dermatitis when compared with unprotected skin.


The sun protection factor (SPF) is defined as the dose of UVR required to produce one minimal erythema dose (MED) on protected skin after application of 2 mg cm2 of product divided by the UVR to produce one MED on unprotected skin. A water-resistant product maintains the SPF level after 40 minutes of water immersion. A very water-resistant or waterproof product is tested after 80 minutes of water immersion. If the SPF level is diminished by immersion, a separate SPF level may be listed. A broad-spectrum or full-spectrum sunscreen provides both UVB and UVA protection. Ideally this includes both UVA I and UVA II coverage.


Clinical features of actinically damaged skin include coarseness, wrinkling, irregular pigmentation, telangiectasia, and scaliness, as well as a variety of premalignant and malignant neoplasms. The relative severity of these changes varies considerably among individuals. This undoubtedly reflects strong differences in past sun exposure and marked individual differences in vulnerabilities and repair capacities for solar insults. Photoaging usually involves most severely the face, neck, or extensor surface of the upper extremities 15 .


Structure Afp

Although AFP functions as a tumor marker, it is important to recognize other potential sources of serum elevation. AFP was first shown to be elevated in hepatocellular carcinomas.3 Other malignancies that have been associated with elevated AFP levels include pancreatic, gastric, and pulmonary malig-nancies.4 However, elevated serum levels of AFP do not necessarily denote malignancy. Certain benign processes, including benign liver disease, pregnancy, ataxia telangiectasia, and tyrosinemia, have

Acute ICD

Stinging, and soreness of the skin, and are accompanied by clinical signs such as erythema, edema, bullae, and even necrosis. Lesions are usually restricted to the area that came into contact, and sharply demarcated borders are an important sign of acute ICD. Nevertheless, clinical appearance of acute ICD can be highly variable and sometimes may even be indistinguishable from the allergic type. In particular, combination of irritant and allergic contact dermatitis can be troublesome. Prognosis of acute ICD is good if irritant contact is avoided. Cumulative ICD is the most common type of ICD 55 . In contrast to acute ICD that can be caused by single contact to a potent irritant, cumulative ICD is the result of multiple subthreshold damage to the skin when time is too short for restoration of skin-barrier function 61 . Clinical symptoms develop after the damage has exceeded a certain manifestation threshold, which is individually determined and can vary within one individual at...

Categories Of Claims

This type of evaluation concerns a cosmetic effect that can be determined by visual, tactile, or olfactive assessment. Examples of scoring scales for the assessment of dry skin have been given by Serup 14 . The evaluator is trained to make such an assessment, reliable and fully independent of the product manufacturer. In some cases, the evaluator will be a dermatologist, an ophthalmologist, or a dentist, but this is not mandatory provided that the evaluator can justify his her qualification. When the test protocol is appropriate, expert evaluations are frequently combined with other assessment methods. Examples of claims easily supported by expert evaluation are skin whitening, antiwrinkle, hair shine, and deodorancy. Safety claims are also appropriate for such an assessment to check the absence of erythema or dryness after product application.


If the beneficial constituents of an extract are known, establishing specific quality standards is not difficult. It has to be assured by a suitable analytical technique that the extract contains a certain level of these active constituents. By way of an example, the antiinflammatory constituents of oat extract (Avena sativa) have recently been discovered 2 . This was a difficult task because the chemistry of oat is quite complex. The active in oat belongs to a group of compounds called avenanthramides 3 . Only a few parts per million (ppm) are necessary to achieve a significant redness reduction of a UV-induced erythema 2 . Knowing now the active principle, it is possible to drive the extraction process in a way of receiving the highest quality extract in regard to its activity level as well as giving a minimum guarantee on the amount of active in the extract. Standardization provides the cosmetic formulator a better guarantee of consistent raw material and ultimately product...

How To Deal With Rosacea and Eczema

How To Deal With Rosacea and Eczema

Rosacea and Eczema are two skin conditions that are fairly commonly found throughout the world. Each of them is characterized by different features, and can be both discomfiting as well as result in undesirable appearance features. In a nutshell, theyre problems that many would want to deal with.

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