Social Welfare Pensions

Your Retirement Planning Guide

Your Retirement Planning Guide

Don't Blame Us If You End Up Enjoying Your Retired Life Like None Of Your Other Retired Friends. Already Freaked-Out About Your Retirement? Not Having Any Idea As To How You Should Be Planning For It? Started To Doubt If Your Later Years Would Really Be As Golden As They Promised? Fret Not Right Guidance Is Just Around The Corner.

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Social Security Retirement By Jim Blair

The Social Security operations manual contains over 2700 different rules. However, Jim Blair has broken this down into an easy to follow formula that will take just minutes. This guide will talk you through things in a way that is clear and easily understandable, and breaks down all your options whether you are married, divorced, single, or widowed; everyone is covered here. All you need to do is look through the guide to find the section which applies to you, and follow the steps to determine how much you are entitled to, and what kind of option will get you the best deal. There are already hundreds of satisfied retirees who are receiving more money than they would have otherwise thanks to the Social Security Retirement Guide- and you can easily be one of them.

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Public Pension Programs

The major federal pension programs benefiting older Americans, their dependents, and survivors are Civil Service Retirement, the Railroad Retirement Program, the Veterans Pension Program, Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Program, and the Supplemental Security Income Program. Other public pension programs are managed by state and local governments. The Civil Service Retirement program, managed by the U.S. Civil Service Commission, is the principal retirement system for federal civilian employees and is financed by employee contributions matched by the employing agency plus congressional appropriations. Under this program, monthly retirement benefits based on past earnings and length of service are paid to eligible retirees and their survivors. The Railroad Retirement Program, managed by the Railroad Retirement Board, is financed by a payroll tax on railroad employees and employers. Monthly benefits are paid to retired workers, their wives, and survivors. Only employees with 10 or more...

Adjusting to Retirement

For most older adults, retirement is an active, rewarding period of their lives. They now have time to pursue interests and complete tasks that they had to postpone or devote less time to during their working years. Not only do most people adjust well to retirement, but also their health and happiness may actually improve when they are no longer required to conform to the daily grind (Betancourt, 1991 Herzog & House, 1991 Quinn & Burkhauser, 1990). For these reasons, retirees are, on the whole, satisfied individuals who retain a sense of usefulness and pride in themselves and their accomplishments. Retirement is, of course, not a pleasant experience for everyone. Retirees with financial and health problems, whose identity was tied up with their jobs, who were forced to retire, and who have made few, if any, plans about what to do with the rest of their lives have difficulty adjusting. For these individuals, retirement is accompanied by feelings of diminished usefulness,...

Private Pension Programs

Sources of income for older couples and individuals in 1994 included Social Security (42 ), followed by other public and private pensions (19 ), earnings (18 ), asset income (18 ), and other sources (3 ) (American Association of Retired Persons, 1996b). As indicated by these percentages, private pensions are not the major source of income for older Americans, but they are a substantial one In 1995, 8.8 million Americans received an average of 8,378 under the provisions of company or union pensions. Annuity, IRA, Keogh, 401(k), and other private pension plans also made payments to nearly 1 million Americans (U.S. Bureau of the Census, September 1996). Business and professional organizations in most industrialized countries provide private retirement programs for their employees. Under these programs, retirees are either given monthly payments or, in countries such as Australia and Japan, a single lump sum. In the United States, private pension plans can be divided into two types...


An estimated 135,634,000 Americans were in the civilian labor force in February 1997, but 7,205,000 Americans were unemployed and looking for work. As shown in Figure 10-7, the percentage of people in the labor force declines with age, to approximately 17 men and 9 women in the age 65 and over group. These last figures show the effects of retirement. However, approximately 54 of these individuals (51 men and 63 women) were employed part time (American Association of Retired Persons, 1996b). Of course, not all people who are unemployed or not in the labor force consider themselves retired. Many are still economically active, at least on a parttime basis, and others are continuing to look for work or plan to return to work at some future date if the opportunity presents itself. Because of the increase in life expectancy and the fact that many more people are choosing to retire early, it is estimated that by the year 2000, at least 33 million Americans will be retired and will spend an...

Retirement Planning

The changes in status occasioned by retirement would seem to require some degree of planning and preparation. In most cases, however, any planning is done in a fairly informal manner and does not anticipate all of the problems that may accompany the event and process of retirement. Ideally, planning for retirement should begin 5 to 10 years prior to the actual event, but this is not what usually happens. Furthermore, although a majority of retirees report having made some plans, most are inadequate. For example, among the 572 adults age 30 or over questioned in a national Gallup Poll in 1995, only 31 stated that they had written down a financial plan for their retirement. A majority of the sample said that they were not earning enough money now to save for retirement, and those who had children felt that their children's education had a higher priority than saving for retirement. Only 26 of the sample was designated by the pollsters as happily prepared for retirement 185 were...

Longterm Effects Of Cancer Diagnosis And Treatment On Survivors Family Members

In our review focusing on family survivorship included families from 1 to 5 years posttreatment,80 thus making specific statements about the long-term effects of cancer diagnosis and treatment on family members difficult. The study finds that economic resources, marital status, and retirement status for cancer survivors ages 50-70 were related to higher levels of QOL.80 Contrary to expectations, physical and somatic concerns were unrelated to overall QOL. Social support was positively related to overall QOL while fear of recurrence was negatively related to QOL. The family's meaning of the illness was also related to family QOL.

Psychiatry of old age

Psychiatric illness becomes more common with advancing age, because elderly people have a high prevalence of cerebral and systemic diseases that can cause organic brain syndromes, and because they are often subject to emotional stresses and loss. These include the deaths of spouse, siblings, and friends loss of occupation, company, and income after retirement deterioration in bodily functions the prospect of further ageing and death and, sometimes, both within private households and institutions, mistreatment by those with the responsibility for care ('elder abuse').

Methodological Challenges

Current policy research focuses almost exclusively on public transfers and primarily on public pension reform. The limited scope of the current policy debate is regrettable for two reasons. First, in some countries family support systems are eroding, and other countries may soon face similar trends. Second, familial transfers and public transfers are related in some respects they are substitutes for each other. Thus, the effect of changes in public transfer policy depends in part on the response of familial transfers. The possibility that public support for the elderly might merely supplant family support has long been appreciated. However, current research efforts are focused almost entirely on family transfers or public policy and not the interaction between the two.

The Role of Oversight Actors in Policy Modification

In addition, out of oversight hearings often emerge the first or clarifying indications that existing legislation needs to be amended or that new legislation may be needed in a particular area. For example, over the period of March 1-3, 2005, the Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions held hearings on the Food and Drug Administration's handling of drug safety and approval processes hearing testimony can be read at See The Real World of Health Policy Give and Take in Legislative Oversight to read the newspaper report of one of these hearings. Such hearings provide an opportunity for legislators to gain information that might be helpful in decisions about modifying policy, and they provide an opportunity for officials from implementing organizations to suggest needed modifications.

Shrinking Of The World

Older individuals tend to use less and less of what can be termed the total environment. This gradual restriction often begins when the person leaves the world of work at retirement. A second point at which there is a reduced level of participation in the outside world occurs when the individual experiences the onset of a chronic illness. Further restrictions are put into play as the individual ages and sensory deficits, such as vision or hearing losses, become more intensified. Such physical alterations can at times be sufficiently severe to constitute a need to alter individual lifestyle. A frequent change is to limit outside activities, with a concomitant increased usage of the home environment.

The Real World of Health Policy

Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions(, January 28, 2004. SOURCE Eakin, D. H. 2004. Testimony before the United States Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, January 28. Online testimony (excerpted) retrieved 1 29 05. The entire testimony can be read at Testimony.pdf.

Analytical Strategies Models And Paradigms

Furthermore, people who act ethically according to this theory would evaluate the extent to which providing care has a positive impact on their own self-interest and well-being. For example, if Martha, in the first scenario, is generally enjoyable to be around and family members respect her contributions to the family, then it may be in their self-interest to work out a living arrangement that maintains Martha in her own home. Furthermore, family members may decide to share living arrangements with an older family member because they find that the additional income provided by the older person's Social Security check or retirement income substantially enhances their household income.

Older Adult Consumers

In general, older Americans consume fewer goods and services than their younger contemporaries, but they spend a greater portion of their after-tax incomes on items that cost of living adjustments fail to weight properly (e.g., food, health care, utilities . The lower average expenditures of older adults are a reflection of the fact that their households have fewer members and the members have less expensive needs. In addition, more job-related items such as transportation, clothing, life insurance, pensions, and entertainment are less expensive for older than for young and middle-aged adults. Income taxes

Services Funded By the OAA

Elder abuse and consumer fraud as well as to enhance the physical, mental, emotional and financial well-being of America's elderly. These services include, for example, pension counseling programs that help older Americans access their pensions and make informed insurance and healthcare choices long-term care ombudsman programs that serve to investigate and resolve complaints made by or for residents of nursing, board and care, and similar adult homes. AoA supports the training of thousands of paid and volunteer long-term care ombudsmen, insurance counselors, and other professionals who assist with reporting waste, fraud, and abuse in nursing homes and other settings and senior Medicare patrol projects, which operate in 47 states, plus the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico. AoA awards grants to state units on aging, area agencies on aging, and community organizations to train senior volunteers how to educate older Americans to take a more active role in monitoring and understanding...

Sexual aversion disorder

There are a number of reasons that people lose interest in sexual intercourse. It is normal to experience a loss of desire during menopause directly after the birth of a child before or during menstruation during recovery from an illness or surgery and during such major or stressful life changes as death of a loved one, job loss, retirement, or divorce. These are considered normal causes for fluctuations in sexual desire and are generally temporary. Changing roles, such as becoming a parent for the

Barriers To Health Care

A number of other benefits are unavailable to same-sex couples because the federal government does not recognize their relationships. For instance, Medicaid regulations permit married couples to retain a jointly owned house without jeopardizing the other's right to Medicaid coverage, and married couples receive a spouse's Social Security benefits following his or her death. Wrongful death claims and pensions may also be unavailable to same-sex partners, and a partner's retirement benefits, if they can be claimed at all, are taxed. The Family Medical Leave Act expressly defines family to exclude same-sex couples hindering the ability of LGB people to care for their partners, children and other family members. The lack of recognition of same-sex partnerships poses myriad other problems, from denial of hospital visitation and medical decision-making rights to prohibiting partners from being placed in the same nursing home. Such institutional discrimination leaves LGBT seniors...

Emr To Improve Pain Relief

Overall, EMR offers the opportunity for better care for patients in pain, and it can come with a smaller price tag than clinical care without it. Physicians are starting to use the Internet to educate patient populations and health care professionals. The technology exists for modifying the most rudimentary elements of patient care to the benefit of the masses. Unless a person believes that the future of medicine will involve less documentation, less redundancy, less bureaucracy, and less government intervention or unless retirement is in the near future, EMR is a necessary investment and the sooner the better.

Schizophrenia see Chapter 4 and paranoid disorders see Chapter

A widower aged 73 had lived an increasingly isolated life since retirement. His GP was called to see him as an emergency by the police, to whom he had made frequent 999 calls alleging that his neighbours were trying to murder him with gas. Apart from his obvious delusions, he was otherwise in good health. He did not believe that he was in any way unwell. He was compulsorily admitted, after a domiciliary visit from the duty psychiatrist, to a psychiatric ward under the Mental Health Act 1983. He was unwilling to take oral medication, but his symptoms partially resolved with a small dose of a depot antipsychotic injection. Although he could be discharged, he remained isolated and generally suspicious, and his community psychiatric nurse frequently had difficulty in persuading him to have his injection.

Psychological treatments see Chapter 22

Marital therapy may be indicated, because conflicts in a marriage often become more obvious when the partners are brought into constant contact by retirement or restricted mobility. Special techniques for this age group include reality orientation (RO) and reminiscence therapy.

Historical Development of Animal Models of Aging

The history of animal model development in the United States is inextricably tied to the history of the National Institute on Aging (NIA). The rapid rise of biological, biomedical and behavioral research on aging beginning in the 1970s was a response to the growing realization of both the scientific and political establishments that the American population was aging and that the Baby Boomers would reach retirement in less than 50 years, an eternity for politicians and a moment for scientists. Even before NIA was created, scientists interested in aging began searching for animal models for their study. From the time of Clive McKay's calorie restriction (CR) studies in the 1930s through Morris Ross's CR studies in the late 1960s and early 1970s, most aging models resulted from studies actually developed to

Demographic Research On The Level Of Inequality

One of the fundamental indicators of inequality in a population is its level of poverty, which is typically measured as the proportion of households whose income falls below some specified poverty threshold (i.e., the poverty rate).30 Because poverty thresholds vary by household size (and, to a lesser extent, composition), Bumpass and Sweet (1981) note that processes of family formation and change can have direct effects on the incidence of poverty. These demographic factors may also have indirect effects via consequent reductions in labor supply or earnings capacities. Households may thus leave or enter poverty as the result of such demographic changes as marital dissolution, aging, retirement, death, childbirth, remarriage, the departure of children from the household, and the formation of new households.

Development and Change

The most general form of change that may be expected from criminals is one that may be seen as having an analogy to a legitimate career. This would imply stages such as apprenticeship, middle management, leadership and retirement. Unfortunately the criminology literature often uses the term criminal career simply to mean the sequence of crimes a person has committed. It is also sometimes confused with the idea of a 'career criminal', someone who makes a living entirely out of crime. As a consequence much less is understood about the utility of the career analogy for criminals than might be expected. There are some indications that the more serious crimes are committed by people who have a history of less serious crimes and that, as a consequence, the more serious a crime the older an offender is likely to be. But commonly held assumptions, such that serious sexual offences are presaged by less serious ones, does not have a lot of empirical evidence in its support.

Explanatory supportive notes for patients and relatives

Depression can follow a severe loss, such as the death of a loved one, a marital separation or financial loss. On the other hand it can develop for no apparent reason, although it may follow an illness such as glandular fever or influenza, an operation or childbirth. Depression is seen more commonly in late adolescence, middle age (both men and women), retirement age and in the elderly.

Suggested Readings

USA Today Magazine, pp. 19-21. Mergenbagen, P. (1994, June). Rethinking retirement. American Demographics, pp. 28-34. Quinn, J. F., & Burkhauser, R. V. (1990). Work and retirement. In R. H. Binstock & L. K. George (Eds.), Handbook of aging and the social sciences (3rd ed., pp. 307-327), San Diego Academic Press.

Specific Categories and Items

The percentage of total income that is spent for particular categories of items also varies with chronological age and other demographic characteristics of purchasers. Note in Figure 11-3 that, in 1995, individuals in the 25- to 44-year-old age group and the 65 and over year group spent a greater percentage of their incomes on housing and food than those in the 45- to 64-year-old age group. Older adults also spent a higher percentage of their income on health care, utilities, and cash contributions than young and middle-aged adults. On the other hand, young and middle-aged adults spent higher percentages of their incomes than older adults on transportation, clothing, insurance, and pensions (US. Department of Labor, 1996). Housing, Exc. Util Transportation Food Health Care Utilities Cash Contributions Clothing Insurance, Pensions Entertainment Other Expenditures Housing, Exc. Util Transportation Food Health Care Utilities Cash Contributions Clothing Insurance, Pensions Entertainment...

Long TermCare Facilities

As people become very old, the incidence of both physical and mental disorders increases. This is particularly true for the 85-and-over segment of the population. About one-fourth of very old Americans require personal care and supervision in addition to room and board, but not continuing nursing care. For them, some form of group housing may meet their needs adequately, as seen in residential care homes or retirement homes.

Location And Relocation

Realizing that a house is not necessarily a home, I now use the latter term to refer to the place where I live. Because I am no longer gainfully employed, I suppose that one might refer to it as my retirement home. It's probably better than a nursing home, but I'll have to wait and see before making a final judgment.

Adjustment disorder

The stressful events that precipitate an adjustment disorder vary widely. They may include the loss of a job the end of a romantic relationship a life transition such as a career change or retirement or a serious accident or sickness. Some are acute one-time stressors, such as relocating to a new area, while others are chronic, such as caring for a child with mental retardation.

Methods And Measures

Participation and mortality rates persist indefinitely. These measures are useful for predicting future labor supply and for making decisions concerning, for example, the investment of pension funds. Where labor force participation rates are changing rapidly, or whenever workers experience many exits and reentries into the labor force, these tables will be inaccurate. Recent developments have focused on successfully smoothing the transition probabilities to improve the tables (Land, Guralnik, and Blazer 1994). One criticism of this measurement technique is that the line between the not in the labor force adults and the unemployed is blurry. Gonul (1992) finds that these two states are distinct for young women but not for young men. Kreider (1999) finds that nonworkers in the Health and Retirement Survey overreport work limitations, suggesting that these people may have exaggerated their health conditions to justify their nonparticipation in the labor force. Retirement or disability...

Future Research Directions

First, there is an opportunity to expand multidisciplinary work that examines connections across domains. Currently there is a tendency for demographers to focus on population projections, sociologists to focus on family and kin ties, economists to focus on pension and work issues, and epidemiologists to focus on health and disability issues. But each of these domains is linked to the others, and none can adequately be understood in isolation from the others. By working together on research design, investigators from these various disciplines can develop measures and coordinate data collection so that linkages across domains can be studied. One goal would be that policy recommendations could reflect a more complete understanding of population aging that comes from recognizing that the experience of aging is multifaceted.

Biomedical Demography

Currently, several major research projects are underway that are headed or co-headed by biomedical demographers. In the United States the three most notable are the Health and Retirement Survey (HRS), the National Long Term Care Survey (NLTCS), and the MacArthur Study of Successful Aging. Soldo played a major role in designing

The Health Of Older Adults

As a society, we are confronted by the new phenomenon of the third age the one-third of life that people will be living after retirement. Roles and responsibilities in this third age are in need of development. It is critical to recognize, from a public health point of view, that older adults' health is positively affected by remaining active and engaged in meaningful activities that have an impact and give back to society (for example, see Erikson et al.). At the same time, we have profound unmet social needs to which older adults could bring social capital in a mutually beneficial relationship. In fact, for cities, older adults could be the only increasing natural resource (Fried et al., 2000). Recognizing the needs and desires of older adults to remain active and generative and developing institutions that facilitate this will serve to promote the health of our aging population (Fried, et al, 1997). There are a number of examples of new models of volunteerism as well as phased...

Exceptions to Our Description

We paint a slightly caricatured picture of the field to make a point. Many organizational researchers can, and do, use alternative methods to collect some of their data. For example, many studies of quitting, retirement, and absence use objective organizational reports of such behavior. Other studies of leadership and citizenship behavior, for example, use peer, subordinate, and spousal reports of such behaviors. These studies are stronger for using multisource data however, it is still the rare study that uses more than one source of data to measure a single construct. Moreover, many key constructs would simply be poorly measured using objective or other reports. Consider job satisfaction, perceptions of organizational justice, fairness, and job withdrawal intentions. It is difficult to obtain assessments other than self-reports of these variables. Thus, when alternative methods are used, they are used sparingly and usually for constructs that lend themselves well to alternative...

Is Aging Research Anti Aging

First, significant increases in lifespan could create significant societal problems (Capron, 2004). A longer lifespan could result in a larger aging population and a longer period of decline for humans. Significant gains in age retardation could upset delicate social institutions related to health care, employment, retirement, marriage, etc. In so doing they could be destructive of the common good and create issues of distributive justice and inter-generational equity.

Research Directions

Age Structure and Retirement In the advanced industrial societies, labor force participation rates have typically declined with advancing age. In many countries, there is a customary or even legally enforced retirement age. Programs such as Social Security must carefully model the number of retired dependents who will be eligible for transfer payments. Declining mortality rates have lengthened the number of years that elders will spend out of the labor force (Gendell 2002). In addition, declining fertility rates throughout the industrialized world have made it difficult to replace older workers with younger native-born workers. Thus, the rates of retirement are closely tied to issues of state spending and immigration policy (Coleman 1992). In developing countries, older workers often continue to work almost until the time of death. In advanced industrial countries, the pattern is different (Clark, Ramsbey, and Adler 1999). American labor force participation rates at older ages dropped...

Attachment and detachment in family development and autonomy and life cycle

The parent child attachment changes over time to allow for the developing independence in the child. The degree of detachment increases until the child reaches the stage of an autonomous adult. The attachment and detachment process is a dynamic involving the child moving away from the parent and the parent letting go the child. Through out this period the child develops other attachments outside the family and in adulthood finds a sexual partner to establish another family. These changes in the family are part of the family life cycle which has particular transition points of change - birth, infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood, middle age, retirement and aging and death. These transition points are times of stress for the family as the change is negotiated.

Description Of Social Patterns And Trends

There is a great social and economic demand for objective information about population characteristics and trends. This need arises, in part, from popular curiosity of people wanting to know if others are like them and share common experiences. Businesses want to know about potential markets for goods and services and whether demand is likely to grow or shrink (see chapter 25, Small Area and Business Demography, in this Handbook). Public authorities also seek information about current and future population size and composition to be able to plan where to locate schools and roads and how much revenue will be needed to provide for future pensions and health care needs. Although these ''data needs'' are sometimes met by generalizing from one's own (and acquaintances') experiences, it is widely recognized that broader and more representative data provide a more accurate portrait. Demographers, by virtue of their expertise in analyzing and interpreting census data and their scientific...

The Nature Of Stressful Life Events And Disasters

This section deals with distinctions that have been applied to characteristics of life events and disasters. Objective characteristics of a stressful encounter in uence the way people appraise them cognitively as challenges, threat, harm, or loss. Severity, duration, and ambiguity of a stressor, among other characteristics, make a difference when it comes to appraisal, emotions, coping, and outcomes. Loss of loved ones, academic failure, injury, job loss, divorce, and disasters that affect an entire community can be categorized along a number of dimensions, including predictability, controllability, suddenness, and strength of impact, and so on. A common distinction is the one between normative and nonnormative events. Normative refers to anticipating a certain class of events that naturally happen to many individuals at certain times during their lives and are expected, for example, school transitions, marriage, childbirth, academic exams, retirement, death of parents, and others. In...

On The Intertwined Role Of The Social And Physical Environment As People Age An Integrative Perspective

A telling example to illustrate these expected personenvironment dynamics as people age is provided by relocation research, because relocation probably is the most radical process, in which the physical and frequently major elements of the social environment are changed at the same time. Having lived in a specific place implies an enormous amount of implicit knowledge related to everyday routines, to geographical distances inside and outside the home, to distinguishing neighbors from strangers, to seasonal changes of the sunlight, and to community services. Seeking to enhance one's sense of belongingness refers to the meaning and memories that individuals associate with their immediate home environment and that creates a sense of place identity. Not surprisingly, therefore, relocation in later adulthood may not be a question of just finding technically more easy-going, age-adequate, comfortable and supportive new living places, but rather it is a question of resolving the nearly...

Stress Syndromes

Another job-related event that is potentially stressful is retirement. As noted by Butler and Lewis (1982, pp. 128, 130), In retirement, otherwise perfectly healthy men and women may develop headaches, depression, gastrointestinal symptoms, and oversleeping . . Irritability, loss of interest, lack of energy, increased alcoholic intake, and reduced efficiency are all familiar and common reactions. Though these symptoms are certainly not the norm, retirement is often accompanied by a sense of diminished usefulness, insignificance, loss of independence, and sometimes feelings that life is essentially over. Bereavement, like retirement, is more likely to occur in later adulthood. Depression, sleep disturbances, loss of appetite and weight, chronic fatigue, lack of interest in external things, and difficulties in concentrating are among the symptoms of bereavement. In some cases, reactions to the death of a spouse or other close relative are so intense that severe physical illness, a...


Part A is generally provided automatically, and free of premiums, to persons age 65 or over who are eligible for Social Security or Railroad Retirement benefits, whether they have claimed these monthly cash benefits or not. Also, workers and their spouses with a sufficient period of Medicare-only coverage in Federal, State, or local government employment are eligible beginning at age 65. Similarly, individuals who have been entitled to Social Security or Railroad Retirement disability benefits for at least 24 months, and government employees with Medicare-only coverage who have been disabled for more than 29 months, are entitled to Part A benefits. Part A coverage is also provided to insured workers with ESRD (and to insured workers' spouses and children with ESRD), as well as to some otherwise ineligible aged and disabled beneficiaries who voluntarily pay a monthly premium for their coverage. In 2003, Part A provided protection against the costs of hospital and specific other medical...

Colony Assessment

Accurate and user-friendly record keeping programs are vital for optimizing the expression of the mutation, maximizing the number of viable offspring, and minimizing the potential confounding influence of background genes from breeder parents. Record keeping systems should incorporate a combination of written and computer-based records. Either a commercial colony management software system or standard Excel spreadsheets can be used to maintain a master list of every mouse that is ear tagged or otherwise marked for identification using tattoos, ear punches, subcutaneous transponders, or toe clipping. Items recorded in the master list include birth date, transgene name, generation, line, sex, parents, phenotype and genotype, and information about the specific project. Establishing a pedigree for each founder mouse that is mated is a vital part of the recording system. Customized cage cards for breeder cages provide a summary of the breeding activity for each cage. Customized weaning...

Families and Friends

In addition to being smaller, the families of today are different in other ways from what they used to be. Social changes have been accompanied by higher educational levels, higher divorce rates, a greater number of single-parent families, more mothers employed outside the home, earlier and more extensive retirement of older family members, and more leisure time and entertainment. Such developments have affected the attitudes, values, behaviors, and expectations of all family members, and particularly the younger ones. This chapter considers many of these structural and dynamic changes in the population and how they have affected the activities and ambitions of individual members of families.

Phases of Treatment

A role transition is a change in life status defined by a life event beginning or ending a relationship or career, a geographic move, job promotion or demotion, retirement, graduation, or diagnosis of a medical illness. Even a much-wanted new role such as getting married or having a child may be accompanied by unforeseen sense of loss. The patient learns to manage the change by mourning the loss of the old role while recognizing positive and negative aspects of the new role he or she is assuming, and taking steps to gain mastery over the new role. Frequently the new role, while undesired, is discovered to have previously unseen benefits. Interpersonal deficits, the residual fourth IPT problem area, is reserved for patients who lack one of the first three problem areas that is, patients who report no recent life events. The category is poorly named, and really means that the patient is presenting without the kind of defining recent life event on which IPT usually focuses. Not...


For example, we might think of organizational commitment as a relatively more stable variable than is mood. However, even organizational commitment varies about its long-term mean over time. Some weeks we are very committed to our organizations, others, not so because of, for example, a press story that the CEO of our organization and his captive finance committee recently awarded him a 20-year increase in his years with the organization to increase his retirement benefits no such additions to rank-and-file employees' years of service were made. These deviations are regarded as random minor fluctuations or measurement errors in the current application of classical measurement theory. As a consequence of this, they are ignored in our studies of the constructs within-person, across-time variances in the assessments of the construct are neither studied nor analyzed for possible relations with antecedents or behavioral consequences. We do not investigate the potential antecedents and...


Job loss and unemployment can have serious repercussions for older and less-educated individuals, who may have great difficulty in finding another job (Kinicki, 1989). For many older workers, unemployment is the first step in early retirement (Robinson, Coberly, &Paul, 1985). On the other hand, the loss of a job is less disastrous for younger workers, who can expect to change jobs 5-10 times during their working years (Toffler, 1970). American workers can no longer count on lifetime employment with the same company. Younger workers who are laid off because of downturns in the economy, technological changes, corporate buyouts and mergers, competition, and downsizing are usually able to find new jobs if they are patient and continue searching. For example, most workers with marketable skills found new jobs after the massive downsizing of industries in the early 1990s.

Wills and Probate

As a way of reducing the tax burden on his or her estate and heirs, one of the first things that a person with a sizable amount of property wants to know from an estates attorney is how to avoid probate. This may be done through annuitization (insurance, retirement plans, employee stock plans, annuities, etc.). which are exempt from probate. Furthermore, in many states, bank accounts that are held jointly may be treated like jointly held real estate and hence are not subject to probate. Another way to avoid probate is to transfer most of one's assets to other people while one is still alive or to transfer them in the form of co-ownership (joint tenancy). In addition, one can give 10,000

Deciding to Retire

People retire for many reasons, and some for no conscious reason at all other than acceptance of the notion that people are supposed to retire by a certain age if they can afford to. Disabilities such as heart disease, hypertension, injuries, and mental disorders force many older adults to retire, even before age 65. In addition to health problems and disabilities, job loss or dissatisfaction, financial security, retirement of a spouse, pressure from younger workers, opportunity to participate in leisure and volunteer activities, feelings that they are not as productive as the once were, and discouragement over their inability to find a job all affect the decision to retire (U.S. Senate Special Committee on Aging, 1991 Human Capital Initiative, 1993). For many older adults, their jobs become increasingly burdensome and they begin to engage in a preretirement role-exit process (Ekerdt & DeViney, 1993). for organizations during a time of slow economic growth and retrenchment. Less...

Elder Abuse

Because older adults, who have poorer physical strength and skill and frequently live alone, are more vulnerable to crime than their younger contemporaries, a number of public and private organizations have taken steps to combat the problem of crime against the elderly. Older residents of metropolitan areas, in particular, are often preyed upon by thieves and attackers, who want the monthly pension and benefit checks, cash, and other property of older adults. Aged widows and others who live alone are special targets of these young hoodlums, who lie in wait for them in the streets or invade their homes (see Aiken, 1995).

Sources of Income

On the job but also with the perceived value of the job to the hiring organization and society as a whole. Of the 188 million Americans over age 14 receiving incomes in 1995, approximately 75 (140 million) had earned incomes. However, anyone who has attempted to complete an income tax form knows that gainful employment is not the only source of income. Depending on their age and status, people may receive income from any of the sources listed in Figure 10-2. As shown in this figure, many people have interest, Social Security, dividend, and pension income. Smaller numbers of people receive substantial amounts of income from survivors' benefits, disability benefits, alimony, workers' compensation, and other sources ((U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1996).

Empirical Findings

One of the most important changes in the labor force has been the shift in women's age-specific labor force participation rates (Bianchi 1995). In the middle of the 20th century, these rates when graphed against age formed the shape of the letter M. The rates rose through the young adult years, declined after marriage (or later, after first birth), rose after the children had left home, and finally declined again after retirement age. But with each succeeding year, the M shape changed. The graph rose higher each year as the overall labor force participation rates increased. In 1950, women represented less than 30 of the labor force, but by 1980 women were 42 of the labor force (Kutscher 1993). Along with this general rise, the center of the M shape slowly disappeared. Fertility began to decline after 1965. In addition, women were less likely to leave the labor force for any significant length of time following the birth of a child, thus removing the middle of the M. By 1990, the...

Overview Of Medicare

Title XVIII of the Social Security Act, designated Health Insurance for the Aged and Disabled, is commonly known as Medicare. As part of the Social Security Amendments of 1965, the Medicare legislation established a health insurance program for aged persons to complement the retirement, survivors, and disability insurance benefits under Title II of the Social Security Act. When first implemented in 1966, Medicare covered most persons age 65 or over. In 1973, the following groups also became eligible for Medicare benefits persons entitled to Social Security or Railroad Retirement disability cash benefits for at least 24 months, most persons with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and certain otherwise non-covered aged persons who elect to pay a premium for Medicare coverage. The Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP Benefits Improvement and Protection Act of 2000 (Public Law 106-554) allowed persons with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's Disease) to waive the 24-month waiting period.


G. (1993). Trends in health among the American population In Bartlett, D. and Rappaport, A.M. (eds.), Demography and retirement The 21st Century. Westport, CT Praeger. Elo, I. (1998). Childhood conditions and adult health evidence from the health and retirement study. In Population Aging Research Center Working Papers. Philadelphia, PA.

Case Example

A cognitive formulation of Thomas's presenting problems suggested that, at a core level, central to his sense of self, Thomas had assimilated the belief that his acceptability as a person was conditional on being respected and regarded as competent in all domains and at all times. His career as a carpenter and his retirement interests involved fine motor skills that had been essentially lost through the progression of the Parkinson's disease.

Indirect Costs

Indirect costs are the reduction in the level of economic activity due to the illness and premature death attributable to obesity. The economic activity is generally considered to be that captured by the gross domestic product (GDP) statistic. Examples are the wages and productivity lost due to sickness and absenteeism produced by obesity or the loss of productivity due to the mechanical difficulties caused by obesity which reduce the efficiency of performing a task. Other factors contributing to the indirect costs of obesity are the disability pensions which are paid because of obesity or its associated conditions and the loss of productivity produced by the premature deaths due to obesity. There are several ways to calculate this cost and it is more difficult to do and more varied in outcome than the health care (or direct) costs.


Acceleration in technological advances, coupled with increases in the aging population, has led to an unavoidable convergence of these two major societal trends. What the blend can look like is largely dependent upon attitudes toward the elderly and the appropriate utilization of technologies in areas such as home health care, education, work retirement schemes, and adaptive lifestyles. As the population continues to age, it is likely that increasing numbers of those aged 85 or older will face incapacitating and largely unavoidable infirmities. The relationship between technology and aging underscores the importance of functional ability in maintaining the independence of the elderly, maximizing their options, and improving their quality of life. Technology has been the major factor in increasing life expectancy technology can further respond by providing additional knowledge and avenues to enhance the quality of life in advanced old age. The aging of the population raises critical...

Integrative Chapter

Indeed, another point that emerges from these chapters is that they are describing different urban populations less than they are describing groups that are all part of one dynamic, and inter-related, urban population. That these groups are characterized by differences is self-evident, but perhaps it is the similarities between these groups that are ultimately more important to consider. Fundamentally, the authors of all chapters are discussing populations that are not only affected by their urban environment, but in many ways are brought together by their urban environment. Thus, perhaps paradoxically, the heterogeneity of urban populations itself contributes to a homogenization of the urban environment that in turn affects all groups living in urban areas. For example, we saw in the preceding chapters how marginalized groups (e.g., persons who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered) within cities have made outsize contributions to cities' cultural life. In turn, this very...

Suburban Futures

In addition, there is a great need to relate the employment base of suburbs to the types of residents and to their growth patterns. Traditional assembly-line manufacturing is on the decline, and as suggested, the presence of manufacturing workplaces no longer has the same consequences for community character that it once did. It is important to recognize, however, the influence on communities of the dramatic growth of human service industries such as government, health care, retirement services, finance, and real estate. These are undoubtedly having major consequences for the types of persons and families who live in the surrounding areas.