Species accounts

No common name

Moniliformis moniliformis

ORDER Moniliformida

FAMILY Moniliformidae

TAXONOMY

Moniliformis moniliformis (Bremser, 1811) Travassos, 1915.

OTHER COMMON NAMES None known.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Worm filiform, often coiled, with distinct pseudosegmentation and bead-like appearance when mature. Females: 4-11 in (10-27 cm) long and 0.08 in (2 mm) maximum in width; males: 1.6-2 in (4-5 cm) long. Trunk unarmed. Proboscis nearly cylindrical. Twelve longitudinal rows of 7-8 hooks. Eight cement glands.

DISTRIBUTION Cosmopolitan.

HABITAT

Definitive hosts: numerous wild rodents, particularly rats, dogs, and cats. Intermediate hosts: beetles and cockroaches. Paratenic hosts: toads and lizards.

BEHAVIOR

A few weeks post infection: migration of worms from posterior part to anterior half of intestine of definitive host. Optimal attachment site influenced by sugar gradient in host intestine. Several, but not all, species of roaches containing larvae exhibit altered behavior (e.g., decreased evasive responsivness). Altered intermediate host behavior likely increases probability of parasite transfer to definitive host.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Major sources of energy are host dietary carbohydrates. Man-nose, glucose, fructose, galactose, and starch all known to influence worm growth, longevity, and reproduction. Absorption across tegumental surface. Primary sites of absorption are extra-cytoplasmic crypts opening to the outside via narrow necks and pores. Pinocytotic and enzymatic activity observed within crypts. Cystacanths store large amounts of glycogen that likely act as an energy source during activation and establishment in the definitive host. Little known about lipid metabolism: available evidence indicates larval stages accumulate lipids. Adult dispersion

Reproduction Biology

in host intestine influenced by nature of lipids in host diet. Specific amino acids readily taken up and catabolized; role in energy metabolism still unclear. Site of absorption of amino acids unknown. Both uridine and thymine transported from host lumen but nucleoside transport mechanism not known.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Adults mature in 5-6 weeks in intestine of definitive host. Hatching of acanthor occurs between 15 minutes and 48 hours post ingestion by intermediate host. Larvae develop into cysta-canth in adult roach in about two months at 81°F (27°C).

CONSERVATION STATUS

Not threatened. Most likely flourishing because of widespread distribution and abundance of hosts.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS

Human pathogen. Symptoms include fatigue, tinnitus, and diarrhea. ♦

Giant thorny-headed worm

Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus

ORDER

Oligacanthorhynchida FAMILY

Oligacanthorhynchidae TAXONOMY

Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (Pallas, 1781) Travassos, 1917.

OTHER COMMON NAMES None known.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Very large worms. Females up to 26 in (65 cm) long, 0.32-0.36 in (8-9 mm) at their largest width and ventrally curved. Males up to 4 in (10 cm) long. Body unarmed, grayish brown, with deep grooves on surface. Globular proboscis with six spiral rows of six hooks each. Eight cement glands.

DISTRIBUTION Cosmopolitan.

HABITAT

Adults in swine Sus scrofa and other mammals (e.g., fox squirrel [Sciurus niger], eastern mole [Scalopus aquaticus], hyena [Hyaena hyaena], and dog [Canis familiaris]). Thirty-three species of intermediate hosts reported (e.g., the cockroach Periplaneta americana and scarab [Polyphylla rugosa]).

BEHAVIOR

Causes serious pathology in pigs.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Little known. Metabolism is likely to be carbohydrate based. Uptake of amino acids via undefined transport mechanisms.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Immense number of eggs released by each female. Eggs remain viable for up to 3.5 years. Cold temperatures improve egg survival. Larval development in 4-5 months in the intermediate

Reproduction Biology

H Pomphorhynchus laevis H Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus host. Adult maturity reached in definitive hosts in 70-110 days. Life span: 10-23 months.

CONSERVATION STATUS Not listed by the IUCN.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS

Most frequent agent of human acanthocephaliasis (macracan-thorhynchosis or macracanthorhynchiasis). Symptoms: constipation, abdominal pain, fever, perforation of the intestinal wall. Also economical effect in countries where macracanthorhyn-chosis causes heavy losses in pig farms. ♦

No common name

Plagiorhynchus cylindraceus

ORDER Polymorphida

FAMILY

Plagiorhynchidae TAXONOMY

Plagiorhynchus (Prosthorhynchus) cylindraceus (Goeze, 1782) Schmidt and Kuntz, 1966.

OTHER COMMON NAMES None known.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Small worms with elliptical, unarmed, and milky-white body. Females: 0.35-0.60 in (9-15 mm) long. Males 0.32-0.51 in (8-13 mm) long. Cylindrical proboscis with 15-18 longitudinal rows of 11-15 hooks each. Six cement glands.

DISTRIBUTION

Cosmopolitan.

HABITAT

Definitive hosts: passerine birds such as robins (Turdus migrato-rius) and starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), although virtually any bird can be infected. Intermediate hosts: terrestrial isopods Armadil-lidium vulgare and Porcellio scaber. Paratenic hosts: crested anole (Anolis cristatellus) and short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda).

BEHAVIOR

Behavior of adult worms: not known. Detrimentally affects definitive host metabolism and digestive abilities. Behavior change of infected isopods: found more on white surfaces and low humidity areas than uninfected isopods. Evidence indicates such altered behavior makes them easier prey to bird definitive hosts.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Nothing is known.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Development in isopods takes about 60-65 days. Maturity reached within several weeks following ingestion of cystacanths by definitive host.

CONSERVATION STATUS

Not threatened. Based upon great diversity of definitive hosts, an unlikely candidate for extinction.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS

None known. Indirect effect by negatively affecting populations of passerine birds such as mountain bluebirds. ♦

No common name

Pomphorhynchus laevis

ORDER

Echinorhynchida

FAMILY

Pomphorhynchidae

TAXONOMY

Pomphorhynchus laevis (Zoega in O. F. Muller, 1776) Van Cleave, 1924 (nec laeve).

OTHER COMMON NAMES

None known.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Average-sized worms with a long and cylindrical neck. Neck dilated in its anterior part into the shape of a bulb. Females are 0.5-1.1 in (13-28 mm) long. Males: 0.24-0.63 in (6-16 mm) long. Body unarmed and most often orange. Cylindrical proboscis with 18-20 longitudinal rows of 12-13 hooks each. Short lemnisci. Two testes in tandem. Six cement glands.

DISTRIBUTION

Palaearctic.

HABITAT

Definitive hosts: numerous freshwater fishes (e.g., sharp-nosed eel (Anguilla vulgaris), common bream (Abramis brama), chub (Leuciscus cephalus), barbel (Barbus barbus), goldfish (Carassius auratus), etc. Intermediate hosts: amphipods: Corophium voluta-tor, Gammarus bergi, G. fossarum, G. lacustris, G. pulex, and Pon-tagammarus robustoides. Fish for paratenic hosts (e.g., Phoxinus phoxinus).

BEHAVIOR

Not known. Host dietary carbohydrates likely the major energy source. Adults perforate all layers of intestinal wall with their proboscis and thus never change position in intestine. Infected intermediate hosts exhibit photophilic behavior. Cystacanths bright orange, making infected amphipod intermediate hosts more visible to fish predators.

FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET

Little known. Lipid analysis indicates neck and lemnisci function in lipid absorption and storage.

REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY

Larvae mature in intermediate hosts within several weeks. Gravid females in fish intestine carry immense numbers of eggs. Once released in water, spindle-shaped eggs appear to be diatom-like.

CONSERVATION STATUS Not listed by the IUCN.

SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS

Not pathological to humans. Possible economic effect by affecting fingerling development in aquaculture conditions. ♦

Resources

Books

Crompton, D. W. T., and Brent B. Nickol. Biology of the Acanthocephala. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

Moore, Janice. Parasites and the Behavior of Animals. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002

Muller, Ralph. Worms and Human Diseases. Cambridge, MA: CABI Publishing, 2002.

Neafie, Ronald C., and Aileen M. Marty. "Acanthocephaliasis." In Pathology of Infectious Diseases, vol.1, Helminthiases, edited by W. M. Meyers. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, American Registry of Pathology, 2000.

Taraschewski, Horst. "Host-Parasite Interactions in

Acanthocephala: A Morphological Approach." In Advances in Parasitology, vol. 46, edited by J. R. Baker, R. Muller, and D. Rollinson. San Diego: Academic Press, 2000.

Periodicals

Garcia-Varela, M., M. P. Cummings, G. Perez-Ponce de Leon, S. L. Gardner, and J. P. Laclette. "Phylogenetic Analysis Based on 18S Ribosomal RNA Gene Sequences

Supports the Existence of Class Polyacanthocephala (Acanthocephala)." Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 23

Garcia-Varela, M., G. Perez-Ponce de Leon, P. de la Torre, M. P. Cummings, S. S. S. Sarma, and J. P. Laclette. "Phylogenetic Relationships of Acanthocephala Based on Analysis of 18S Ribosomal RNA Gene Sequences." Journal of Molecular Evolution 50: 532-540.

Golvan, Y. J. "Nomenclature of the Acanthocephala." Research and Reviews in Parasitology 54, no.3 (1994): 135-205.

Goncalves, M. L. C., A. Araujo, and L. F. Ferreira. "Human Intestinal Parasites in the Past: New Findings and a Review." Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 98, suppl.1

Herlyn, H., O. Piskurek, J. Schmitz, U. Ehlers, and H.

Zischler. "The Sundermatan Phylogeny and the Evolution of Acanthocephalan Endoparasitism as Inferred from 18S rDNA Sequences." Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 26 (2003): 155-164.

Isaure de Buron, PhD Vincent A. Connors, PhD

Phylum Entoprocta (Kamptozoa) Number of families 4

Thumbnail description

Colonial or solitary tiny benthic animals with a tentacular crown on top, and a slender stalk that attaches basally to the substratum

Photo: Loxosomella sp. inhabiting parapodia of a polynoid polychaete found at Noto Peninsula, Japan. (Photo by Tohru Iseto. Reproduced by per-

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