Resources

Books

Brusca, R. C., and G. J. Brusca. Invertebrates. 2nd ed. New York: Sinauer Associates Inc., 2003.

Jefferies, R. P. S. The Ancestry of the Vertebrates. London: British Museum (Natural History), 1986.

Nielsen, C. Animal Evolution. Interrelationships of the Living Phyla. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Tyler, S. "The Early Worm: Origins and Relationships of Lower Flatworms." In Interrelationships of the Platyhelminthes, edited by D. T. J. Littlewood and R. A. Bray. London: Taylor and Francis, 2001.

Periodicals

Christen, R., A. Ratto, A. Baroin, R. Perasso, K. G. Grell, and A. Adouette. "An Analysis of the Origin of Metazoans, Using Comparisons of Partial Sequences of the 28S RNA, Reveals an Early Emergence of Triploblasts." EMBO 10 (1991): 499-503.

Field, K. G., et al. "Molecular Phylogeny of the Animal Kingdom." Science 239 (1988): 748-753.

Funch, P., and R. M. Kristensen. "Cycliophora Is a New Phylum with Affinities to Entoprocta and Ectoprocta." Nature 378 (1995): 711-714.

Garstang, W. "The Morphology of the Tunicata, and Its Bearing on the Phylogeny of the Chordata." Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science 72 (1928): 51-187.

Haeckel, E. "The Gastrea-Theory, The Phylogenetic

Classification of the Animal Kingdom and the Homology of the Germ Lamellae." Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science 14 (1866): 142-165, 223-247.

Nielsen, C. "Defining Phyla: Morphological and Molecular Clues to Metazoan Evolution." Evolution & Development 5 (2003): 386-393.

Rieger, R. M. "Uber den Ursprung der Bilateria: die Bedeutung der Ultrastrukturforschung fur ein neues Verstehen der Metazoenevolution." Verhandlungen der Deutschen Zoologischen Gesellschaft 79 (1986): 31-50.

Rieger, R. M., and P. Ladurner. "Searching for the Stem Species of the Bilateria." Belgian Journal of Zoology 131 (2001): 27-34.

Xiao S., Y. Zhang, and A. H. Knoll. "Three Dimensional Preservation of Algae and Animal Embryos in a Neoproterozoic Phosphorite." Nature 391 (1998): 553-558.

Rick Hochberg, PhD

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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