Gibson, Ray. Nemerteans. London: Hutchinson University Library, 1972.

-. Nemerteans. Synopses of the British Fauna. Dorchester:

The Linnean Society of London, 1994.

Gibson, Ray, Janet Moore, and Per Sundberg. Advances in Nemertean Biology. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1993.

Sundberg, Per, Ray Gibson, and Gunnar Berg. Recent Advances in Nemertean Biology. Dordrecht: Dr. W. Junk Publishers, 1988.


Gibson, Ray. "The Invertebrate Fauna of New Zealand: Nemertea (Ribbon Worms)." NIWA Biodiversity Memoir 118 (2002): 1-87.

Sundberg, Per, Turbeville J. McClintock, and Susanne Lindh. "Phylogenetic Relationships among Higher Nemertean (Nemertea) Taxa Inferred from 18S rDNA Sequences." Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 20 (2001): 327-334.

Thollesson, Mikael, and Jon L. Norenburg. "Ribbon Worm Relationships: A Phylogeny of the Phylum Nemertea."

Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences. 270 (2003): 407-415.

Per A. Sundberg, PhD

Phylum Nemertea Class Enopla Number of families 30

Thumbnail description

Worms with an armed proboscis; mouth situated anterior to the cerebral ganglia; and the central nervous system internal to body wall, which consists of three muscle layers

Illustration: Oerstedia dorsalia. (Illustration by Emily Damstra)

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

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