Resources

Picton, B. E. EA Field Guide to the Shallow-water Echinoderms of the British Isles. London: Immel Publishing Ltd., 1993.

Sloan, N. A., and A. C. Campbell. "Perception of Food." In Echinoderm Nutrition, edited by Michael Jangoux and John Lawrence. Rotterdam, Netherlands: A. A. Balkema, 1982.

Periodicals

Blake, B. D. "Adaptive Zones of the Class Asteroidea (Echinodermata)." Bulletin of Marine Science 46 (1990): 701-718.

-. "A Classification and Phylogeny of Post-Paleozoic Sea

Stars (Asteroidea: Echinodermata)." Journal of Natural History 21 (1987): 481-528.

Bryne, M. "Reproduction of Sympatric Populations of Patiriella guunii, P. calcar and P. exigua in New South Wales, Asterinid Sea Stars with Direct Development." Marine Biology 114 (1992): 297-316.

-. "Viviparity and Intragonadal Cannibalism in the

Diminutive Sea Stars Patiriella vivipara and P. parvivipara (family Asterinidae)." Marine Biology 125 (1996): 551-567.

Bryne, M., and A. Cerra. "Evolution of Intragonadal

Development in the Diminutive Asterinid Sea Star Patiriella vivipara and P. parvivipara with an Overview of Development in the Asterinidae." Biological Bulletin 191 (1996): 17-26.

Bryne, M., M. G. Morrice, and B. Wolf. "Introduction of the Northern Pacific Asteroid Asterias amurenis to Tasmania: Reproduction and Current Distribution." Marine Biology 127 (1997): 73-685.

Ebert, T. A. "The Consequences of Broadcasting, Brooding, and Asexual Reproduction in Echinoderm Metapopulations." Oceanologica Acta 19 (1996): 217-226.

Emson, R. H., and I. C. Wilkie. "Fission and Autotomy in Echinoderms." Oceanography Biological Annual Review 18 (1973): 389-438.

Emson, R. H., and C. M. Young. "Feeding Mechanism of the Brisingid Starfish Novodinia antillensis." Marine Biology 118 (1994): 433-442.

Freeman, S. M., C. A. Richardson, and R. Seed. "The Distribution and Occurrence of Acholoe squamosa (Polychaeta: Polynoidae), a Commensal with the Burrowing Starfish Astropecten irregularis (Echinodermata: Asteroidea)." Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 47 (1998): 107-118.

-. "Seasonal Abundance, Spatial Distribution, Spawning and Growth of Astropecten irregularis (Echinodermata: Asteroidea)." Estuarine, Coastal Shelf Science 53 (2001): 39-49.

Kaiser, M. J. "Starfish Damage as Indicator of Trawling Intensity." Marine Ecology Progress Series 134 (1996): 303-307.

Keesing, J. K., and J. S. Lucas. "Field Measurement of Feeding and Movement Rates of the Crown-of-thorns Starfish Acanthaster planci." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 156 (1992): 89-104.

Kidawa, A. "Antarctic Starfish, Odontaster validus, Distinguish Between Fed and Starved Conspecifics." Polar Biology 24 (2001): 408-410.

Lawrence, J. M., M. Byrne, L. Harris, B. Keegan, S. M.

Freeman, and B. C. Cowell. "Sublethal Arm Loss in Asterias amurensis, A. rubens, A. vulgaris and A. forbesi (Echinodermata: Asteroidea)." Vie et Milieu 49 (1999): 69-73.

Lawrence, J. M., and J. Herrera. "Stress and Deviant

Reproduction in Echinoderms." Zoological Studies 39 (2000): 151-171.

Laxton, J. H. "A Preliminary Study of the Biology and Ecology of the Blue Starfish Linckia laevigata on the Australian Great Barrier Reef and an Interpretation of Its Role in the Coral Reef Ecosystem." Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 6 (1974): 47-64.

Littlewood, D. T. J. "Echinoderm Class Relationships

Revisited." In Echinoderm Research, edited by R. H. Emson, A. B.Smith, and A. C. Cambell. Rotterdam, Netherlands: A.A. Balkema, 1995.

McClintock, J. B. "Trophic Biology of Antarctic Shallow-water Echinoderms." Marine Ecology Progress Series 111 (1994): 191-202.

Menge, B. A., E. L. Berlow, S. A. Blanchette, S. A. Navarrete, and S. B. Yamada. "The Keystone Species Concept: Variation in Interaction Strength in a Rocky Intertidal Habitat." Ecological Monographs 64 (1994): 249-286.

Mosig, J. "Pacific Sea Star Looms as Threat to Aquaculture." Austasia Aquaculture 4 (1998): 57-58.

Paine, R. T. "A Note on Trophic Complexity and Community Stability." American Naturalist 103 (1969): 91-93.

Pawson, D. L. "Some Aspects of the Biology of Deep-sea Echinoderms." Thalassia Jugoslavica 12 (1976): 287-293.

Pearse, J. S. "Reproductive Periodicities in Several Contrasting Populations of Odontaster validus Koehler, a Common Antarctic Asteroid." Biology of the Antarctic Seas 2, Antarctic Research Series 5 (1965): 39-85.

Scheibling, R. E. "Dynamics and Feeding Activity of High Density Aggregations of Oreaster reticulatus (L.) (Echnodermata: Asteroidea) in a Sand Patch Habitat." Marine Ecology Progress Series 2 (1980): 321-327.

-. "Feeding Habits of Oreaster reticulatus (Echnodermata:

Asteroidea)." Bulletin of Marine Science 32 (1982): 504-510.

Sloan, N. A. "Aspects of the Feeding Biology of Asteroids." Marine Biology Annual Review 18 (1980): 57-124.

Tyler, P. A., S. L. Pain, and J. D. Gage. "The Reproductive Biology of the Deep-sea Asteroid Bathybiaster vexillifer." Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 62 (1982): 57-69.

"Recruitment, Ecology, Growth and Behavior of Juvenile Acanthaster planci (L.) (Echinodermata: Asteroidea)." Bulletin of Marine Science 41 (1987): 56-575.

Other

Freeman, S. M. "The Ecology of Astropecten irregularis and Its Potential Role as a Benthic Predator in Structuring a Soft-sediment Community." PhD Thesis. School of Ocean Sciences, University of North Wales, Bangor, UK, 1999.

Steven Mark Freeman, PhD

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