Gibson, Ray. Nemerteans. London: Hutchinson University Library, 1972.

- Nemerteans: Synopses of the British Fauna. Dorchester:

The Linnean Society of London, 1994.

Gibson, Ray, Janet Moore, and Per Sundberg. Advances in Nemertean Biology. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1993.

Sundberg, Per, Ray Gibson, and Gunnar Berg. Recent Advances in Nemertean Biology. Dordrecht: Dr. W. Junk Publishers, 1988.


Gibson, Ray. "The Invertebrate Fauna of New Zealand: Nemertea (Ribbon Worms)." NIWA Biodiversity Memoir 118 (2002): 1-87.

Sundberg, Per, Turbeville J. McClintock, and Susanne Lindh. "Phylogenetic Relationships among Higher Nemertean (Nemertea) Taxa Inferred from 18S rDNA Sequences." Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 20 (2001): 327-334.

Thollesson, Mikael and Jon L. Norenburg. "Ribbon Worm Relationships: A Phylogeny of the Phylum Nemertea."

Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences 270 (2003): 407-415.

Per A. Sundberg, PhD

Phylum Rotifera Number of families 34

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Group of microscopic animals characterized by the presence of a complex jaw apparatus and a ciliary wheel organ used for locomotion and feeding

Photo: Light micrograph of a common pond dwelling rotifer Philodina sp. seen feeding among organic matter and filamentous algae. The head of this rotifer is funnel-shaped, terminating in a mouth that is fringed with cilia or fine hairs. These hairs beat rapidly against the water, creating currents that draw particles in food into the mouth. (Photo by ©John Walsh/Science Photo Library/Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.)

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