Harbison, G. R. "On the Classification and Evolution of the Ctenophora." In The Origins and Relationships of Lower Invertebrates, edited by S. C. Morris, J. D. George, R. Gibson, and H. M. Platt. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985.

Matsumoto, G. I. Phylum Ctenophora (Orders Lobata, Cestida, Beroida, Cydippida, and Thalassocalycida): Functional Morphology, Locomotion, and Natural History. Los Angeles: University of California, Los Angeles, PhD Dissertation, 1990.


Harbison, G. R., G. I. Matsumoto, and B. H. Robison. "Lampocteis cruentiventer gen. nov., sp. nov.: A New Mesopelagic Lobate Ctenophore, Representing the Type of a New Family (Class Tentaculata, Order Lobata, Family Lampoctenidae, fam. nov.)." Bulletin of Marine Science, 68(2) (2001): 299-311.

Madin, L. P., and G. R. Harbison. "Thalassocalyce inconstans, New Genus and Species, an Enigmatic Ctenophore

Representing a New Family and Order." Bulletin of Marine Science 28(4) (1978): 680-687.

Rankin, J. J. "The Structure and Biology of Vallicula multiformis, gen. et sp. nov., a Platyctenid Ctenophore." Journal of the Linnean Society, 43 (1956): 55-71.

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Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute. 7700 Sandholdt Road, Moss Landing, CA 95039 Phone: (831) 775-1700. Fax: (831) 775-1620. E-mail: [email protected] Web site: <>


Mills, C. E. "Phylum Ctenophora: List of All Valid Species Names." March 1998 [June 10, 2003]. <>.

George I. Matsumoto, PhD

Phylum Platyhelminthes Class Acoela Number of families 20

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Tiny marine wormlike metazoans; the most primitive living animals with bilateral symmetry

Photo: A close-up of acoels (Waminoa sp.) on soft corals, Madang, Papua New Guinea. (Photo by A. Flowers & L. Newman. Reproduced by permission.)

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