Resources

Books

Féral, J.-P., and G. Cherbonnier. "Les holothuries." In Guide des étoiles de mer, oursins e autres échinodermes du lagon de Nouvelle-Calédonie, edited by Guille, A., P. Laboute, and J.-L. Menou. Paris: ORSTOM, 1986.

Hendler, G., J. E. Miller, D. L. Pawson, and P. M. Kier. Sea Stars, Sea Urchins, and Allies: Echinoderms of Florida and the Caribbean. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1995.

Lambert, P. Sea Cucumbers of British Columbia, Southeast Alaska and Puget Sound. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1997.

Picton, B. E., and R. H. Johnson. A Field Guide to the Shallow-Water Echinoderms of the British Isles. London: Immel, 1993.

Smiley, S. "Holothuroidea." In Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates, Vol 14, Echinodermata, edited by F. W. Harrison and F.-S. Chia. New York: Wiley-Liss, 1994.

Smiley, S., F. S. McEuen, S. Chaffee, and S. Krishnan. "Echinodermata: Holothuroidea." In Reproduction of

Marine Invertebrates, Vol 6, edited by A. C. Giese, J. S. Pearse, and V. B. Pearse. Pacific Grove, CA: Boxwood Press, 1991.

Periodicals

Gilliland, P. M. "The Skeletal Morphology, Systematics and Evolutionary History of Holothurians." Special Papers in Palaeontology 47 (1993): 1-147.

Kerr, A. M., and J. Kim. "Phylogeny of Holothuroidea (Echinodermata) Inferred from Morphology." Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 133 (2001): 63-81.

Miller, J. E., and D. L. Pawson. "Swimming Sea Cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea): A Survey, with Analysis of Swimming Behavior in Four Bathyal Species." Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences 35 (1990): 1-18.

Other

Kerr, A. M. "Holothuroidea: Sea Cucumbers." Tree of Life. 1 Dec. 2000 [14 July 2003]. <http://tolweb.org/tree?group= Holothuroidea&contgroup;=Echinodermata>.

Alexander M. Kerr, PhD

Phylum Chaetognatha Number of families 6

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Long, narrow worms that have transparent bodies and that are known for the hooks that they use to catch prey

Photo: Arrow worms are a dominant part of plankton. They prey on copepods, crustaceans, and larval fish, as well as other chaetognaths. (Photo by Animals Animals ©Peter Parks, OSF. Reproduced by permission.)

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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