Resources Books

Bone, Q. Biology of Pelagic Tunicates. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Esnal, G. B. "Appendicularia." In South Atlantic Zooplankton, Vol. 2, edited by D. Boltovskoy. Leiden, The Netherlands: Backhuys, 1999.

Wrobel, D., and C. Mills. Pacific Coast Pelagic Invertebrates. Monterey, CA: Sea Challengers and Monterey Bay Aquarium, 1999.

Yamaji, I. Illustrations of the Marine Plankton of Japan. Osaka: Hoikusha, 1976.


Hamner, W. M., and B. H. Robison. "In Situ Observations of Giant Appendicularians in Monterey Bay." Deep-Sea Research 39 (1992): 1299-1313.

Silver, M. W., S. L. Coale, C. H. Pilskaln, D. R. Steinberg. "Giant Aggregates: Importance as Microbial Centers and Agents of Material Flux in the Mesopelagic Zone." Limnology and Oceanography 43 (1998): 498-507.


"The JelliesZone." (15 July 2003). <>. <>

Michael S. Schaadt, MS

Phylum Chordata Class Sorberacea Number of families 1 Thumbnail description

Small group of exclusively deep-water Tunicata comprising solitary benthic species with a strongly reduced branchial sac

Illustration: Oligotrema sandersi. (Illustration by John Megahan)

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

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