Resources Books

Anzalone, L. "Loriolella, and the Transition from Regular to Irregular Echinoids." In Echinoderm Research, Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Echinoderms, edited by Maria D. C. Carnevali and Francesco Bonasoro. Rotterdam: A. A. Balkema, 1999.

Birkeland, C. "The Influence of Echinoderms on Coral-reef Communities." In Echinoderm Studies, edited by Michael Jangoux and John Lawrence. Rotterdam: A. A. Balkema, 1989.

Ebert, T. A. "Recruitment in Echinoderms." In Echinoderm Studies, edited by Michael Jangoux and John Lawrence. Rotterdam: A. A. Balkema, 1983.

Eugene, N. K. Marine Invertebrates of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1996.

Hendler, G., J. E. Miller, D. L. Pawson, and P. M. Kier. Sea Stars, Sea Urchins, and Allies: Echinoderms of Florida and the Caribbean. Washington, DC, and London: The Smithsonian Institution Press, 1995.

Kozloff, E. N. Seashore Life of the Northern Pacific Coast. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1993.

Lawrence, J. A Functional Biology of Echinoderms. London and Sydney: Croom Helm Press, 1987.

Lerman, M. Marine Biology: Environment, Diversity, and Ecology. San Francisco: Cummings Publishing Company, 1986.

Littlewood, D. T. J. "Echinoderm Class Relationships

Revisited." In Echinoderm Research, edited by H. Roland, A. Emson, B. Smith, and A. C. Campbell. Rotterdam: A. A. Balkema, 1995.

O'Clair, R. M., and E. O. O'Clair. Southeast Alaska's Rocky Shores, Animals. Auke Bay, AK: Plant Press, 1998.

Picton, B. E. A Field Guide to the Shallow-water Echinoderms of the British Isles. London: Immel Publishing Ltd, 1993.

Sloan, N. A., and A. C. Campbell. "Perception of Food." In Echinoderm Nutrition, edited by Michael Jangoux and John Lawrence. Rotterdam: A. A. Balkema, 1982.


Chiappone, M., D. W. Swanson, and S. L. Miller. "Density, Spatial Distribution and Size Structure of Sea Urchins in

Florida Keys Coral Reef and Hard-bottom Habitats."

Marine Ecology Progress Series 235 (2002): 117-126.

Chiu, S. T. "Anthocidaris crassispina (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) Grazing Epibenthic Macroalgae in Hong Kong." Asian Marine Biology (1988): 1-79.

Drummond, A. E. "Reproduction of the Sea Urchins Echinometra mathaei and Diadema savignyi on the South African Eastern Coast." Marine Freshwater Research 46 (1995): 751-755.

Ebert, T. A. "The Consequences of Broadcasting, Brooding, and Asexual Reproduction in Echinoderm Metapopulations." Oceanologica Acta 19 (1996): 217-226.

Emson, R. H., and I. C. Wilkie. "Fission and Autotomy in Echinoderms." Oceanography Biological Annual Review 18 (1973): 389-438.

Freeman, S. M. "Size-dependent Distribution and Diurnal Rythmicity Patterns in the Short-spined Sea Urchin

Anthocidaris crassispina." Estuarine, Coastal Shelf Science (2003).

Ghiold, J. "Observations on the Clypeasteroid Echinocyamus pusillus (Muller)." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 61 (1982): 57-74.

Kobayashi, N. "Fertilized Sea Urchin Eggs as an Indicatory Material for Marine Pollution Bioassay, Preliminary Experiments." Marine Biology Laboratory (1971): 379-406.

McClintock, J. B. "Trophic Biology of Antarctic Shallow-water Echinoderms." Marine Ecology Progress Series 111 (1994): 191-202.

Mooi, R. "Sand Dollars of the Genus Dendraster (Echinoidea: Clypeasteroidea): Phylogenic Systematics, Heterochrony, and Distribution of Extant Species." Bulletin of Marine Science 61 (1997): 343-375.

Lawrence, J. M., and J. Herrera. "Stress and Deviant

Reproduction in Echinoderms." Zoological Studies 39 (2000): 151-171.

Paine, R. T. "A Note on Trophic Complexity and Community Stability." American Naturalist 103 (1969): 91-93.

Pawson, D. L. "Some Aspects of the Biology of Deep-sea Echinoderms." Thalassia Jugoslavica 12 (1976): 287-293.

Poulin, E., and J. P. Feral. "Pattern of Spatial Distribution of a Brood-protecting Schizasterid Echinoid, Abatus cordatus,

Endemic to the Kerguelen Islands." Marine Ecology Progress Series 118 (1995): 179-186.

Smith, A. B. "The Stereom Microstructure of the Echinoid Test." Special Papers in Palaeontology (1981): 1-85.

Telford, M., A. S. Harold, and R. Mooi. "Feeding Structures, Behavior and Microhabitat of Echinocyamus pusillus (Echinoidea: Clypeasteoidea)." Biological Bulletins 165 (1983): 745-757.

Timlo, P. L. "Sand Dollars as Suspension Feeders: A New Description of Feeding in Dendraster excentricus." Biological Bulletin 151 (1976): 247-259.


"Classification of the Extant Echinodermata." [July 15, 2003]. < classify.htm>.

Steven Mark Freeman, PhD

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