Resources Books

Arai, Mary N. A Functional Biology of Scyphozoa. London: Chapman and Hall, 1997.

Cornelius, Paul F. S. "Keys to the Genera of Cubomedusae and Scyphomedusae (Cnidaria)." In Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Coelenterate Biology, edited. by J. C. Den Hartog. Leiden, The Netherlands: National Natuurhistorich Museum, 1997.

Franc, André. "Classe des Scyphozoaires." In Traité de Zoologie: Anatomie, Systématique, Biologie. Vol. 3, Cnidaires, Cténaires, edited by Pierre-P. Grassé. Paris: Masson, 1993.

Mayer, A. G. Medusae of the World. Vol. 3, The Scyphomedusae. Washington, DC: Carnegie Institution, 1910.

Mianzan, Hermes W., and Paul F. S. Cornelius.

"Cubomedusae and Scyphomedusae." In South Atlantic Zooplankton, edited by Demetrio Boltovskoy. Leiden, The Netherlands: Backhuys, 1999.

Purcell, Jennifer E., W. Monty Graham, and Henri J.

Dumont. Jellyfish Blooms: Ecological and Societal Importance. Developments in Hydrobiology, no. 155. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic, 2001.

Purcell, Jennifer E., Alenka Malej, and Adam Benovic. "Potential Links of Jellyfish to Eutrophication and Fisheries." In Ecosystems at the Land-Sea Margin: Drainage Basin to Coastal Sea, edited by Thomas C. Malone, Alenka Malej, Larry W. Harding Jr., Nenad Smodlaka, and R. Eugene Turner. Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union, 1999.

Wrobel, David, and Claudia Mills. Pacific Coast Pelagic Invertebrates: A Guide to the Common Gelatinous Animals. Monterey, CA: Monterey Bay Aquarium, 1998.


Brodeur, Richard D., Claudia E. Mills, James E. Overland, Gary E. Walters, and James D. Schumacher. "Evidence for a Substantial Increase in Gelatinous Zooplankton in the Bering Sea, with Possible Links to Climate Change." Fisheries Oceanography 8, no. 4 (1999): 296-306.

Kramp, P. L. "A Synopsis of the Medusae of the World."

Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 40 (1961): 1-469.

Larson, Ronald J. "Feeding in Coronate Medusae (Class Scyphozoa, Order Coronatae)." Marine Behavior and Physiology 6 (1979): 123-129.

-. "Scyphomedusae and Cubomedusae from the Eastern

Pacific." Bulletin of Marine Science 47 (1990): 546-556.

-. "Diet, Prey Selection and Daily Ration of Stomolophus meleagris, a Filter-Feeding Scyphomedusa from the NE Gulf of Mexico." Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 32 (1991): 511-525.

-. "Riding Langmuir Circulations and Swimming in

Circles: A Novel Clustering Behavior by the Scyphomedusa Linuche unguiculata." Marine Biology 112 (1992): 229-235.

Mills, Claudia E. "Jellyfish Blooms: Are Populations Increasing Globally in Response to Changing Ocean Conditions?" Hydrobiologia 451 (2001): 55-68.

Purcell, Jennifer E. "Predation on Zooplankton by Large Jellyfish (Aurelia labiata, Cyanea capillata, Aequorea aequorea) in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA." Marine Ecology Progress Series 246 (2003): 137-152.

Purcell, Jennifer E., and Mary N. Arai. "Interactions of Pelagic Cnidarians and Ctenophores with Fishes: A Review." Hydrobiologia 451 (2001): 27-44.


Gershwin, Lisa. "Medusozoa Home Page." [June 13, 2003]. <>.

Jellies and Other Ocean Drifters. Video. Monterey Bay Aquarium, 1996.

"The Jellies Zone." [June 13, 2003]. <>.

Ocean Drifters. Video. National Geographic Explorer, 1993.

Mills, Claudia E. Home Page. June 10, 2003 [June 13, 2003]. <>.

Monterey Bay Aquarium. [June 13, 2003]. <>.

The Shape of Life: Life on the Move: Cnidarians. Video. Sea Studios, Monterey, CA, 2001.

Jennifer E. Purcell, PhD

Phylum Ctenophora Number of families 20

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Primarily pelagic animals, and the largest organisms that use cilary propulsion for their main locomotory mode

Photo: Ctenophores "bloom" in surface waters of Apo Reef, Mindoro Strait, Philippine Islands. Lo-bate ctenophore (top), cestid ctenophore (Cestum veneris), "Venus girdle," about 20 in (50 cm) long (bottom). (Photo by ©Gregory G. Dimijian, M. D./Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.)

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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