Resources

Books

Davies, P. S. "Anthozoan Endosymbiosis." In Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Coelenterate Biology, edited by J. C. den Hartog. Leiden: National Natuurhistorisch Museum, 1997.

Dayton, P. K., K. W. England, and E. A. Robson. "An Unusual Sea Anemone, Dactylanthus antarcticus (Clubb, 1908) (Order Ptychodactiaria), on Gorgonians in Chilean Fjords." In Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Coelenterate Biology, edited by J. C. den Hartog. Leiden: National Natuurhistorisch Museum, 1997.

Fabricius, Katharina, and Philip Alderslade. Soft Corals and Sea Fans. Townsville: Australian Institute of Marine Science, 2001.

Friese, U. Erich. Sea Anemones...As a Hobby. Neptune City, NJ: T. F. H. Publications, Inc., 1993.

Martin, Vicki J. "Cnidarians, the Jellyfish and Hydras." In

Embryology: Constructing the Organism, edited by Scott F.

Gilbert and Anne M. Raunio. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, Inc., 1997.

Shick, J. Malcolm. A Functional Biology of Sea Anemones. New York: Chapman & Hall, 1991.

Veron, John E. N. Corals of the World. Townsville: Australian Institute of Marine Science, 2000.

Wallace, Carden C. Staghorn Corals of the World. Collingwood: CSIRO, 1999.

Watling, Les, and Michael Risk, eds. Biology of Cold Water Corals. Vol. 471, Hydrobiologia. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002.

Periodicals

Allemand, Denis. "The Biology and Skeletogenesis of the Mediterranean Red Coral." Precious Corals and Octocoral Research 2 (1993): 19-39.

Berntson, Ewann A., Scott C. France, and Lauren S.

Mullineaux. "Phylogenetic Relationships within the Class

Anthozoa (Phylum Cnidaria) Based on Nuclear 18s RDNA Sequences." Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 13, no. 2 (1999): 417-433.

Bruckner, Andrew W. "Tracking the Trade in Ornamental Coral Reef Organisms: The Importance of CITES and Its Limitations." Aquarium Sciences and Conservation 3 (2001): 79-94.

Cappola, Valerie A., and Daphne G. Fautin. "All Three Species of Ptychodactiaria Belong to Order Actiniaria (Cnidaria: Anthozoa)." Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 80 (2000): 995-1003.

Druffel, Ellen R. M., Sheila Griffin, Amy Witter, Erle Nelson, John Southon, Michaele Kashgarian, and John Vogel. "Gerardia: Bristlecone Pine of the Deep-Sea?" Geochimica et Cosmochimicha Acta 59, no. 23 (1995): 5031-5036.

Fabricius, Katharina E., Yehuda Benayahu, and Amatzia Genin. "Herbivory in Asymbiotic Soft Corals." Science 268 (1995): 90-92.

Fautin, Daphne G. "Reproduction of Cnidaria." Canadian Journal of Zoology 80 (2002): 1735-1754.

Frank, Uri, and Ofer Mokady. "Coral Biodiversity and Evolution: Recent Molecular Contributions." Canadian Journal of Zoology 80 (2002): 1723-1734.

Garrabou, J., T. Perez, S. Sartoretto, and J. G. Harmelin. "Mass Mortality Event in Red Coral Corallium rubrum Populations in the Provence Region (France, NW Mediterranean)." Marine Ecology Progress Series 217 (2001): 263-272.

Grigg, Richard W. "Precious Coral Fisheries of Hawaii and the U.S. Pacific Islands." Marine Fisheries Reviews 55, no. 2 (1993): 50-60.

Hall-Spencer, Jason, Valerie Allain, and Jan H. Fossa. "Trawling Damage to Northeast Atlantic Ancient Coral Reefs." Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences 269, no. 1490 (2002): 507-511.

Hand, Cadet, and Kevin R. Uhlinger. "The Unique, Widely Distributed, Estuarine Sea Anemone, Nematostella vectensis Stephenson: A Review, New Facts, and Questions." Estuaries 17, no. 2 (1994): 501-508.

Hatta, Masayuki, Hironobu Fukami, Wenqia Wang, Makoto Omori, Kazuyuki Shimoike, Takeshi Hayashibara, Yasuo Ina, and Tsutomu Sugiyama. "Reproductive and Genetic Evidence for a Reticulate Evolutionary History of Mass-

Spawning Corals." Molecular Biology and Evolution 16, no. 11 (1999): 1607-1613.

Hodgson, G. "A Global Assessment of Human Effects on Coral Reefs." Marine Pollution Bulletin 38, no. 5 (1999): 345-355.

Parker, N.R., P.V. Mladenov, and K.R. Grange. "Reproductive Biology of the Antipatharian Black Coral Antipathes Fiordensis in Doubtful Sound, Fiordland, New Zealand." Marine Biology 130 (1997): 11-22.

Pearson, C.V.M., A. D. Rogers, and M. Sheader. "The Genetic Structure of the Rare Lagoonal Sea Anemone, Nematostella vectensis Stephenson (Cnidaria; Anthozoa) in the United Kingdom Based on RAPD Analysis." Molecular Ecology 11 (2002): 2285-2293.

Rogers, Alex D. "The Biology of Lophelia pertusa (Linnaeus 1758) and Other Deep-Water Reef-Forming Corals and Impacts from Human Activities." International Review of Hydrobiology84, no. 4 (1999): 315-406.

Ryland, John S. "Reproduction in Zoanthidea (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia)." Invertebrate Reproduction and Development 31, no. 1-3 (1997): 177-188.

Santangelo, Giovanni, and Marco Abbiati. "Red Coral: Conservation and Management of an Over-Exploited Mediterranean Species." Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 11 (2001): 253-259.

Slattery, Marc, James B. McClintock, and Sam S. Bowser. "Deposit Feeding: A Novel Mode of Nutrition in the Antarctic Colonial Soft Coral Gersemia antarctica." Marine Ecology Progress Series 149 (1997): 299-304.

Other

Biogeoinformatics of Hexacorallia. 19 June 2003 [11 July 2003]. <http://www.kgs.ku.edu/Hexacoral/>.

NOAA's Coral Reef Information System. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 15 June 2003 [11 July 2003]. <www.coris.noaa.gov>.

Octocoral Research Center. 2001 [11 July 2003]. <http://www .calacademy.org/research/izg/orc_home.html>.

Tree of Life Web Project: Anthozoa. 4 Oct. 2002 [11 July 2003]. <http://tolweb.org/tree?group=Anthozoa&contgroup;= Cnidaria>.

Scott C. France, PhD

Phylum Cnidaria Class Hydrozoa Number of families 114

Thumbnail description

Invertebrates with a body plan that is comprised of a medusa with velum, a muscular projection from the subumbrellar margin that partially closes the subumbrellar cavity, and polyps; life cycles always involve the presence of a planula larva

Photo: A newly released medusa of Turritopsis nu-tricula. (Photo by S. Piraino [University of Lecce]. Reproduced by permission.)

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment