Most species in the class Scyphozoa, excluding the order Stauromedusae, have two life stages, the predominant medusa stage (up to 80 in, or 2 m, in diameter) and the small, inconspicuous polyp stage (less than 0.13 in, or 4 mm, long). The medusa, or jellyfish, stage has a saucer- to umbrella-shaped body with two epithelial layers (epidermis and gastrodermis) separated by a thick layer of mesenchyme, a gelatinous connective tissue containing cells. Near the edge of the bell in the orders Coronatae and Semaeostomeae are tentacles used in
feeding. The tentacles have millions of microscopic intracellular organelles called nematocysts that evert a hollow thread from a capsule and may inject toxin into or entangle their small prey (zooplankton, fish eggs and larvae, or other gelatinous species). In the Semaeostomeae and Rhizostomeae, there are four oral or mouth arms on the underside (concave) of the bell, which also have stinging nematocysts for feeding. The polyps, called scyphistomae, can form colonies of individuals by budding or, in the case of coronate polyps, true colonies that have a chitinous sheath. Polyps are cup-shaped, attached to the substrate by a "foot," and with the central mouth surrounded by a single ring of tentacles with nematocysts.
Stalked jellyfish in the order Stauromedusae attach to seaweed or sea grasses by an aboral stalk. The main body (calyx) is funnel- or goblet-shaped and grows to 1.2 in (3 cm) wide, with eight arms, each bearing a cluster of as many as 100 short, clubbed tentacles. In the common genus Haliclystus, between each arm there is an adhesive disk, by which the animal can attach to move about. The gonads extend down the arms. The mouth is located at the inside center of the funnel-shaped body. Coloration varies; it may be shades of green, brown, yellow, or maroon and often matches the color of the substrate, making these jellyfish difficult to see. This form is considered the medusa stage, and there is no polyp or swimming stage.
Jellyfish in the order Coronatae have a deep groove around the aboral surface that separates the swimming bell into a cen tral disk and a peripheral zone, which has lappets. One thick tentacle emerges between lappets on the upper surface of the bell; depending on the species, there are between eight and 36 tentacles. The mouth opens into a large, pouchlike stomach on the underside of the bell. Most of the species are deep living, and thus the central disk is colored dark red to maroon, making it invisible at depths and presumably concealing the bioluminescence emanating from consumed prey. Most of the medusae are small, less than 2 in (5 cm) in diameter or bell height, but some species may attain 6 in (15 cm) in diameter. The known polyps are colonial and covered with a chitinous sheath.
Adult jellyfish in the order Semaeostomeae generally are large, up to 80 in (2 m) in diameter, but usually less than 12 in (30 cm). The swimming bell is flat to hemispherical in shape. The bell edge may have lappets, or it may be smooth. From eight to hundreds of tentacles are present at the bell margin or beneath the bell. In the center of the concave side of the bell are four diaphanous or frilled oral arms that lead to the central mouth. The bell ranges from translucent to opaque and from white to dark orange in color, and it may have radiating stripes in some species. The polyp stage is small and may form groups of individuals by budding.
The rhizostome medusae also are large, up to 80 in (2 m) in diameter. The swimming bell is hemispherical and very firm in texture and lacks tentacles at the edge. The bell margin has eight or 16 lappets. The four oral arms of rhizostome medusae are fused and usually very elaborate, with many tiny tentacles and small mouths for feeding. There may be clublike projections from the oral arms. The medusae are translucent to opaque, with colors ranging from white to dark red; some have patterns that include stripes and spots. The polyp stage is small and may form clusters of individuals by budding.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.