Tubulanus annulatus (Montagu, 1804), England.
OTHER COMMON NAMES
Strikingly colored, vivid brick-red, orange-red, garnet-red, or brownish red marked with white longitudinal stripes and rings. Mid-dorsal stripe extends on to the cephalic lobe and terminates at a transverse white band on head. The two lateral stripes do not reach head. Ventral surface is paler than dorsal. Length 29.5 in (75 cm) or more, but rarely exceeds 0.11-0.15 in (3-4 mm).
In Northern Hemisphere from Pacific coast of North America eastwards to the Atlantic, North Sea, and Mediterranean coasts of Europe.
Found intertidally beneath stones or on sand or mud near low water level, but more common sublittorally on a wide variety of substrata at depths down to 130 ft (40 m) or more.
Epidermis contains toxic/noxious substances and the worm is avoided by fishes. In view of the conspicuous appearance in shallow waters, this species may be a case of aposematic coloration.
FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET Nothing is known.
REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY Separate sexes.
CONSERVATION STATUS Not threatened.
SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS None known. ♦
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