Migratory behavior

Migration is a second example of communication behavior. Migratory behavior refers to the movement of entire populations. For invertebrates such movement can range from one or two meters to hundreds of meters. Some well known examples of migratory behavior can be found among insects such as the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (Danaidae) and the locust Schistocerca gregaria (Tettigoniidae).

During migration, activities such as foraging for food and engaging in mate selection are reduced or suspended altogether. The separation of movement from vegetative activities such as feeding, defense, and reproduction is one criterion used to determine if migratory behavior is occurring.

Migratory behavior is usually confined to animals living in temporary habitats. The ability to leave a particular habitat is important for those animals that feed on vegetation or plankton that is seasonal or limited, and that live in unstable environments. Leaving aversive conditions related to crowding or food shortages is one hypothesis that explains migratory behavior in invertebrates. Examples of lower invertebrate mi grations are few. While it is known that several species of jellyfish often congregate in groups of thousands, the mechanism that brings them together is largely unknown.

Many species that do not or are not capable of migration (i.e., sessile forms) may encyst, or produce encysted forma tions or eggs that can withstand seasonal variation in food and other environment conditions. Many sponges, flatworms, rotifers, nematodes, and gastrotrichs can produce resistant eggs or other forms that are capable of withstanding temporary environmental fluctuation.

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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