Evolution and systematics

The class Scyphozoa includes four orders, 20 families, 66 genera, and about 200 species. The four orders are Stau-romedusae, the stalked jellyfish; Coronatae, the crown or grooved jellyfish; Semaeostomeae; and Rhizostomeae.

Animals in the phylum Cnidaria may have one or both of two body forms, the benthic polyp and the pelagic medusa. The four orders within the class Scyphozoa emphasize these two forms to different degrees. Specifically, in the order Stau-romedusae, there is only a benthic stage, which is considered the medusa. In the orders Coronatae, Semaeostomeae, and Rhizostomeae both stages occur in most species, with the medusa stage being the largest and most conspicuous.

The phylum Cnidaria is considered to be of early evolutionary origin, but the position of the Scyphozoa relative to other cnidarian classes (Anthozoa [corals and anemones], Cubozoa [box jellyfish], and Hydrozoa [hydroids, hydrome-dusae, fire corals, and siphonophores]) is uncertain. It is debated whether the polyp or the medusa form is most primitive. The scyphozoans are related most closely to cubozoans, which were placed in the same class until recently. They have similar body forms and life cycles. The scyphozoans are related least to the Anthozoa. Molecular evidence suggests that An-

thozoa represents the most primitive class in the phylum Cnidaria.

The fossil record of Scyphozoa is poor. Radially symmetrical impressions have been interpreted to be casts of primitive scyphomedusae. Recently, a large number of scyphomedusae that apparently were stranded and buried on a beach was discovered in central Wisconsin in the United States. Other fossil groups that may be ancient scyphozoan polyps are the conulariids, which were similar to modern coronate polyps and were present from the Ordovician to the late Triassic, and Bryonia from the Upper Cambrian and Ordovician, which is from the extinct order Bryoniida of the Scyphozoa.

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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