Contents

Foreword viii

How to use this book xi

Advisory board xiii

Contributing writers xv

Contributing illustrators xvii

Volume 1: Lower Metazoans and Lesser Deuterostomes

What are lower metazoans and lesser deuterostomes? 3

Evolution and systematics 7

Reproduction, development, and life history 15

Ecology 24

Symbiosis 31

Behavior 37

Lower metazoans, lesser deuterostomes, and humans 44

Conservation 47

Phylum: PORIFERA

Class: CALCAREA 57

Class: HEXACTINELLIDA 67

Class: DEMOSPONGIAE 77

Phylum: PLACOZOA 87

Phylum: MONOBLASTOZOA 91

Phylum: RHOMBOZOA 93

Phylum: ORTHONECTIDA 99

Phylum: CNIDARIA

Class: ANTHOZOA 103

Class: HYDROZOA 123

Class: CUBOZOA 147

Class: SCYPHOZOA 153

Phylum: CTENOPHORA 169

Phylum: PLATYHELMINTHES

Class: ACOELA 179

Class: TURBELLARIA 185

Class: TREMATODA 197

Class: MONOGENEA 213

Class: CESTODA 225

Phylum: NEMERTEA

Class: ANOPLA 245

Class: ENOPLA 253

Phylum: ROTIFERA 259

Phylum: GASTROTRICHA 269

Phylum: KINORHYNCHA 275

Phylum: NEMATODA

Class: ADENOPHOREA 283

Class: SECERNENTEA 293

Phylum: NEMATOMORPHA 305

Phylum: ACANTHOCEPHALA 311

Phylum: ENTOPROCTA 319

Phylum: MICROGNATHOZOA 327

Phylum: GNATHOSTOMULIDA 331

Phylum: PRIAPULIDA 337

Phylum: LORICIFERA 343

Phylum: CYCLIOPHORA 351

Phylum: ECHINODERMATA

Class: CRINOIDEA 355

Class: ASTEROIDEA 367

Class: CONCENTRICYCLOIDEA 381

Class: OPHIUROIDEA 387

Class: ECHINOIDEA 401

Class: HOLOTHUROIDEA 417

Phylum: CHAETOGNATHA 433

Phylum: HEMICHORDATA 443

Phylum: CHORDATA Subphylum: UROCHORDATA

Class: ASCIDIACEA 451

Class: THALIACEA 467

Class: APPENDICULAR^ 473

Class: SORBERACEA 479

Subphylum: CEPHALOCHORDATA Class: CEPHALOCHORDATA 485

For further reading 495

Organizations 498

Contributors to the first edition 499

Glossary 506

Lower metazoans and lesser deuterostomes order list 512

Geologic time scale 514

Index 515

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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